The Three Gorges Dam (simplified Chinese: 三峡大坝; traditional Chinese: 三峽大壩; pinyin: Sānxiá Dàbà) is a hydroelectric gravity dam that spans the Yangtze River near the Sandouping, in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, central China, downstream of the Three Gorges. The world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity (22,500 MW), the Three Gorges Dam generates 95±20 TWh of electricity per year on average, depending on the amount of precipitation in the river basin. After the extensive monsoon rainfalls of 2020, the dam's annual production reached nearly 112 TWh, breaking the previous world record of ~103 TWh set by Itaipu Dam in 2016.
|Three Gorges Dam|
|Location||Sandouping, Yiling District, Hubei|
|Purpose||Flood control, power, navigation|
|Construction began||December 14, 1994|
|Construction cost||¥203 billion (US$31.765 billion)|
|Owner(s)||China Yangtze Power (subsidiary of China Three Gorges Corporation)|
|Dam and spillways|
|Type of dam||Gravity dam|
|Height||181 m (594 ft)|
|Length||2,335 m (7,661 ft)|
|Width (crest)||40 m (131 ft)|
|Width (base)||115 m (377 ft)|
|Dam volume||27.2 million m3 (35.6 million cu yd)|
|Spillway capacity||116,000 m3/s (4,100,000 cu ft/s)|
|Creates||Three Gorges Reservoir|
|Total capacity||39.3 km3 (31,900,000 acre⋅ft)|
|Catchment area||1,000,000 km2 (390,000 sq mi)|
|Surface area||1,084 km2 (419 sq mi)|
|Maximum length||600 km (370 mi)|
|Normal elevation||175 m (574 ft)|
|Hydraulic head||Rated: 80.6 m (264 ft)|
Maximum: 113 m (371 ft)
|Turbines||32 × 700 MW|
2 × 50 MW Francis-type
|Installed capacity||22,500 MW|
|Annual generation||101.6 TWh (366 PJ) (2018)|
The dam's body was completed in 2006; the power plant was completed and fully operational by 2012, when the last of the main water turbines in the underground plant began production. Each of the main water turbines has a capacity of 700 MW. Combining the capacity of the dam's 32 main turbines with the two smaller generators (50 MW each) that provide power to the plant itself, the total electric generating capacity of the Three Gorges Dam is 22,500 MW. The last major component of the project, the ship lift, was completed in 2015.
In addition to generating electricity, the dam was designed to increase the Yangtze River's shipping capacity. By providing flood storage space, the dam reduces the potential for flooding downstream, which historically plagued the Yangtze Plain. In 1931, floods on the river caused the deaths of up to 4 million people. As a result, China regards the project as a monumental social and economical success, with the design of state-of-the-art large turbines and a move toward limiting greenhouse gas emissions. But the dam has led to some ecological changes, including an increased risk of landslides, which have made it controversial domestically and abroad.
|Three Gorges Dam|
|Literal meaning||Three Gorges Great Dam|
Sun Yat-sen envisioned a large dam across the Yangtze River in The International Development of China (1919). He wrote that a dam capable of generating 30 million horsepower (22 GW) was possible downstream of the Three Gorges. In 1932, the Nationalist government, led by Chiang Kai-shek, began preliminary work on plans in the Three Gorges. In 1939, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, Japanese military forces occupied Yichang and surveyed the area.
In 1944, the United States Bureau of Reclamation's head design engineer, John L. Savage, surveyed the area and drew up a dam proposal for a "Yangtze River Project". Some 54 Chinese engineers went to the US for training. The original plans called for the dam to employ a unique method for moving ships: the ships would enter locks at the dam's lower and upper ends and then cranes would move them from each lock to the next. Groups of craft would be lifted together for efficiency. It is not known whether this solution was considered for its water-saving performance or because the engineers thought the difference in height between the river above and below the dam too great for alternative methods. No construction work was performed because of the Nationalists' worsening situation in the Chinese Civil War.: 204
After the 1949 Communist Revolution, Mao Zedong supported the project, but began the Gezhouba Dam project nearby first, and economic problems including the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution slowed progress. After the 1954 Yangtze River Floods, in 1956, Mao wrote "Swimming", a poem about his fascination with a dam on the Yangtze River. In 1958, after the Hundred Flowers Campaign, some engineers who spoke out against the project were imprisoned.
