Jiangsu (UK: /æŋˈs/;[4] US: /ˈjɑːŋˈs/ [5] Chinese: 江苏; pinyin: Jiāngsū, alternatively romanized as Kiangsu or Chiangsu) is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology, and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong.[6] Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometers (620 mi) along the Yellow Sea, and the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province.

Jiangsu
江苏
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese江苏省 (Jiāngsū Shěng)
 • AbbreviationJS / (pinyin: )
 • WuKaonsu San
 • Jiang–HuaiJiang1 su1 Sen3
From top to bottom, left to right: Zifeng Tower in Nanjing, Zhouzhuang in Suzhou, Tiger Hill Pagoda, Xuzhou TV Tower, Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
Map showing the location of Jiangsu Province
Map showing the location of Jiangsu Province
Coordinates: 32°54′N 119°48′E / 32.9°N 119.8°E / 32.9; 119.8Coordinates: 32°54′N 119°48′E / 32.9°N 119.8°E / 32.9; 119.8
CountryChina
Named for Jiāng – Jiangning (now Nanjing)
Suzhou
CapitalNanjing
Largest citySuzhou
Divisions13 prefectures, 106 counties, 1488 townships
Government
 • TypeProvince
 • BodyJiangsu Provincial People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryWu Zhenglong
 • Congress chairmanWu Zhenglong
 • GovernorXu Kunlin
 • CPPCC chairmanZhang Yizhen
 • National People's Congress Representation149 deputies
Area
 • Total102,600 km2 (39,600 sq mi)
 • Rank25th
Highest elevation625 m (2,051 ft)
Population
 (2020)[1]
 • Total84,748,016
 • Rank5th
 • Density830/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
  • Rank4th
DemonymJiangsunese or Jiangsuvian
Demographics
 • Ethnic compositionHan – 99.6%
Hui – 0.2% (160,800)
 • Languages and dialectsMandarin (Official)
Lower Yangtze Mandarin, Wu, Central Plains Mandarin Mandarin
ISO 3166 codeCN-JS
GDP (2021)CNY 11.64 trillion
USD 1.805 trillion [2]
 - per capitaCNY 137,348
USD 21,294 (3rd)
 • growthIncrease 8.6%
HDI (2019)0.803[3] (very high) (4th)
Websitewww.jiangsu.gov.cn
Jiangsu
Simplified Chinese江苏
Traditional Chinese江蘇
PostalKiangsu
Literal meaning"Jiang(ning) and Su(zhou)"

Since the Sui and Tang dynasties, Jiangsu has been a national economic and commercial center, partly due to the construction of the Grand Canal. Cities such as Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, and Shanghai (separated from Jiangsu in 1927) are all major Chinese economic hubs. Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1990, Jiangsu has become a focal point for economic development. It is widely regarded as one of China's most developed provinces, when measured by its Human Development Index (HDI).[3] Its 2021 nominal GDP per capita reached RMB 137,300 (US$21,287), becoming the first province in China to reach $20,000 mark.[7]

Jiangsu is home to many of the world's leading exporters of electronic equipment, chemicals and textiles.[8] It has also been China's largest recipient of foreign direct investment since 2006. Its 2021 nominal GDP was more than RMB 11.64 trillion (US$1.80 trillion), which is the fifth-highest of all country subdivisions.[7] If it were a country, it would be the tenth-largest economy as of 2021 as well as the 19th most populous.[9]

Jiangsu is also one of the leading provinces in research and education in China. As of 2022, Jiangsu hosts 168 institutions of higher education, ranking first of all Chinese provinces.[10] Jiangsu has many highly ranked educational institutions,[11] with 16 number of universities listed in the Double First-Class Universities, ranking second after Beijing. As of 2020, two major cities in Jiangsu ranked in the world's top 50 (Nanjing 8th and Suzhou 45th) cities by scientific research output, as tracked by the Nature Index.[12]

NameEdit

Jiangsu's name is a compound of the first elements of the names of the two cities of Jiangning (now Nanjing) and Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "" (), the second character of its name.[13]

