Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), also known as the People's PCC (Chinese: 人民政协, listen) or simply the PCC (政协), is a political legislative advisory body in the People's Republic of China. The organisation consists of delegates from a range of political parties and organisations, as well as independent members. The proportion of representation of the various parties is determined by established convention, negotiated between the parties.
|Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference|
|Literal meaning||People's Political Consultation|
|Literal meaning||Political Consultation|
|Third alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning||New Political Consultation|
In practice, the role of the Chinese People's Political Consultive Conference is close to a legislative upper house. The largest and dominant party in the Conference is the Communist Party of China which has about two thirds of the seats. Other members are drawn from the United Front parties allied with the CPC, and from independent members who are not members of any party. The Conference is intended to be more representative and be composed of a broader range of people than is typical of government office in the People's Republic of China.
The National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (Chinese: 中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Zhèngzhì Xiéshāng Huìyì Quanguo Weiyuanhui, shortened Chinese: 全国政协; pinyin: Quánguó Zhèngxié; literally: 'National PCC') typically holds a yearly meeting at the same time as plenary sessions of the National People's Congress (NPC). Both CPPCC National Committee and NPC plenary sessions are often called the "National Lianghui" (Two Sessions), making important national level political decisions.
A less common translation is "the National Congress". This translation is discouraged, as it causes confusion with the National People's Congress as well as with the National Congress of the Communist Party of China.
The organisational hierarchy of the CPPCC includes the National Committee and regional committees. Regional committees of the CPPCC include the provincial, prefecture, and county level. According to Article 19, Section 2 of the Charter of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the relationship between the National Committee and the regional committees is a relationship of guidance (no direct leadership). So are the relationships between upper-level regional committees and lower-level committees. Operating budgets on each level are independently administered by the financial administrations for the region, making the National committee and all regional committees separate individual entities. An indirect leadership, however, exists via the United Front Departments on each level.
The composition of the political advisors in the PCC, consisting of 2158 members, changes according to national objectives and priorities. Previously dominated by senior figures in real-estate, state-owned companies and "princelings", the PCC of 2018 is primarily composed of individuals from China's burgeoning technology sector.
The Conference dated prior to the existence of People's Republic of China. During negotiations between the Communist Party of China and the Kuomintang in 1945, the two parties agreed to open multiparty talks on post-World War II political reforms via a Political Consultative Conference. This was included in the Double Tenth Agreement. This agreement was implemented by the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China, who organised the first Political Consultative Assembly from January 10–31, 1946. Representatives of the Kuomintang, Communist Party of China, Chinese Youth Party, and China Democratic League, as well as independent delegates, attended the conference in Chongqing.
In 1949, with the Communist Party having gained control of most of mainland China, they organised a "new" Political Consultative Conference in September, inviting delegates from various friendly parties to attend and discuss the establishment of a new state. This conference was then renamed the People's Political Consultative Conference. The first conference approved the Common Program, which served as the de facto constitution for the next five years. The conference approved the new national anthem, flag, capital city, and state name, and elected the first government of the People's Republic of China. In effect, the first People's Political Consultative Conference served as a constitutional convention.
From 1949 to 1954, the conference became the de facto legislature of the PRC. In 1954, the Constitution transferred this function to the National People's Congress.
The role that CPPCC plays in the Chinese government is stated in the preamble of the PRC Constitution. In practice, its role and powers are somewhat analogous to an advisory legislative upper house and there have been proposals to formalise this role in the PRC Constitution, making it a defacto national senate.
But according to China's official Xinhua News Agency, It is neither a body of state power nor a policymaking organ, but an important platform for democratically participating in state affairs. In practice, CPPCC members serve as advisors for the government and legislative and judicial organs.