During China's emphasis on the Four Modernizations during its early period of Reform and Opening Up, The Communist Party revived plans for the dam and proposed to start construction in 1986.: 204 It emphasized the need to develop hydroelectric power.: 204
The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference became a center of opposition to the proposed dam.: 204 It convened panels of experts who recommended delaying the project.: 204
The National People's Congress approved the dam in 1992: of 2,633 delegates, 1,767 voted in favour, 177 voted against, 664 abstained, and 25 members did not vote, giving the legislation an unusually low 67.75% approval rate. Construction started on December 14, 1994. The dam was expected to be fully operational in 2009, but additional projects, such as the underground power plant with six additional generators, delayed full operation until 2012. The ship lift was completed in 2015. The dam raised the water level in the reservoir to 172.5 m (566 ft) above sea level by 2008 and to the designed maximum level of 175 m (574 ft) by 2010.
Composition and dimensions edit
Made of concrete and steel, the dam is 2,335 m (2,554 yd; 1.451 mi) long and 185 m (607 ft) above sea level at its top. The project used 27.2 million m3 (35.6 million cu yd) of concrete (mainly for the dam wall), used 463,000 tonnes of steel (enough to build 63 Eiffel Towers), and moved about 102.6 million m3 (134.2 million cu yd) of earth. The concrete dam wall is 181 m (594 ft) high above the rock basis.
When the water level is at its maximum of 175 m (574 ft) above sea level, 110 m (361 ft) higher than the river level downstream, the dam reservoir is on average about 660 km (410 mi) in length and 1.12 km (3,675 ft) in width. It contains 39.3 km3 (31,900,000 acre⋅ft) of water and has a total surface area of 1,045 km2 (403 sq mi). On completion, the reservoir flooded a total area of 632 km2 (156,000 acres) of land, compared to the 1,350 km2 (330,000 acres) of reservoir created by the Itaipu Dam.
The Chinese government estimated that the Three Gorges Dam project would cost 180 billion yuan (US$22.5 billion). By the end of 2008, spending had reached 148.365 billion yuan, of which 64.613 billion yuan was spent on construction, 68.557 billion yuan on relocating affected residents, and 15.195 billion yuan on financing. It was estimated in 2009 that the cost of construction would be fully recouped when the dam had generated 1,000 terawatt-hours (3,600 PJ) of electricity, yielding 250 billion yuan; total cost recovery was thus expected to be completed ten years after the dam became fully operational. In fact, the entire cost of the Three Gorges Dam was recovered by December 20, 2013.[third-party source needed]
Funding sources include the Three Gorges Dam Construction Fund, profits from the Gezhouba Dam, loans from the China Development Bank, loans from domestic and foreign commercial banks, corporate bonds, and revenue from both before and after the dam had become fully operational. Additional charges were assessed as follows: every province receiving power from the Three Gorges Dam had to pay an extra ¥7.00 per MWh, and the other provinces had to pay an additional charge of ¥4.00 per MWh. No surcharge was imposed on the Tibet Autonomous Region.
Power generation and distribution edit
Generating capacity edit
Power generation is managed by China Yangtze Power, a listed subsidiary of China Three Gorges Corporation (CTGC), a Central Enterprise administered by SASAC. The Three Gorges Dam is the world's largest capacity hydroelectric power station, with 34 generators: 32 main generators, each with a capacity of 700 MW, and two plant power generators, each with capacity of 50 MW, for a total of 22,500 MW. Among the 32 main generators, 14 are installed on the dam's north side, 12 on the south side, and the remaining six in the underground power plant in the mountain south of the dam. Annual electricity generation in 2018 was 101.6 TWh, which is 20 times more than the Hoover Dam.