HistoryEdit

During the earliest Chinese dynasties, the area that is now Jiangsu was far away from the center of Chinese civilization, which was in the northwest Henan; it was home of the Huai Yi (淮夷), an ancient ethnic group. During the Zhou dynasty more contact was made, and eventually the state of Wu appeared in southern Jiangsu, one of the many hundreds of states that existed across northern and central China at that time. Near the end of the Spring and Autumn period, Wu became a great power under King Helu of Wu, and defeated in 484 BC the state of Qi, a major power in the north in modern-day Shandong province, and contest for the position of overlord over all states of China. The state of Wu was subjugated in 473 BC by the state of Yue, another state that had emerged to the south in modern-day Zhejiang province. Yue was in turn subjugated by the powerful state of Chu from the west in 333 BC. Eventually the state of Qin swept away all the other states, and unified China in 221 BC.[14]

 
One of the tortoise stelae of Xiao Dan (478–522), a member of the Liang royal family. Ganjiaxiang, Qixia District, near Nanjing

Under the reign of the Han dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD), Jiangsu was removed from the centers of civilization in the North China Plain, and was administered under two zhou (provinces): Xu Province in the north, and Yang Province in the south. During the Three Kingdoms period, southern Jiangsu became the base of the Eastern Wu (222 to 280), whose capital, Jianye (later renamed to Jiankang), is modern Nanjing. When nomadic invasions overran northern China in the 4th century, the imperial court of the Jin dynasty moved to Jiankang. Cities in southern and central Jiangsu swelled with the influx of migrants from the north. Jiankang remained as the capital for four successive Southern dynasties and became the largest commercial and cultural center in China.[15]

 
The Huqiu Tower of Tiger Hill, Suzhou, built in 961.

After the Sui dynasty united the country in 581, the political center of the country shifted back to the north, but the Grand Canal was built through Jiangsu to link the Central Plain with the prosperous Yangtze Delta. The Tang dynasty (618–907) relied on southern Jiangsu for annual deliveries of grain. It was during the Song dynasty (960–1279), which saw the development of a wealthy mercantile class and emergent market economy in China, that Jiangnan (southern Jiangsu, Shanghai, and adjacent areas) emerged as a center of trade. From then onwards, major cities like Suzhou or Yangzhou, would be synonymous with opulence and luxury in China. Today the region remains one of the richest parts of China.

The Jurchen Jin dynasty gained control of North China in 1127 during the Jin-Song wars, and Huai River, which used to cut through north Jiangsu to reach the Yellow Sea, was the border between the north, under the Jin, and the south, under the Southern Song dynasty. The Mongols took control of China in the thirteenth century. The Ming dynasty, which was established in 1368 after driving out the Mongols who had occupied China, initially put its capital in Nanjing. Regions surrounding Nanjing, corresponding to Jiangsu and Anhui today, were designated as the Nanzhili province (literally "southern directly governed"). Following a coup by Zhu Di (later, the Yongle Emperor), however, the capital was moved to Beijing, far to the north, although Nanjing kept its status as the southern capital. In late Ming, Jiangnan continued to be an important center of trade in China; some historians see in the flourishing textiles industry at the time incipient industrialization and capitalism, a trend that was however aborted.

 
The Beisi Pagoda of Suzhou, built between 1131 and 1162 during the Song dynasty, 76 m (249 ft) tall.

The Qing dynasty converted Nanzhili to "Jiangnan province"; in 1666 Jiangsu and Anhui were split apart as separate provinces. Jiangsu's borders have been for the most part stable since then.

With the start of the Western incursion into China in the 1840s, the rich and mercantile Yangtze river delta was increasingly exposed to Western influence; Shanghai, originally an unremarkable little town of Jiangsu, quickly developed into a metropolis of trade, banking, and cosmopolitanism, and was split out later as an independent municipality. Jiangnan also figures strongly in the Taiping Rebellion (1851 – 1864), a massive and deadly rebellion that attempted to set up a Christian theocracy in China; it started far to the south, in Guangdong province, swept through much of South China, and by 1853, had established Nanjing as its capital, renamed as Tianjing (天京 "Heavenly Capital").

The Republic of China was established in 1912,[16] and China was soon torn apart by warlords. Jiangsu changed hands several times, but in April 1927, Chiang Kai-shek established a government at Nanking; he was soon able to bring most of China under his control. This was however interrupted by the second Sino-Japanese War, which began full-scale in 1937; on December 13, 1937, Nanjing fell, and the combined atrocities of the occupying Japanese for the next three months would come to be known as the Nanjing Massacre. Nanjing was the seat of the collaborationist government of East China under Wang Jingwei, and Jiangsu remained under Japanese occupation until the end of the war in 1945.

