Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Hepburn romanization (Japanese: ヘボン式ローマ字, translit. Hebon-shiki Rōmaji, lit. 'Hepburn-type Roman letters')[1] is a system for the romanization of Japanese, that is using the Roman alphabet to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Roman alphabet[2] and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries.[3] Largely based on English writing conventions, consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation.[1]

The Hepburn style (Hebon-shiki) was developed in the late 19th century by an international commission that was formed to develop a unified system of romanization. The commission's romanization scheme was popularized by the wide dissemination of a Japanese–English dictionary by commission member and American missionary James Curtis Hepburn which was published in 1886.[1] The "modified Hepburn system" (shūsei Hebon-shiki), also known as the "standard system" (Hyōjun-shiki), was published in 1908 with revisions by Kanō Jigorō and the Society for the Propagation of Romanization (Romaji-Hirome-kai).[4][5]

Although Kunrei romanization is officially favored by the Japanese government today, Hepburn romanization is still in use and remains the worldwide standard.[1] The Hepburn style is regarded as the best way to render Japanese pronunciation for Westerners. Since it is based on English and Italian pronunciation, people who speak English or Romance languages (e.g., French, Spanish, and Italian) will generally be more accurate pronouncing unfamiliar Japanese words romanized in the Hepburn style compared to Nihon-shiki romanization and Kunrei-shiki romanization.[6][7]

Contents

Legal statusEdit

Hepburn is based on English phonology and has competed with the alternative Nihon-shiki romanization, which was developed in Japan as a replacement of the Japanese script.[6] In 1930, a Special Romanization Study Commission was appointed to compare the two.[6] The Commission eventually decided in favor of a slightly-modified version of Nihon-shiki, which was proclaimed to be Japan's official romanization for all purposes by a September 21, 1937 cabinet ordinance; it is now known as the Kunrei-shiki romanization. The ordinance was temporarily overturned by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) during the Occupation of Japan, but it was reissued, with slight revisions, in 1954.

In 1972, a revised version of Hepburn was codified as ANSI standard Z39.11-1972. It was proposed in 1989 as a draft for ISO 3602 but rejected in favor of the Kunrei-shiki romanization. The ANSI Z39.11-1972 standard was deprecated on October 6, 1994.

As of 1978, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and many other official organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki. In addition The Japan Times, the Japan Travel Bureau, and many other private organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki. The National Diet Library used Kunrei-shiki.[8]

Although Hepburn is not a government standard, some government agencies mandate it. For example, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs requires the use of Hepburn on passports, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport requires the use of Hepburn on transport signs, including road signs and railway station signs.[citation needed]

In many other areas that it lacks de jure status, Hepburn remains the de facto standard. Signs and notices in city offices and police stations and at shrines, temples and attractions also use it. English-language newspapers and media use the simplified form of Hepburn. Cities and prefectures use it in information for English-speaking residents and visitors, and English-language publications by the Japanese Foreign Ministry use simplified Hepburn as well. Official tourism information put out by the government uses it, as do guidebooks, both local and foreign, on Japan.

Many students of Japanese as a foreign language learn Hepburn.

VariantsEdit

 
Former Japan National Railways-style board of Toyooka Station. Between the two adjacent stations, “GEMBUDŌ” follows the Hepburn romanization system, but “KOKUHU” follows the Nihon-shiki/Kunrei-shiki romanization system.

There are many variants of the Hepburn romanization. The two most common styles are as follows:

  • The Traditional Hepburn, as defined in various editions of Hepburn's dictionary, with the third edition (1886)[9] often considered authoritative[10] (although changes in kana usage must be accounted for). It is characterized by the rendering of syllabic n as m before the consonants b, m and p: Shimbashi for 新橋.
  • Modified Hepburn (修正ヘボン式, Shūsei Hebon-shiki),[11] also known as Revised Hepburn, in which (among other points) the rendering of syllabic n as m before certain consonants is no longer used: Shinbashi for 新橋. The style was introduced in the third edition of Kenkyūsha's New Japanese-English Dictionary (1954), was adopted by the Library of Congress as one of its ALA-LC romanizations, and is the most common version of the system today.[12]