The main generators each weigh approximately 6,000 tonnes and are designed to produce more than 700 MW of power each. The designed hydraulic head of the generators is 80.6 metres (264 ft). The flow rate varies between 600–950 cubic metres per second (21,000–34,000 cu ft/s) depending on the head available; the greater the head, the less water needed to reach full power. Three Gorges uses Francis turbines with a diameter of 9.7/10.4 m (VGS design/Alstom's design) and a rotation speed of 75 revolutions per minute. This means that in order to generate power at 50 Hz, the generator rotors have 80 poles. Rated power is 778 MVA, with a maximum of 840 MVA and a power factor of 0.9. The generator produces electrical power at 20 kV. The electricity generated is then stepped up to 500 kV for transmission at 50 Hz. The generator's stator, the biggest of its kind, is 3.1/3 m in height; the outer diameter of the stator is 21.4/20.9 m, the inner diameter is 18.5/18.8 m, and the bearing load is 5,050/5,500 tonnes. Average efficiency is over 94%, with a maximum efficiency of 96.5% reached.
The generators were manufactured by two joint ventures: Alstom, ABB, Kvaerner, and the Chinese company Harbin Motor; and Voith, General Electric, Siemens (abbreviated as VGS), and the Chinese company Oriental Motor. The technology transfer agreement was signed together with the contract. Most of the generators are water-cooled. Some of the newer ones are air-cooled, making them simpler in design and easier to manufacture and maintain.
Generator installation progress edit
The first north-side main generator (No. 2) started up on July 10, 2003. The north side became completely operational on September 7, 2005, with the implementation of generator No. 9. Full power (9,800 MW) was eventually achieved on October 18, 2006, after the water level reached 156 meters.
On the south side, main generator No. 22 started up on June 11, 2007, and No. 15 became operational on October 30, 2008. The sixth (No. 17) began operation on December 18, 2007, raising capacity to 14.1 GW, exceeding that of Itaipu dam (14.0 GW) to become the world's largest hydro power plant by capacity.
When the last main generator (No. 27) finished its final test on May 23, 2012, the six underground main generators were all operational, raising the capacity to 22.5 GW. After nine years of construction, installation and testing, the power plant was fully operational by July 2012.
Output milestones edit
By August 16, 2011, the plant had generated 500 TWh of electricity. In July 2008 it generated 10.3 TWh of electricity, its first month over 10 TWh. On June 30, 2009, after the river flow rate increased to over 24,000 m3/s, all 28 generators were switched on, producing only 16,100 MW because the head available during flood season is insufficient. During an August 2009 flood, the plant first reached its maximum output for a short period.
During the November to May dry season, power output is limited by the river's flow rate, as seen in the diagrams on the right. When there is enough flow, power output is limited by plant generating capacity. The maximum power-output curves were calculated based on the average flow rate at the dam site, assuming the water level is 175 m and the plant gross efficiency is 90.15%. The actual power output in 2008 was obtained based on the monthly electricity sent to the grid.
The Three Gorges Dam reached its design-maximum reservoir water level of 175 m (574 ft) for the first time on October 26, 2010, in which the intended annual power-generation capacity of 84.7 TWh was realized. It has a combined generating capacity of 22.5 gigawatts and a designed annual generation capacity of 88.2 billion kilowatt hours. In 2012, the dam's 32 generating units generated a record 98.1 TWh of electricity, which accounts for 14% of China's total hydro generation. Between 2012 (first year with all 32 generating units operating) and 2021, the dam generated an average of 97.22 TWh of electricity per year, higher than Itaipu dam's average of 89.22 TWh of electricity per year during the same period. Due to the extensive 2020 monsoon season rainfall, the annual production reached ~112 TWh that year, which broke the previous world record of annual production by Itaipu Dam equal to ~103 TWh.
The State Grid Corporation and China Southern Power Grid paid a flat rate of ¥250 per MWh (US$35.7) until July 2, 2008. Since then, the price has varied by province, from ¥228.7 to ¥401.8 per MWh. Higher-paying customers, such as Shanghai, receive priority. Nine provinces and two cities consume power from the dam.
Power distribution and transmission infrastructure cost about 34.387 billion yuan. Construction was completed in December 2007, one year ahead of schedule.
Power is distributed over multiple 500 kV transmission lines. Three direct current (DC) lines to the East China Grid carry 7,200 MW: Three Gorges – Shanghai (3,000 MW), HVDC Three Gorges – Changzhou (3,000 MW), and HVDC Gezhouba – Shanghai (1,200 MW). The alternating current (AC) lines to the Central China Grid have a total capacity of 12,000 MW. The DC transmission line HVDC Three Gorges – Guangdong to the South China Grid has a capacity of 3,000 MW.