After the war, Nanking was once again the capital of the Republic of China, though now the Chinese Civil War had broken out between the Kuomintang government and Communist forces, based further north, mostly in Northeast China. The decisive Huaihai Campaign was fought in northern Jiangsu; it resulted in Kuomintang defeat, and the communists were soon able to cross the Yangtze River and take Nanking. The Kuomintang fled southward and eventually ended up in Taipei, from which the Republic of China government continues to administer Taiwan, Pescadores, and its neighboring islands, though it also continues to claim (technically, at least) Nanjing as its rightful de jure capital.

After the communist takeover, Peking (formerly Peiping, later spelled as Beijing) was made capital of the People's Republic, and Nanjing was demoted to be the provincial capital of Jiangsu. The economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping initially focused on the south coast of China, in Guangdong province, which soon left Jiangsu behind; starting from the 1990s they were applied more evenly to the rest of China. Suzhou and Wuxi, two southern cities of Jiangsu in close proximity to neighboring Shanghai, have since become particularly prosperous, being among the top 10 cities in China in terms of gross domestic product and outstripping the provincial capital of Nanjing. The income disparity between northern and southern Jiangsu however remains large.

GeographyEdit

 
Population density and low elevation coastal zones in Jiangsu. Jiangsu is particularly vulnerable to sea level rise.
 
Jiangsu in 1936
 
Tourists cross a bridge in Chengxu temple, a Taoist temple which was built in 1086-1093 during the Song Dynasty

Jiangsu is flat, with plains covering 68 percent of its total area (water covers another 18 percent). Most of the province stands not more than 50 meters (160 ft) above sea level. Jiangsu also has a well-developed irrigation system, which earned it (especially the southern half) the moniker of traditional Chinese: 水鄕; simplified Chinese: 水乡 (shuǐxiāng "land of water"). The southern city of Suzhou has so many canals that it has been dubbed "Venice of the East" or the "Venice of the Orient."[17][18] The Grand Canal of China cuts through Jiangsu from north to south, crossing all the east–west river systems. Jiangsu also borders the Yellow Sea. The Yangtze River, the longest river of China, cuts through the province in the south and reaches the East China Sea, which divides the region into two parts: more urban, prosperous south and more poorer, rural north, and these two parts has a tense division.[19]Mount Huaguo, near the city of Lianyungang, is the highest point in Jiangsu, at an altitude of 625 meters (2,051 ft) above sea level. Large lakes in Jiangsu include Lake Tai (the largest), Lake Hongze, Lake Gaoyou, Lake Luoma, and Lake Yangcheng.

Before 1194 A.D., the Huai River cut through north Jiangsu to reach the Yellow Sea. The Huai River is a major river in central China, and it was the traditional border between North China and South China. Since 1194 A.D., the Yellow River further to the north changed its course several times, running into the Huai River in north Jiangsu each time instead of its other usual path northwards into Bohai Bay. The silting caused by the Yellow River was so heavy that after its last episode of "hijacking" the Huai River ended in 1855: the Huai River was no longer able to go through its usual path into the sea. Instead it flooded, pooled up (thereby forming and enlarging Lake Hongze and Lake Gaoyou), and flowed southwards through the Grand Canal into the Yangtze. The old path of the Huai River is now marked by a series of irrigation channels, the most significant of which is the North Jiangsu Main Irrigation Canal (traditional Chinese: 蘇北灌溉總渠; simplified Chinese: 苏北灌溉总渠), which channels a small amount of the water of the Huai River alongside south of its old path into the sea.

Most of Jiangsu has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa or Cwa in the Köppen climate classification), beginning to transition into a humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa) in the far north. Seasonal changes are clear-cut, with temperatures at an average of −1 to 4 °C (30 to 39 °F) in January and 26 to 29 °C (79 to 84 °F) in July. Rain falls frequently between spring and summer (meiyu), typhoons with rainstorms occur in late summer and early autumn. As with the rest of the coast, tornados are possible. The annual average rainfall is 800 to 1,200 millimeters (31 to 47 in), concentrated mostly in summer during the southeast monsoon.