In Japan itself, there are some variants officially mandated for various uses:

  • Railway Standard (鉄道掲示基準規程, Tetsudō Keiji Kijun Kitei),[13] which follows the Hyōjun-shiki Rōmaji. All Japan Rail and other major railways use it for station names.
  • Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Standard,[14] How to spell Roman letters (Hepburn style) of road signs, which follows the modified Hepburn style. It is used for road signs.
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs Passport Standard (外務省旅券規定, Gaimushō Ryoken Kitei),[15] a permissive standard, which explicitly allows the use of "non-Hepburn romaji" (非ヘボン式ローマ字, hi-Hebon-shiki rōmaji) in personal names, notably for passports. In particular, it renders the syllabic n as m before b, m and p, and romanizes long o as oh, oo or ou (Satoh, Satoo or Satou for 佐藤).

Details of the variants can be found below.

Obsolete variantsEdit

The romanizations set out in the first and second versions of Hepburn's dictionary are primarily of historical interest. Notable differences from the third and later versions include:

Second versionEdit

  • and were written as ye: Yedo
  • and were written as dzu: kudzu, tsudzuku
  • キャ, キョ, and キュ were written as kiya, kiyo and kiu
  • クヮ was written as kuwa[16]

First versionEdit

The following differences are in addition to those in the second version:

  • was written as sz.
  • was written as tsz.
  • and were written as du.
  • クヮ was written as kuwa.

FeaturesEdit

The main feature of Hepburn is that its orthography is based on English phonology. More technically, where syllables that are constructed systematically, according to the Japanese syllabary, contain the "unstable" consonant for the modern spoken language, the orthography is changed to something that an English-speaker would pronounce it better matches the real sound: is written shi not si.

Some linguists such as Harold E. Palmer, Daniel Jones and Otto Jespersen object to Hepburn, as the pronunciation-based spellings can obscure the systematic origins of Japanese phonetic structures, inflections, and conjugations.[17] Supporters[who?] argue that Hepburn is not intended as a linguistic tool.

Long vowelsEdit

The long vowels are generally indicated by macrons ( ¯ ).[18][19] Since the diacritical sign is usually missing on typewriter and computer keyboards, the circumflex accent ( ˆ ) is often used in its place.[20][21]

The combinations of vowels are written as follows in traditional/modified Hepburn:

A + AEdit

In traditional and modified:

The combination of a + a is written aa if a word-border exists between them.
  • 邪悪(じゃあく): ji + ya + a + ku = jaaku – evil

In traditional Hepburn:

The long vowel a is written aa
  • お婆さん(おばあさん): o + ba + a + sa + n = obaa-san[18] – grandmother

In modified Hepburn:

The long vowel a is indicated by a macron:
  • お婆さん(おばあさん): o + ba + a + sa + n = obāsan[19] – grandmother

I + IEdit

In traditional and modified:

The combination i + i is always written ii.
  • お兄さん(おにいさん): o + ni + i + sa + n = oniisan – older brother
  • お爺さん(おじいさん): o + ji + i + sa + n = ojiisan – grandfather
  • 美味しい(おいしい): o + i + shi + i = oishii – delicious
  • 新潟(にいがた): ni + i + ga + ta = Niigata
  • 灰色(はいいろ): ha + i + i + ro = haiiro – grey

U + UEdit

In traditional and modified:

The combination u + u is written uu if a word-border exists between them or it is the end part of terminal form of a verb:
  • 食う(くう): ku + u = kuu – to eat
  • 縫う(ぬう): nu + u = nuu – to sew
  • 湖(みずうみ): mi + zu + u + mi = mizuumi - lake
The long vowel u is indicated by a macron:
  • 数学(すうがく): su + u + ga + ku = sūgaku – mathematics
  • 注意(ちゅうい): chu + u + i = chūi – attention
  • ぐうたら: gu + u + ta + ra = gūtara – loafer
  • 憂鬱(ゆううつ): yu + u + u + tsu = yūutsu - depression

E + EEdit

In traditional and modified:

The combination e + e is written ee if a word-border exists between them:
  • 濡れ縁(ぬれえん): nu + re + e + n = nureen – open veranda