The dam was expected to provide 10% of China's power. However, electricity demand has increased more quickly than previously projected. Even fully operational, on average, it supports only about 1.7% of electricity demand in China in the year of 2011, when the Chinese electricity demand reached 4,692.8 TWh.
Environmental impact edit
According to the National Development and Reform Commission, 366 grams of coal would produce 1 kWh of electricity during 2006. From 2003 to 2007, power production equaled that of 84 million tonnes of standard coal.
Erosion and sedimentation edit
Two hazards are uniquely identified with the dam: that sedimentation projections are not agreed upon, and that the dam sits on a seismic fault. At current levels, 80% of the land in the area is eroding, depositing about 40 million tons of sediment into the Yangtze annually. Because the flow is slower above the dam, much of this sediment settles there instead of flowing downstream, and there is less sediment downstream.
The absence of silt downstream has three effects:
- Some hydrologists expect downstream riverbanks to become more vulnerable to flooding.
- Shanghai, more than 1,600 km (990 mi) away, rests on a massive sedimentary plain. The "arriving silt – so long as it does arrive – strengthens the bed on which Shanghai is built ... the less the tonnage of arriving sediment the more vulnerable is this biggest of Chinese cities to inundation".
- Benthic sediment buildup causes biological damage and reduces aquatic biodiversity.
Erosion in the reservoir, induced by rising water, causes frequent major landslides that have led to noticeable disturbance in the reservoir surface, including two incidents in May 2009 when somewhere between 20,000 and 50,000 cubic metres (26,000 and 65,000 cu yd) of material plunged into the flooded Wuxia Gorge of the Wu River. In the first four months of 2010, there were 97 significant landslides.
Waste management edit
The dam catalyzed improved upstream wastewater treatment around Chongqing and its suburban areas. According to the Ministry of Environmental Protection, as of April 2007, more than 50 new plants could treat 1.84 million tonnes per day, 65% of the total need. About 32 landfills were added, which could handle 7,664.5 tonnes of solid waste every day. Over one billion tons of wastewater are released annually into the river, which was more likely to be swept away before the reservoir was created. This has left the water stagnant, polluted and murky.
Forest cover edit
In 1997, the Three Gorges area had 10% forestation, down from 20% in the 1950s.
Research by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization suggested that the Asia-Pacific region would gain about 6,000 km2 (2,300 sq mi) of forest by 2008. That is a significant change from the 13,000 km2 (5,000 sq mi) net loss of forest each year in the 1990s. This is largely due to China's large reforestation effort. This accelerated after the 1998 Yangtze River floods convinced the government that it should restore tree cover, especially in the Yangtze's basin upstream of the Three Gorges Dam.
This section needs to be updated.(October 2017)
Concerns about the dam's impact on wildlife predate the National People's Congress's approval in 1992. This region has long been known for its rich biodiversity. It is home to 6,388 plant species, which belong to 238 families and 1,508 genera. Of these species, 57 are endangered. These rare species are also used as ingredients in traditional Chinese medicines. The proportion of forested area in the region surrounding the Three Gorges Dam dropped from 20% in 1950 to less than 10% as of 2002, adversely affecting all plant species there. The region also provides habitats to hundreds of freshwater and terrestrial animal species. Freshwater fish are especially affected by dams due to changes in the water temperature and flow regime. Many other fish are injured in the hydroelectric plants' turbine blades. This is particularly detrimental to the region's ecosystem because the Yangtze River basin is home to 361 different fish species and accounts for 27% of China's endangered freshwater fish species. Other aquatic species have been endangered by the dam, particularly the baiji, or Chinese river dolphin, now extinct. In fact, Chinese Government scholars even claim that the Three Gorges Dam directly caused the extinction of the baiji.
Of the 3,000 to 4,000 remaining critically endangered Siberian crane, many spend the winter in wetlands that the Three Gorges Dam will destroy. Populations of the Yangtze sturgeon are guaranteed to be "negatively affected" by the dam. In 2022 the Chinese paddlefish was declared extinct, with the last confirmed sighting in 2003.
Terrestrial impact edit
In 2005, NASA scientists calculated that the shift of water mass stored by the dams would increase the total length of the Earth's day by 0.06 microseconds and make the Earth slightly more round in the middle and flat on the poles. A study published in 2022 in the journal Open Geosciences suggests that the change of reservoir water level affects the gravity field in western Sichuan, which in turn affects the seismicity in that area.