Major cities:[20]

Administrative divisionsEdit

Jiangsu is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions, all prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city):

Administrative divisions of Jiangsu
Division code[21] Division Area in km2[22] Population 2020[23] Seat Divisions[24]
Districts Counties CL cities
320000 Jiangsu Province 102600.00 84,748,016 Nanjing city 55 19 21
320100 Nanjing city 6582.31 9,314,685 Xuanwu District 11
320200 Wuxi city 4787.61 7,462,135 Binhu District 5 2
320300 Xuzhou city 11764.88 9,083,790 Yunlong District 5 3 2
320400 Changzhou city 4384.57 5,278,121 Xinbei District 5 1
320500 Suzhou city 8488.42 12,748,262 Gusu District 5 4
320600 Nantong city 8001.00 7,726,635 Chongchuan District 3 1 3
320700 Lianyungang city 7615.29 4,599,360 Haizhou District 3 3
320800 Huai'an city 9949.97 4,556,230 Qingjiangpu District 4 3
320900 Yancheng city 16972.42 6,709,629 Tinghu District 3 5 1
321000 Yangzhou city 6591.21 4,559,797 Hanjiang District 3 1 2
321100 Zhenjiang city 3840.32 3,210,418 Jingkou District 3 3
321200 Taizhou city 5787.26 4,512,762 Hailing District 3 3
321300 Suqian city 8555.00 4,986,192 Sucheng District 2 3
 
Population distribution of Jiangsu in 2010

These prefecture-level cities are in turn subdivided into 98 county-level divisions (55 districts, 21 county-level cities, and 20 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1,488 township-level divisions (1,078 towns, 122 townships, one ethnic township, and 287 subdistricts). At the end of the year 2017, the total population is 80.29 million.[1]

Urban areasEdit

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area[25] District area[25] City proper[25] Census date
1 Nanjing[a] 5,827,888 7,165,292 8,003,744 2010-11-01
(1) Nanjing (new districts)[a] 410,298 838,452 see Nanjing 2010-11-01
2 Suzhou [b] 3,302,152 4,072,081 10,459,890 2010-11-01
(2) Suzhou (new district)[b] 781,771 1,273,880 see Suzhou 2010-11-01
3 Wuxi 2,757,736 3,543,719 6,374,399 2010-11-01
4 Changzhou[c] 2,257,376 3,290,918 4,592,431 2010-11-01
(4) Changzhou (new district)[c] 275,185 551,991 see Changzhou 2010-11-01
5 Xuzhou[d] 1,735,166 1,967,214 8,577,225 2010-11-01
(5) Xuzhou (new district)[d] 479,629 1,086,564 see Xuzhou 2010-11-01
6 Nantong 1,612,385 2,274,113 7,283,622 2010-11-01
7 Huai'an[e] 1,523,655 2,635,406 4,801,662 2010-11-01
(7) Huai'an (new district)[e] 146,359 326,459 see Huai'an 2010-11-01
8 Yancheng[f] 1,136,826 1,615,836 7,262,200 2010-11-01
(8) Yancheng (new district)[f] 347,389 706,662 see Yancheng 2010-11-01
9 Kunshan 1,118,617 1,644,860 see Suzhou 2010-11-01
10 Yangzhou[g] 1,077,531 1,392,563 4,460,066 2010-11-01
(10) Yangzhou (new district)[g] 506,706 1,006,372 see Yangzhou 2010-11-01
11 Jiangyin 1,013,670 1,595,138 see Wuxi 2010-11-01
12 Zhenjiang 950,516 1,200,760 3,114,105 2010-11-01
13 Changshu 929,124 1,510,453 see Suzhou 2010-11-01
14 Lianyungang[h] 897,393 1,050,523 4,393,482 2010-11-01
(14) Lianyungang (new district)[h] 413,809 950,486 see Lianyungang 2010-11-01
15 Suqian 783,376 1,437,685 4,719,178 2010-11-01
16 Zhangjiagang 762,625 1,246,762 see Suzhou 2010-11-01
17 Yixing 710,497 1,235,542 see Wuxi 2010-11-01
18 Taizhou[i] 676,877 878,463 4,618,937 2010-11-01
(18) Taizhou (new district)[i] 376,724 728,645 see Taizhou 2010-11-01
19 Pizhou 631,572 1,458,038 see Xuzhou 2010-11-01
20 Rugao 614,909 1,267,066 see Nantong 2010-11-01
21 Xinghua 575,288 1,253,548 see Taizhou 2010-11-01
22 Taixing 553,079 1,073,921 see Taizhou 2010-11-01
23 Danyang 500,572 960,662 see Zhenjiang 2010-11-01
24 Dongtai 489,815 990,306 see Yancheng 2010-11-01
25 Qidong 479,243 972,525 see Nantong 2010-11-01
26 Haimen 453,781 907,598 see Nantong 2010-11-01
27 Taicang 435,225 711,854 see Suzhou 2010-11-01
(28) Hai'an[j] 424,900 866,337 see Nantong 2010-11-01
29 Xinyi 402,169 920,628 see Xuzhou 2010-11-01
30 Jingjiang 388,119 684,360 see Taizhou 2010-11-01
31 Liyang 368,409 749,522 see Changzhou 2010-11-01
32 Gaoyou 341,069 744,685 see Yangzhou 2010-11-01
33 Jurong 299,033 617,706 see Zhenjiang 2010-11-01
34 Yizheng 271,969 564,021 see Yangzhou 2010-11-01
35 Yangzhong 179,771 334,977 see Zhenjiang 2010-11-01
  1. ^ a b New districts established after census: Lishui (Lishui County), Gaochun (Gaochun County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. ^ a b New district established after census: Wujiang (Wujiang CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. ^ a b New district established after census: Jintan (Jintan CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. ^ a b New district established after census: Tongshan (Tongshan County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. ^ a b New district established after census: Hongze (Hongze County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  6. ^ a b New district established after census: Dafeng (Dafeng CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. ^ a b New district established after census: Jiangdu (Jiangdu CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  8. ^ a b New district established after census: Ganyu (Ganyu County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  9. ^ a b New district established after census: Jiangyan (Jiangyan CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  10. ^ Hai'an County is currently known as Hai'an CLC after census.
 