In traditional Hepburn:

The long vowel e is written ee:
  • お姉さん(おねえさん): o + ne + e + sa + n = oneesan[18] – older sister

In modified Hepburn:

The long vowel e is indicated by a macron:
  • お姉さん(おねえさん): o + ne + e + sa + n = onēsan[19] – older sister

O + OEdit

In traditional and modified:

The combination o + o is written oo if a word-border exists between them:
  • 小躍り(こおどり): ko + o + do + ri = koodori – dance
The long vowel o is indicated by a macron:
  • 氷(こおり): ko + o + ri = kōri – ice
  • 遠回り(とおまわり): to + o + ma + wa + ri = tōmawari – roundabout route
  • 大阪(おおさか): o + o + sa + ka = ŌsakaOsaka

O + UEdit

In traditional and modified:

The combination o + u is written ou if a word-border exists between them or it is the end part of terminal form of a verb:
  • 追う(おう): o + u = ou – to chase
  • 迷う(まよう): ma + yo + u = mayou – to get lost
  • 子馬(こうま): ko + u + ma = kouma – foal
  • 仔牛(こうし): ko + u + shi = koushi – calf
The long vowel o is indicated by a macron:
  • 学校(がっこう): ga + (sokuon) + ko + u = gakkō – school
  • 東京(とうきょう): to + u + kyo + u = TōkyōTokyo
  • 勉強(べんきょう): be + n + kyo + u = benkyō – study
  • 電報(でんぽう): de + n + po + u = dempō[18] or denpō[19]telegraphy
  • 金曜日(きんようび): ki + n + yo + u + bi = kinyōbi[18] or kin'yōbi[19] – Friday
  • 格子(こうし): ko + u + shi = kōshi – lattice

E + IEdit

In traditional and modified:

The combination e + i is written ei.
  • 学生(がくせい): ga + ku + se + i = gakusei – student
  • 経験(けいけん): ke + i + ke + n = keiken – experience
  • 制服(せいふく): se + i + fu + ku = seifuku – uniform
  • 姪(めい): me + i = mei – niece
  • 招いて(まねいて): ma + ne + i + te = maneite – call/invite and then

Other combination of vowelsEdit

All other combinations of two different vowels are written separately:

  • 軽い(かるい): ka + ru + i = karui – light (for weight)
  • 鴬(うぐいす): u + gu + i + su = uguisu – bush warbler
  • 甥(おい): o + i = oi – nephew

LoanwordsEdit

The long vowels within loanwords are indicated by macrons (ā, ī, ū, ē, ō) as follows:

  • セーラー: se + (chōonpu) + ra + (chōonpu) = sērā – sailor
  • パーティー: pa + (chōonpu) + ti + (chōonpu) = pātī – party
  • レーナ: re + (chōonpu) + na = Rēna – Lena
  • ヒーター: hi + (chōonpu) + ta + (chōonpu) = hītā – heater
  • タクシー: ta + ku + shi + (chōonpu) = takushī – taxi
  • スーパーマン: su + (chōonpu) + pa + (chōonpu) + ma + n = Sūpāman – Superman

VariationsEdit

There are many variations on the Hepburn system for indicating the long vowels. For example, 東京(とうきょう) can be written as:

  • Tōkyō – indicated with macrons. That follows the rules of the traditional and modified Hepburn systems and is considered to be standard.
  • Tokyo – not indicated at all. That is common for Japanese words that have been adopted into English and is also the convention used in the de facto Hepburn used in signs and other English-language information around Japan, mentioned in the paragraph on legal status.
  • Tôkyô – indicated with circumflex accents, like the alternative Nihon-shiki and Kunrei-shiki romanizations. They are often used when a word processor does not allow macrons.
  • Tohkyoh – indicated with an h (only applies after o). It is sometimes known as "passport Hepburn" as the Japanese Foreign Ministry has authorized (but not required) it in passports.[22][23][24]
  • Toukyou – written using kana spelling: ō as ou or oo (depending on the kana) and ū as uu. That is sometimes called wāpuro style, as it is how text is entered into a Japanese word processor by using a keyboard with Roman characters. The method most accurately represents the way that vowels are written in kana by differentiating between おう (as in とうきょう(東京), written Toukyou in this system) and おお (as in とおい(遠い), written tooi in this system).
    • However, using this method makes the pronunciation of ou become ambiguous, either a long o or two different vowels: o and u. See Wāpuro rōmaji#Phonetic accuracy for details.
  • Tookyoo – written by doubling the long vowels. Some dictionaries such as Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese dictionary[25] and Basic English writers' Japanese-English wordbook follow this style, and it is also used in the JSL form of romanization. It is also used to write words without reference to any particular system.[26]