Floods, agriculture, industry edit
An important function of the dam is to control flooding, which is a major problem for the seasonal river of the Yangtze. Millions of people live downstream of the dam, with many large, important cities like Wuhan, Nanjing, and Shanghai located adjacent to the river. Large areas of farmland and China's most important industrial area are situated beside the river.
The reservoir's flood storage capacity is 22 km3 (5.3 cu mi; 18 million acre⋅ft). This capacity will reduce the frequency of major downstream flooding from once every 10 years to once every 100 years. The dam is expected to minimize the effect of even a "super" flood. The river flooded in 1954 over an area of 193,000 km2 (74,500 sq mi), killing 33,169 people and forcing almost 18.9 million people to move. The flood waters covered Wuhan, a city of eight million people, for over three months, and the Jingguang Railway was out of service for more than 100 days. The 1954 flood carried 50 cubic kilometres (12 cu mi) of water. The dam could only divert the water above Chenglingji, leaving 30 to 40 km3 (7.2 to 9.6 cu mi) to be diverted. The dam cannot protect against some of the large tributaries downstream, including the Xiang, Zishui, Yuanshui, Lishui, Hanshui, and Gan.
In 1998, a flood in the same area caused billions of dollars worth of damage, when 2,039 km2 (787 sq mi) of farmland were flooded. The flood affected more than 2.3 million people, killing 1,526. In early August 2009, the largest flood in five years passed through the dam site. During this flood, the dam limited the water flow to less than 40,000 m3/s (1.4 million cu ft/s) per second, raising the upstream water level from 145.13 m (476.1 ft) on August 1, to 152.88 m (501.6 ft) on August 8. A full 4.27 km3 (1.02 cu mi) of flood water was captured and the river flow was cut by as much as 15,000 m3 (530,000 cu ft) per second.
The dam discharges its reservoir during the dry season every year, between December and March. This increases the flow rate of the river downstream, providing fresh water for agricultural and industrial usage, and improving shipping conditions. The water level upstream drops from 175 to 145 m (574 to 476 ft), in preparation for the rainy season. The water also powers the Gezhouba Dam downstream.
Since the filling of the reservoir in 2003, the Three Gorges Dam has supplied an extra 11 km3 (2.6 cu mi) of fresh water to downstream cities and farms over the course of the dry season.
During the South China floods in July 2010, inflows at the Three Gorges Dam reached a peak of 70,000 m3/s (2.5 million cu ft/s), exceeding the peak inflow during the 1998 Yangtze River floods. The dam's reservoir rose nearly 3 m (9.8 ft) in 24 hours and reduced the outflow to 40,000 m3/s (1.4 million cu ft/s) in discharges downstream, preventing any significant impact on the middle and lower river.
The installation of ship locks is intended to increase river shipping from ten million to 100 million tonnes annually; as a result transportation costs will be cut between 30 and 37%. Shipping will become safer, since the gorges are notoriously dangerous to navigate.
There are two series of ship locks installed near the dam (). Each of them is made up of five stages, with transit time at around four hours. Maximum vessel size is 10,000 tons. The locks are 280 m long, 35 m wide, and 5 m deep (918 × 114 × 16.4 ft). That is 30 m (98 ft) longer than those on the St Lawrence Seaway, but half as deep. Before the dam was constructed, the maximum freight capacity at the Three Gorges site was 18.0 million tonnes per year. From 2004 to 2007, a total of 198 million tonnes of freight passed through the locks. The freight capacity of the river increased six times and the cost of shipping was reduced by 25%. Originally, the total capacity of the ship locks was expected to reach 100 million tonnes per year. In 2022, their cargo turnover reached 159.65 million tons, with an annual increase of 6% over the past few years.
These locks are staircase locks, whereby inner lock gate pairs serve as both the upper gate and lower gate. The gates are the vulnerable hinged type, which, if damaged, could temporarily render the entire flight unusable. As there are separate sets of locks for upstream and downstream traffic, this system is more water efficient than bi-directional staircase locks.