 
Most populous cities in Jiangsu
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population[26]
Rank Pop. Rank Pop.
 
Nanjing
 
Suzhou
1 Nanjing 6,572,000 11 Taizhou 967,600  
Wuxi
 
Changzhou
2 Suzhou 3,572,500 12 Zhenjiang 888,500
3 Wuxi 2,588,400 13 Suqian 823,900
4 Changzhou 2,340,700 14 Kunshan 527,400
5 Xuzhou 2,066,900 15 Yixing 510,400
6 Nantong 1,634,100 16 Changshu 436,500
7 Huai'an 1,604,500 17 Pizhou 405,000
8 Yancheng 1,342,700 18 Zhangjiagang 384,000
9 Yangzhou 1,219,400 19 Jiangyin 382,500
10 Lianyungang 1,102,000 20 Danyang 364,400

PoliticsEdit

The politics of Jiangsu is structured in a one party (Communist) government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Jiangsu is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Jiangsu. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Jiangsu Chinese Communist Party Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Jiangsu CCP Party Chief."

EconomyEdit

 
An industrial landscape in Ganjiaxiang, Qixia District, Nanjing

As of 2021, Jiangsu had a gross domestic product (GDP) in nominal of RMB 11.64 trillion (US$1.80 trillion),[27] the second-highest in China after Guangdong. Its GDP is greater than those of South Korea and Russia which are the world's 10th- and 11th-largest economies respectively.[28] Jiangsu's GDP by nominal is greater than the GDPs of all other BRICS states, except India.[29] In 2021, Jiangsu's economy by Purchasing Power Parity reached US$2.83 trillion, making it the 3rd-largest of any country subdivision globally, behind California and Guangdong.[30] Jiangsu's economy in PPP also exceeded that of Italy with a GDP PPP of US$ $2.71 trillion, the 11th largest in the world.[31]

Jiangsu is very wealthy among the provinces of China. Its 2021 nominal GDP per capita reached RMB 137,300 (US$21,287), becoming the first province in China to reach $20,000 mark.[7] Cities like Nanjing, Suzhou, and Wuxi have GDPs per capita around twice the provincial average, making south Jiangsu one of the most prosperous regions in China.

The province has an extensive irrigation system supporting its agriculture, which is based primarily on rice and wheat, followed by maize and sorghum. Main cash crops include cotton, soybeans, peanuts, rapeseed, sesame, ambary hemp, and tea. Other products include peppermint, spearmint, bamboo, medicinal herbs, apples, pears, peaches, loquats, ginkgo. Silkworms form an important part of Jiangsu's agriculture, with the Lake Tai region to the south a major base of silk production in China. Jiangsu is an important producer of freshwater fish and other aquatic products.

Jiangsu has coal, petroleum, and natural gas deposits, but its most significant mineral products are non-metal minerals such as halite (rock salt), sulfur, phosphorus, and marble. The city of Xuzhou is a coal hub of China. The salt mines of Huaiyin have more than 0.4 trillion tonnes of deposits, one of the greatest collections of deposits in China.