ParticlesEdit

In traditional and modified:

  • When is used as a particle, it is written wa.

In traditional Hepburn:

  • When is used as a particle, Hepburn originally recommended ye.[18] This spelling is obsolete, and it is commonly written as e (Romaji-Hirome-Kai, 1974[27]).
  • When is used as a particle, it is written wo.[18]

In modified Hepburn:[19]

  • When is used as a particle, it is written e.
  • When is used as a particle, it is written o.

Syllabic nEdit

In traditional Hepburn:[18]

Syllabic n () is written as n before consonants, but as m before labial consonants: b, m, and p. It is sometimes written as n- (with a hyphen) before vowels and y (to avoid confusion between, for example, んあ n + a and na, and んや n + ya and にゃ nya), but its hyphen usage is not clear.
  • 案内(あんない): annai – guide
  • 群馬(ぐんま): GummaGunma
  • 簡易(かんい): kan-i – simple
  • 信用(しんよう): shin-yō – trust

In modified Hepburn:[19]

The rendering m before labial consonants is not used and is replaced with n. It is written n' (with an apostrophe) before vowels and y.
  • 案内(あんない): annai – guide
  • 群馬(ぐんま): Gunma – Gunma
  • 簡易(かんい): kan'i – simple
  • 信用(しんよう): shin'yō – trust

Long consonantsEdit

Elongated (or "geminate") consonant sounds are marked by doubling the consonant following a sokuon, ; for consonants that are digraphs in Hepburn (sh, ch, ts), only the first consonant of the set is doubled, except for ch', which is replaced by tch.[18][19]

  • 結果(けっか): kekka – result
  • さっさと: sassato – quickly
  • ずっと: zutto – all the time
  • 切符(きっぷ): kippu – ticket
  • 雑誌(ざっし): zasshi – magazine
  • 一緒(いっしょ): issho – together
  • こっち: kotchi (not kocchi) – this way
  • 抹茶(まっちゃ): matcha (not maccha) – matcha
  • 三つ(みっつ): mittsu – three

Romanization chartsEdit

Gojūon Yōon
あ ア a い イ i う ウ u え エ e お オ o
か カ ka き キ ki く ク ku け ケ ke こ コ ko きゃ キャ kya きゅ キュ kyu きょ キョ kyo
さ サ sa し シ shi す ス su せ セ se そ ソ so しゃ シャ sha しゅ シュ shu しょ ショ sho
た タ ta ち チ chi つ ツ tsu て テ te と ト to ちゃ チャ cha ちゅ チュ chu ちょ チョ cho
な ナ na に ニ ni ぬ ヌ nu ね ネ ne の ノ no にゃ ニャ nya にゅ ニュ nyu にょ ニョ nyo
は ハ ha ひ ヒ hi ふ フ fu へ ヘ he ほ ホ ho ひゃ ヒャ hya ひゅ ヒュ hyu ひょ ヒョ hyo
ま マ ma み ミ mi む ム mu め メ me も モ mo みゃ ミャ mya みゅ ミュ myu みょ ミョ myo
や ヤ ya ゆ ユ yu よ ヨ yo
ら ラ ra り リ ri る ル ru れ レ re ろ ロ ro りゃ リャ rya りゅ リュ ryu りょ リョ ryo
わ ワ wa ゐ ヰ i † ゑ ヱ e † を ヲ o ‡
ん ン n /n'
が ガ ga ぎ ギ gi ぐ グ gu げ ゲ ge ご ゴ go ぎゃ ギャ gya ぎゅ ギュ gyu ぎょ ギョ gyo
ざ ザ za じ ジ ji ず ズ zu ぜ ゼ ze ぞ ゾ zo じゃ ジャ ja じゅ ジュ ju じょ ジョ jo
だ ダ da ぢ ヂ ji づ ヅ zu で デ de ど ド do ぢゃ ヂャ ja ぢゅ ヂュ ju ぢょ ヂョ jo
ば バ ba び ビ bi ぶ ブ bu べ ベ be ぼ ボ bo びゃ ビャ bya びゅ ビュ byu びょ ビョ byo
ぱ パ pa ぴ ピ pi ぷ プ pu ぺ ペ pe ぽ ポ po ぴゃ ピャ pya ぴゅ ピュ pyu ぴょ ピョ pyo
  • Each entry contains hiragana, katakana, and Hepburn romanization, in that order.
  • † — The characters in red are rare historical characters and are obsolete in modern Japanese.[28][29] In modern Hepburn romanization, they are often undefined.[19]
  • ‡ — The characters in blue are rarely used outside of their status as a particle in modern Japanese,[20] and romanization follows the rules above.