Ship lift edit
In addition to the canal locks, there is a ship lift, a kind of elevator for vessels. The ship lift can lift ships of up to 3,000 tons. The vertical distance traveled is 113 m (371 ft), and the size of the ship lift's basin is 120 m × 18 m × 3.5 m (394 ft × 59 ft × 11 ft). The ship lift takes 30 to 40 minutes to transit, as opposed to the three to four hours for stepping through the locks. One complicating factor is that the water level can vary dramatically. The ship lift must work even if water levels vary by 12 m (39 ft) on the lower side, and 30 m (98 ft) on the upper side.
The ship lift's design uses a helical gear system, to climb or descend a toothed rack.
The ship lift was not yet complete when the rest of the project was officially opened on May 20, 2006. In November 2007, it was reported in the local media that construction of the ship lift started in October 2007.
The report said the towers had reached 189 m (620 ft) of the anticipated 195 m (640 ft), the towers would be completed by June 2012 and the entire shiplift in 2015.
As of May 2014, the ship lift was expected to be completed by July 2015. It was tested in December 2015 and announced complete in January 2016. Lahmeyer, the German firm that designed the ship lift, said it will take a vessel less than an hour to transit the lift. An article in Steel Construction says the actual time of the lift will be 21 minutes. It says that the expected dimensions of the 3,000 t (3 million kg) passenger vessels the ship lift's basin was designed to carry will be 84.5 by 17.2 by 2.65 metres (277.2 ft × 56.4 ft × 8.7 ft). The moving mass (including counterweights) is 34,000 tonnes.
The trials of elevator finished in July 2016, the first cargo ship was lifted on July 15; the lift time comprised 8 minutes. Shanghai Daily reported that the first operational use of the lift was on September 18, 2016, when limited "operational testing" of the lift began.
Portage railways edit
Plans also exist for the construction of short portage railways bypassing the dam area altogether. Two short rail lines, one on each side of the river, are to be constructed. The 88-kilometre-long (55 mi) northern portage railway (北岸翻坝铁路) will run from the Taipingxi port facility (太平溪港) on the northern side of the Yangtze, just upstream from the dam, via Yichang East Railway Station to the Baiyang Tianjiahe port facility in Baiyang Town (白洋镇), below Yichang. The 95-kilometre-long (59 mi) southern portage railway (南岸翻坝铁路) will run from Maoping (upstream of the dam) via Yichang South Railway Station to Zhicheng (on the Jiaozuo–Liuzhou Railway).
In late 2012, preliminary work started along both future railway routes.
Displacement of residents edit
During planning, it was estimated that 13 cities, 140 towns and 1,350 villages would be partially or completely flooded by the reservoir, amounting to roughly 1.5% of Hubei's 60.3 million people and Chongqing Municipality's 31.44 million people. These people were moved to new homes by the Chinese government, which considered the displacement justified by the flood protection provided for the communities downstream of the dam.
Between 2002 and 2005, Canadian photographer Edward Burtynsky documented the impact of the project on the surrounding areas, including the town of Wanzhou. Other photographers who recorded the change include Chengdu-based Muge, Paris-based Zeng Nian (originally from Jiangsu), and Israeli Nadav Kander. Living conditions deteriorated for many, and hundreds of thousands of people could not find work. The older generation was particularly affected, but younger generations benefited from the educational and career opportunities afforded by moving to large cities with new, modern companies and schools.
Some 2007 reports claimed that Chongqing Municipality would encourage four million more people to move away from the dam to Chongqing's main urban area by 2020. The municipal government asserted that the relocation was driven by urbanization, rather than a direct result of the dam project, and that the people involved included other areas of the municipality.
Other effects edit
Cultural and history edit
The area which would fill with water behind the dam included locations with significant cultural history.: 206 The State Council authorized a ¥505 million archaeology salvage effort.: 206 Over the course of several years, archaeologists excavated 723 sites and conducted surface archaeology recovery missions at an additional 346 sites.: 206 Archaeologists recovered 200,000 artifacts of which 13,000 were considered as particularly historically or culturally notable.: 206 As part of this effort, the old Chongqing City Museum was replaced by the Chongqing China Sanxia Museum to house many of the recovered artifacts.: 206
Recovered structures that were too large for museums were moved upland to reconstruction districts (fu jian qu), which are outdoor museum parks. Recovered structures placed in such parks include temples, pavilions, houses, and bridges, among others.: 206
National security edit
The United States Department of Defense reported that in Taiwan, "proponents of strikes against the mainland apparently hope that merely presenting credible threats to China's urban population or high-value targets, such as the Three Gorges Dam, will deter Chinese military coercion". Destroying the Three Gorges Dam has been a tactic discussed and debated in Taiwan since the early 1990s, when the dam was still in the planning phase.