Jiangsu is historically oriented toward light industries such as textiles and food industry. Since 1949, Jiangsu has developed heavy industries such as chemical industry and construction materials. Jiangsu's important industries include machinery, electronic, chemicals, and automobile.[32][33] The government has worked hard to promote the solar industry and hoped by 2012 the solar industry would be worth 100 billion RMB.[34] Jiangsu's economy growth has directly benefited from the reform Chinese's policies, and its growth trajectory reflects that of many other coastal provinces, such as Zhejiang and Shandong.[35] The economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping have greatly benefited southern cities, especially Suzhou and Wuxi, which outstrip the provincial capital, Nanjing, in total output. In the eastern outskirts of Suzhou, Singapore has built the Suzhou Industrial Park, a flagship of Sino-Singaporean cooperation and the only industrial park in China that is in its entirety the investment of a single foreign country.

Jiangsu contains over 100 different economic and technological development zones devoted to different types of investments.[36]

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912[37] 32,283,000—    
1928[38] 34,126,000+5.7%
1936–37[39] 36,469,000+6.9%
1947[40] 36,080,000−1.1%
1954[41] 41,252,192+14.3%
1964[42] 44,504,608+7.9%
1982[43] 60,521,114+36.0%
1990[44] 67,056,519+10.8%
2000[45] 73,043,577+8.9%
2010[46] 78,659,903+7.7%
Shanghai was part of Jiangsu Province until 1927.
Nanjing part of Jiangsu Province until 1927; dissolved in 1952 and incorporated into Jiangsu Province.

The majority of Jiangsu residents are ethnic Han Chinese. Other minorities include the Hui and the Manchus.

Demographic indicators in 2000

Population: 74.058 million (urban: 34.637 million; rural: 39.421 million) (2003)
Birth rate: 9.04 per 1000 (2003)
Death rate: 7.03 per 1000 (2003)
Sex ratio: 102.55 males per 100 females
Average family size: 3.25
Han Chinese proportion: 99.64%
Literacy rate: 97.88%

ReligionEdit

Religion in Jiangsu[47][note 1]

  Christianity (2.64%)
  Other religions or not religious people[note 2] (80.69%)

The predominant religions in Jiangsu are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 16.67% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 2.64% of the population identifies as Christian.[47] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 80.69% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims.

In 2010, there are 130,757 Muslims in Jiangsu.[48]

TransportationEdit

Jiangsu is home to one of the most extensive transportation networks in China.

AirEdit

Nanjing Lukou International Airport (IATA: NKG) serves as the major airport in the province, with flights to Tokyo, Osaka, Hong Kong, Seoul-Incheon, Frankfurt, Bangkok, Milan, Vancouver and Los Angeles. Other passenger airports include Sunan Shuofang International Airport, Changzhou Benniu Airport, Yangzhou Taizhou International Airport, and Nantong Xingdong Airport. Air traffic in the populated Suzhou area is often diverted to Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport, to which Suzhou is conveniently connected to via bus services and by expressway.

Xuzhou Guanyin International Airport, Yancheng Nanyang International Airport, and Lianyungang Baitabu Airport serve as hubs in northern Jiangsu.

RailEdit

The southern part of the province, namely the Shanghai-Nanjing corridor, has very high-frequency rail services. Jiangsu is in route of the Jinghu railway from Beijing to Shanghai, as well as the high speed line between the two cities: Shanghai–Nanjing intercity railway and Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway, completed in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Since the completion of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed line, travel time between Beijing and Nanjing has been reduced to approximately four hours (from eleven hours previously); travel time between Nanjing and Shanghai on the fastest high-speed trains takes just over an hour.

As of 2022, all major cities in Jiangsu have been connected by high-speed lines, including: Shanghai-Nanjing intercity railway since 2010, Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway since 2011, Nanjing–Hangzhou high-speed railway since 2013, Nanjing–Anqing intercity railway since 2015, Lianyungang–Zhenjiang high-speed railway since 2020, Xuzhou–Yancheng high-speed railway since 2019, Yancheng–Nantong high-speed railway since 2020, Shanghai–Suzhou–Nantong railway since 2020, and Lianyungang–Xuzhou high-speed railway since 2021.