Extended katakanaEdit

These combinations are used mainly to represent the sounds in words in other languages.

Digraphs with orange backgrounds are the general ones used for loanwords or foreign places or names, and those with blue backgrounds are used for more accurate transliterations of foreign sounds, both suggested by the Cabinet of Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.[30] Katakana combinations with beige backgrounds are suggested by the American National Standards Institute[31] and the British Standards Institution as possible uses.[32] Ones with purple backgrounds appear on the 1974 version of the Hyōjun-shiki formatting.[27]

イィ yi イェ ye
ウァ wa ウィ wi ウゥ wu* ウェ we ウォ wo
ウュ wyu
ヴァ va ヴィ vi vu ヴェ ve ヴォ vo
ヴャ vya ヴュ vyu ヴィェ vye ヴョ vyo
キェ kye
ギェ gye
クァ kwa クィ kwi クェ kwe クォ kwo
クヮ kwa
グァ gwa グィ gwi グェ gwe グォ gwo
グヮ gwa
シェ she
ジェ je
スィ si
ズィ zi
チェ che
ツァ tsa ツィ tsi ツェ tse ツォ tso
ツュ tsyu
ティ ti トゥ tu
テュ tyu
ディ di ドゥ du
デュ dyu
ニェ nye
ヒェ hye
ビェ bye
ピェ pye
ファ fa フィ fi フェ fe フォ fo
フャ fya フュ fyu フィェ fye フョ fyo
ホゥ hu
ミェ mye
リェ rye
ラ゜ la リ゜ li ル゜ lu レ゜ le ロ゜ lo
va vi ve vo
  • * — The use of ウゥ to represent wu is rare in modern Japanese except for Internet slang and transcription of the Latin digraph VV into katakana.
  • ⁑ — has a rarely-used hiragana form in that is also vu in Hepburn romanization systems.
  • ⁂ — The characters in green are obsolete in modern Japanese and very rarely used.[28][29]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Hadamitzky, Wolfgang; Spahn, Mark (October 2005). "Romanization systems". Wolfgang Hadamitzky: Japan-related Textbooks, Dictionaries, and Reference Works. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  2. ^ Backhaus, Peter (29 December 2014). "To shine or to die: the messy world of romanized Japanese". The Japan Times Online. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  3. ^ "'Ti' or 'chi'? Educators call to unify romanization styles in Japan". Mainichi Daily News. 2 April 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  4. ^ Seeley, Christopher (2000). A History of Writing in Japan (Illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 140. ISBN 9780824822170. 
  5. ^ Unger, J. Marshall (1996). Literacy and Script Reform in Occupation Japan: Reading between the Lines. Oxford University Press. p. 53. ISBN 9780195356380. 
  6. ^ a b c Carr, Denzel. The New Official Romanization of Japanese. Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 59, No. 1 (Mar., 1939), pp. 99-102.
  7. ^ Haruhiko Kindaichi, Takeshi Shibata, Naoki Hayashi (1988). 日本語百科大事典 [Japanese encyclopedia]. Taishukan Shoten. 
  8. ^ Kent, et al. "Oriental Literature and Bibliography." p. 155.
  9. ^ 和英語林集成第三版 [Digital 'Japanese English Forest Collection']. Meiji Gakuin University Library (in Japanese). Meiji Gakuin University. March 2010 [2006]. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  10. ^ "明治学院大学図書館 - 『和英語林集成』デジタルアーカイブス". Meijigakuin.ac.jp. Retrieved 2012-06-29. 
  11. ^ "Japanese" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved July 13, 2012. 
  12. ^ "UHM Library : Japan Collection Online Resources". Hawaii.edu. 2005-10-06. Retrieved 2012-06-29. 