The Communist Party of China and the aligned "democratic parties" participate in the CPPCC. Besides political parties, CPPCC has also representatives from various sectors of society in its ranks. The parties and groups with representatives to the CPPCC are as follows:
- Communist Party of China
- Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang
- China Democratic League
- China Democratic National Construction Association
- China Association for Promoting Democracy
- Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party
- China Party for Public Interest
- September 3 Society
- Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League
- Communist Youth League of China
- All-China Federation of Trade Unions
- All-China Women's Federation
- All-China Youth Federation
- All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce
- China Association for Science and Technology
- All-China Federation of Taiwan Compatriots
- All-China Federation of Returned Overseas
- Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong
- Business and Professionals Alliance for Hong Kong
- Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions
- Liberal Party (Hong Kong)
- New Century Forum
- New Territories Association of Societies
- Macau United Citizens Association
- Macau Business Interest Union
- Macau Union of Professional Interests
- Progress Promotion Union/General Union of the Macao Residents' Associations
- Union for Development/The Women's General Association of Macau
Past Chairmen of the Committee and the current Chairman:
- Mao Zedong
- Zhou Enlai
- Deng Xiaoping
- Deng Yingchao
- Li Xiannian
- Li Ruihuan
- Jia Qinglin
- Yu Zhengsheng
- Wang Yang (since March 2018)
- Current Vice Chairpersons
- Current Secretary-General
- Xia Baolong (2018–incumbent)
The CPPCC National Committee has 10 Special Committees:
- Committee for Handling Proposals (提案委员会)
- Committee for Economic Affairs (经济委员会)
- Committee for Agriculture and Rural Affairs (农业和农村委员会)
- Committee of Population, Resources and Environment (人口资源环境委员会)
- Committee of Education, Science, Health and Sports (教科卫体委员会)
- Committee for Social and Legal Affairs (社会和法制委员会)
- Committee for Ethnic and Religious Affairs (民族和宗教委员会)
- Committee of Culture, History and Study (文化文史和学习委员会)
- Committee for Liaison with Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and Overseas Chinese (港澳台侨委员会)
- Committee of Foreign Affairs (外事委员会)
Composition of membersEdit
There have been 2200 members in the 12th National Committee of CPPCC since June 2017:
- Seats for Political Parties (536 in all)
- Communist Party of China (97)
- Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang (65)
- China Democratic League (65)
- China Democratic National Construction Association (64)
- China Association for Promoting Democracy (45)
- Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party (45)
- China Party for Public Interest (29)
- September 3 Society (44)
- Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (20)
- Independent (62)
- Seats for People's organizations (307 in all)
- Communist Youth League of China (9)
- All-China Federation of Trade Unions (60)
- All-China Women's Federation (64)
- All-China Youth Federation (28)
- All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce (61)
- China Association for Science and Technology (43)
- All-China Federation of Taiwan Compatriots (15)
- All-China Federation of Returned Overseas (27)
- Seats for Sectoral representatives (1357 in all)
- Sector of Literature and Arts (142)
- Sector of Science and Technology (110)
- Sector of Social Science (71)
- Sector of Economics (149)
- Sector of Agriculture (67)
- Sector of Education (113)
- Sector of Sports (21)
- Sector of Press and Publication (44)
- Sector of Medicine and Health (88)
- Sector of International Friendship Activists (42)
- Sector of Social Welfare and Social Security (37)
- Sector of the Ethnic Minorities (101)
- Sector of Religion (65)
- Specially Invited Hong Kong Dignitaries (124)
- Specially Invited Macao Dignitaries (29)
- Other Specially Invited Dignitaries (including members of the People's Liberation Army and the People's Armed Police) (154)
The People’s Political Consultative DailyEdit
The People’s Political Consultative Daily (《人民政协报》) is the press window of information on direct policies and viewpoints of the CPPCC. Like most of the Chinese political organs, the newspaper serves as the mouthpiece and press for the conference. Compared with other governmental newspapers, such as The People's Daily or The PLA Daily, The People’s Political Consultative Daily is not as hard line, but rather smooth in terms of wording. This is geared towards the nature of the organisation which many non-party members also participate in the conference.
- CPPCC province-level committees
- CPPCC prefecture-level committees
- CPPCC county-level committees
- Bowe, Alexander (August 24, 2018). "China's Overseas United Front Work: Background and Implications for the United States" (PDF). United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
- "Tech entrepreneurs dominate as China's political advisers in IT push". South China Morning Post. 2018-03-04. Retrieved 2018-03-06.
- "The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China". www.npc.gov.cn.
- Q&A: Roles and functions of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference www.xinhuanet.com
- "Charter of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference". www.cppcc.gov.cn.
- :zh:中国人民政治协商会议第十二届全国委员会委员名单. www.cppcc.gov.cn (in Chinese).