RoadEdit

Jiangsu's road network is one of the most developed in the country.[49] The Beijing–Shanghai Expressway (G2) enters the province from the north and passes through Huai'an, Yangzhou, Taizhou, and Wuxi on the way to Shanghai; travelling from Shanghai westbound, G2 forks at Wuxi and continues onto Nanjing separately as G42, the Shanghai–Nanjing Expressway, which serves the widely travelled southern corridor of the province. The Ningchang Expressway links Nanjing with Changzhou. The Suzhou area is extensively networked with expressways, going in all directions. The Yanhai Expressway links the coastal regions of the province, passing through Nantong, Yancheng, and Lianyungang.

Historically, the province was divided by the Yangtze River into northern and southern regions. The first bridge across the river in Jiangsu, the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, was completed in 1968 during the Cultural Revolution. The second bridge crossing, Jiangyin Bridge, opened 30 years later at Jiangyin. As of October 2014, there were 11 cross-Yangtze bridges in the province, including the five in Nanjing, which also has two cross-river tunnels. The Jiangyin Bridge (1,385 m (4,544 ft)), Runyang Bridge (opened in 2005, connecting Yangzhou and Zhenjiang, 1,490 m (4,890 ft)), and Fourth Nanjing Bridge (opened in 2012; 1,418 m (4,652 ft)) all rank among the ten longest suspension bridges in the world. The Sutong Bridge, opened in 2008, connecting Nantong and Changshu, has one of the longest cable-stayed bridge spans in the world, at 1,088 m (3,570 ft).

Metro (subway)Edit

As of October 2022, Jiangsu has five cities that have operational subway systems, together with two extra cities (Nantong and Huai'an) currently under construction. These five cities are Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou and Xuzhou.

The Nanjing Metro was opened in September 2005. It was the sixth city in Mainland China that opened up a metro system. As of December 2019 the city currently has 11 metro lines (Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 10, Line S1, Line S3, Line S6, Line S7, Line S8 and Line S9), with several extra ones (i.e. Line 5) under construction.

The Suzhou Rail Transit, also known as the Suzhou Metro, was opened in April 2012. As of October, 2022, it currently has five operational lines: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4 and Line 5. It also has four other lines under construction (Line 6, Line 7, Line 8, Line S1) and 11 lines under planning (Lines 9, 10, 11 through 16, Line 18, Line 20, Line S4, Line S5). Currently under construction lines are expected to be operational by 2024 and planned lines are expected to be operational by 2035.

The Wuxi Metro was opened in July 2014. The system is currently composed of four operational lines by 2022: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3 and Line 4. It also has two other lines under construction: Line S1 and an extension of Line 4.

The Changzhou Metro was opened in September 2019. The system currently only has two lines operational, Line 1 and Line 2.

The Xuzhou Metro was opened in September 2019, a few days after the Changzhou Metro started operations. The system currently only has three lines operational, Line 1, Line 2 and Line 3.

The Nantong Metro started construction in 2017. It has two lines under construction: Line 1 and Line 2. Line 1 is expected to start operations in 2022.

The Huai'an Metro, also known as the Huai'an Rail System, began construction in November 2018. There are seven lines planned: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 5, Line S1, and Line S2. It is expected to start operations before 2025.

CultureEdit

The four mass migrations in the 4th, 8th, 12th and 14th centuries had been influential in shaping the regional culture of Jiangsu. According to dialects and the other factors, the province can be roughly segmented four major cultural subdivisions: Wu (), Jinling (金陵), Huaiyang (淮扬) and Xuhuai (徐淮), from southeast to northwest.[citation needed] The belts of transition blurred the boundaries.[50][51][52]

Group Wuyue Lower Yangtze Central Plains
Designation Wu Jinling Huaiyang Xuhuai
Major dialect Wu Chinese Lower Yangtze Mandarin Lower Yangtze Mandarin Central Plains Mandarin
Core Suzhou Nanjing Yangzhou Xuzhou
 
The Humble Administrator's Garden, one of the classical gardens of Suzhou.

Jiangsu is rich in cultural traditions. Kunqu, originating in Kunshan, is one of the most renowned and prestigious forms of Chinese opera.[53][citation needed] Pingtan, a form of storytelling accompanied by music, is also popular: it can be subdivided into types by origin: Suzhou Pingtan (of Suzhou), Yangzhou Pingtan (of Yangzhou), and Nanjing Pingtan (of Nanjing). Wuxi opera, a form of traditional Chinese opera, is popular in Wuxi, while Huaiju is popular further north, around Yancheng. Jiangsu cuisine is one of the eight great traditions of the cuisine of China.