  13. ^ "鉄道掲示基準規程". Homepage1.nifty.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  14. ^ 道路標識のローマ字(ヘボン式) の綴り方 [How to spell Roman letters (Hepburn style) of road signs]. Kictec (in Japanese). Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  15. ^ "パスポートセンター ヘボン式ローマ字表 : 神奈川県". Pref.kanagawa.jp. Archived from the original on 2012-07-30. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  16. ^ James Curtis Hepburn (1872). A Japanese-English And English-Japanese Dictionary (2nd ed.). American Presbyterian mission press. pp. 286–290. Retrieved 2013-12-16. 
  17. ^ 松浦四郎 (October 1992). "104年かかった標準化". 標準化と品質菅理 -Standardization and Quality Control-. Japanese Standards Association. 45: 92–93. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i James Curtis Hepburn (1886). A Japanese-English And English-Japanese Dictionary. (Third Edition). Z. P Maruyama & Co. Retrieved April 12, 2011. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary (Fourth Edition). Kenkyūsha. 1974. 
  20. ^ a b Fujino Katsuji (1909). ローマ字手引き [RÔMAJI TEBIKI] (in Japanese). Rômaji-Hirome-kai. 
  21. ^ Cabinet of Japan (December 9, 1954). 昭和29年内閣告示第1号 ローマ字のつづり方 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.1 in 1954 - How to write Romanization] (in Japanese). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  22. ^ Bureau of Citizens and Culture Affairs of Tokyo. "PASSPORT_ヘボン式ローマ字綴方表" [Table of Spelling in Hepburn Romanization] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on December 5, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2011. 
  23. ^ Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco. ヘボン式ローマ字綴方表 [Table of Spelling in Hepburn Romanization] (PDF) (in Japanese). Retrieved December 13, 2011. 
  24. ^ Consulate-General of Japan in Detroit. "Example of Application Form for Passport" (PDF) (in Japanese). Retrieved December 13, 2011. 
  25. ^ Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese Dictionary. "Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese Dictionary (9780198607489): Shigeru Takebayashi, Kazuhiko Nagai: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012-06-29. 
  26. ^ "ローマ字の長音のつづり方". Xembho.s59.xrea.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  27. ^ a b "標準式ローマ字つづり―引用". Retrieved 2016-02-27. [self-published source]
  28. ^ a b Cabinet of Japan (November 16, 1946). 昭和21年内閣告示第33号 「現代かなづかい」 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.33 in 1946 - Modern kana usage] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on October 6, 2001. Retrieved May 25, 2011. 
  29. ^ a b Cabinet of Japan (July 1, 1986). 昭和61年内閣告示第1号 「現代仮名遣い」 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.1 in 1986 - Modern kana usage] (in Japanese). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Retrieved May 25, 2011. 
  30. ^ Cabinet of Japan. "平成3年6月28日内閣告示第2号:外来語の表記" [Japanese cabinet order No.2 (June 28, 1991):The notation of loanword]. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Retrieved May 25, 2011. 
  31. ^ "米国規格(ANSI Z39.11-1972)―要約". Retrieved 2016-02-27. [self-published source]
  32. ^ "英国規格(BS 4812 : 1972)―要約". Retrieved 2016-02-27. [self-published source]

ReferencesEdit

  • Kent, Allen, Harold Lancour, and Jay Elwood Daily (Executive Editors). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science Volume 21. CRC Press, April 1, 1978. ISBN 0824720210, 9780824720216.

External linksEdit