The notion that the military in Taiwan would seek to destroy the dam provoked an angry response from the mainland Chinese media. People's Liberation Army General Liu Yuan was quoted in the China Youth Daily saying that the People's Republic of China would be "seriously on guard against threats from Taiwan independence terrorists".
The Three Gorges Dam is a steel-concrete gravity dam. The water is held back by the innate mass of the individual dam sections. As a result, damage to an individual section should not affect other parts of the dam. Zhang Boting, deputy secretary-general of China Society for Hydropower Engineering, suggested that concrete gravity dams are resistant to nuclear strikes. Former Taiwanese Ministry of Defense advisor Sung Chao-wen, called the notion of using cruise missiles to destroy the Three Gorges Dam "ridiculous", saying missiles would deliver minimal damage to the reinforced concrete, and any attack attempts would have to go through multiple layers of ground and air defenses.
Debate among Chinese scholars and analysts about the basic principles of China's no first use policy of nuclear weapons includes whether to include narrow exceptions, such as acts that produce catastrophic consequences equivalent to that of a nuclear attack, including attacks intended to destroy the Three Gorges Dam.
Structural integrity edit
Immediately after the reservoir was first filled, around 80 hairline cracks were observed in the dam's structure. Still, an experts group gave the project overall a good-quality rating. The 163,000 concrete units all passed quality testing, with normal deformation within design limits.
Upstream dams edit
In order to maximize the utility of the Three Gorges Dam and cut down on sedimentation from the Jinsha River, the upper course of the Yangtze River, authorities are building a series of dams on the Jinsha, including the now completed Wudongde, Baihetan, Xiluodu, and Xiangjiaba dams. The total capacity of those four dams is 38,500 MW, almost double the capacity of the Three Gorges.
Baihetan is under construction and should be fully operational by July 2022. Wudongde was opened in June 2021. Another eight dams are in the midstream of the Jinsha and eight more upstream of it.
See also edit
- Baiheliang Underwater Museum
- South–North Water Transfer Project
- Energy policy of China
- List of largest power stations
- List of largest hydroelectric power stations
- List of power stations in China
- List of dams and reservoirs in China
- Three Gorges Museum
- Liang Weiyan, one of the leading engineers who designed the water turbines for the dam
- Ma, Yue (November 26, 2010). "Three Gorges Dam". large.stanford.edu. Stanford University. Archived from the original on April 11, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
- "Three Gorges Dam Hydro Electric Power Plant, China". Power Technology. February 21, 2020. Archived from the original on May 28, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
- "Three Gorges Project" (PDF). chincold.org.cn. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2014. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- Engineering Geology for Society and Territory – Volume 2: Landslide Processes. Springer. 2014. p. 1415. ISBN 978-3-319-09057-3.
- Cleveland, Cutler J.; Morris, Christopher G. (2013). Handbook of Energy: Chronologies, Top Ten Lists, and Word Clouds. Elsevier Science. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-12-417019-3.
- Ehrlich, Robert (2013). Renewable Energy: A First Course. CRC Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-4665-9944-4 – via Google Books.
- 三峡工程2018年发电量、过闸货运量刷新历史纪录 [The Three Gorges Project's 2018 power generation and cargo volume through the gate set new historical records]. news.china.com.cn (in Chinese). China News Service. January 10, 2019. Archived from the original on January 10, 2019.
- Kirong, Nephele (January 2, 2021). "China's Three Gorges Dam sets world hydropower production record – China Daily". spglobal.com. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021.
- "Itaipu Ends 2016 with a Historic Production of 103.09 Million MWh". Itaipu Bunacional. January 3, 2017. Archived from the original on March 17, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
- 三峡工程最后一台机组结束72小时试运行 [The last unit of the Three Gorges Project has completed its 72-hour test run]. ctg.com.cn (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Corporation. May 24, 2012. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
- 三峡地下电站机电设备全面移交投产 [The mechanical and electrical equipment of the Three Gorges Underground Power Station is fully handed over and put into operation]. ctg.com.cn (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Corporation. July 5, 2012. Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- Acker, Fabian (March 2, 2009). "Taming the Yangtze". IET magazine. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018.