Suzhou is also well known for its silk, Chinese embroidery, jasmine tea, stone bridges, pagodas, and classical gardens. Nearby Yixing is noted for its teaware while Yangzhou is known for its lacquerware and jadeware. Nanjing's yunjin is a noted type of woven silk.

Since ancient times, south Jiangsu has been famed for its prosperity and opulence, and simply inserting south Jiangsu place names (Suzhou, Yangzhou, etc.) into poetry gave an effect of dreaminess,[citation needed] as was indeed done by many famous poets. In particular, the fame of Suzhou (as well as Hangzhou in neighbouring Zhejiang) has led to the popular saying: 上有天堂,下有蘇杭 ("above there is heaven; below there are Suzhou and Hangzhou"), a saying that continues to be a source of pride for the people of these two still prosperous cities. Similarly, the prosperity of Yangzhou has led poets to dream of: 腰纏十萬貫,騎鶴下揚州 ("with a hundred thousand strings of coins wrapped around its waist, a crane landed in Yangzhou").

EducationEdit

Higher educationEdit

As of 2022, Jiangsu hosts 168 institutions of higher education, ranking first of all Chinese provinces.[54] There are two Project 985, 11 Project 211, and 16 Double First Class universities in the province. A combination of 93 members of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering work in Jiangsu.[55] As of 2020, two major cities in Jiangsu ranked in the world's top 50 (Nanjing 8th and Suzhou 45th) cities by scientific research output, as tracked by the Nature Index.[56]

Double First Class Universities in JiangsuEdit

Jiangsu (16) Nanjing (13)
Wuxi
Suzhou
Xuzhou

Other Major Research Universities in Jiangsu

Additional schoolsEdit

TourismEdit

Nanjing was the capital of several Chinese dynasties and contains a variety of historic sites, such as the Purple Mountain, Purple Mountain Observatory, the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Ming dynasty city wall and gates, Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum (the mausoleum of the first Ming Emperor, Hongwu Emperor), Xuanwu Lake, Jiming Temple, the Nanjing Massacre Memorial, Nanjing Confucius Temple, Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, and the Nanjing Zoo, along with its circus. Suzhou is renowned for its classical gardens (designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site), as well as the Hanshan Temple, and Huqiu Tower. Nearby is the water-town of Zhouzhuang, an international tourist destination with Venice-like waterways, bridges and dwellings, which have been preserved over centuries. Yangzhou is known for Slender West Lake. Wuxi is known for being the home of the world's tallest Buddha statue. In the north, Xuzhou is designated as one of China's "eminent historical cities." The official travel and tourism website for Jiangsu[57] was set up in 2008.

SportsEdit

Professional sports teams in Jiangsu include:

International relationsEdit

Twin Provinces[58]Edit

Country State/Province Time
  Australia Victoria 1979/11/18
  Japan Aichi 1980/7/28
  North Korea Kangwon 1984/11/8
  Canada Ontario 1985/11/21
  United States New York 1989/4/21
  United Kingdom Essex 1992/7/16
  Germany North Rhine-Westphalia 1992/8/1
  Italy Tuscany 1992/9/18
  Japan Fukuoka 1992/11/4
  Pakistan Punjab 1993/12/28
  Germany Baden-Württemberg 1994/4/23
  Netherlands North Brabant 1994/9/9
  South Korea North Jeolla 1994/10/27
  Brazil Minas Gerais 1996/3/27
  Italy Veneto 1998/6/22
  Sweden Östergötland 1999/3/22
  Russia Moscow Oblast 1999/8/20
  Belgium Namur 2000/5/7
  South Africa Free state 2000/6/7
  Poland Lesser Poland 2000/11/16
  Finland Southern Finland 2001/5/11
  Colombia Atlántico 2001/6/4
  Malaysia Malacca 2002/9/18
  France Alsace 2007/05/24
  Mexico Baja California 2006/8/23
  Switzerland Lucerne 2011/4/26
  United States California 2011/7/18
  Turkey İzmir 2012/4/30
  Spain Basque 2012/4/27
  Denmark Capital Region 2015/1/30
  Belarus Mogilev 2015/5/10
  Namibia Khomas 2015/6/19

Twin towns and sister cities[59]Edit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[47] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organized into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. ^ This may include:

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SourcesEdit

External linksEdit