- 三峡工程左右岸电站26台机组全部投入商业运行 [All 26 units of power stations on left and right banks of the Three Gorges Project have been put into commercial operation]. ctgpc.com.cn (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Corporation. October 30, 2008. Archived from the original on February 9, 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
- "Three Gorges reservoir raises water to target level". news.xinhuanet.com. Xinhua News Agency. October 7, 2008. Archived from the original on January 10, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- "Final Turbine at China's Three Gorges Dam Begins Testing". InventorSpot.com. April 27, 2011. Archived from the original on May 4, 2011. Retrieved May 15, 2011.
- 世界最大“升船电梯”三峡大坝试验成功 [The world's largest "ship lift" Three Gorges Dam successfully tested]. news.cnhubei.com (in Chinese). Chutian Jinbao. January 14, 2016. Archived from the original on February 22, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
- 中国长江三峡工程开发总公司 [The Three Gorges Hydropower Station has brought huge economic benefits and the cumulative power generation has exceeded 300 billion kWh]. ctgpc.com.cn (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Corporation. April 8, 2009. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- 中国长江三峡工程开发总公司 [Our country's large-scale hydropower unit manufacturing has reached the world's advanced level]. ctgpc.com.cn (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Corporation. March 10, 2009. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- 一座自主创新历史丰碑 三峡工程的改革开放之路 [The road to reform and the opening up of the Three Gorges Project, a historical monument of independent innovation] (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. February 3, 2009. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- 重庆云阳长江右岸现360万方滑坡险情-地方-人民网 [There are 3.6 million square meters of landslides on the right bank of the Yangtze River in Yunyang, Chongqing]. People's Daily Online (in Chinese). April 10, 2009. Archived from the original on April 13, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- 探访三峡库区云阳故陵滑坡险情 [Visiting the Yunyang Guling Landslide Danger in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area] (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. April 9, 2009. Archived from the original on April 11, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Yang, Lin (October 12, 2007). "China's Three Gorges Dam Under Fire". Time. Archived from the original on March 31, 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
The giant Three Gorges Dam across China's Yangtze River has been mired in controversy ever since it was first proposed
- Laris, Michael (August 17, 1998). "Untamed Waterways Kill Thousands Yearly". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
Officials now use the deadly history of the Yangtze, China's longest river, to justify the country's riskiest and most controversial infrastructure project – the enormous Three Gorges Dam.
- Grant, Stan (June 18, 2005). "Global Challenges: Ecological and Technological Advances Around the World". CNN. Archived from the original on September 24, 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
China's engineering marvel is unleashing a torrent of criticism. [...] When it comes to global challenges, few are greater or more controversial than the construction of the massive Three Gorges Dam in Central China.
- Gerin, Roseanne (December 11, 2008). "Rolling on A River". Beijing Review. Archived from the original on September 22, 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
...the 180-billion yuan ($26.3 billion) Three Gorges Dam project has been highly contentious.
- ""Swimming" by Mao Zedong". Marxists.org. Archived from the original on September 12, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Lin Yang (October 12, 2007). "China's Three Gorges Dam Under Fire". Time. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved October 13, 2007.
- 中国国民党、亲民党、111新党访问团相继参观三峡工程_新闻中心_新浪网 [The Chinese Kuomintang, the People First Party, and the New Party delegation visited the Three Gorges Project] (in Chinese). Sina Corp. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Wolman, Abel; Lyles, W. H. (1978). John Lucian Savage Biography (PDF). National Academy of Science. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 7, 2011.
- "China's Dream Dam". Popular Science. Vol. 148, no. 6. Bonnier Corporation. June 1946. p. 98. ISSN 0161-7370.
- Harrell, Stevan (2023). An Ecological History of Modern China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 9780295751719.
- Steven Mufson (November 9, 1997). "The Yangtze Dam: Feat or Folly?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- 1992年4月3日全国人大批准兴建三峡工程 (in Chinese). News.rednet.cn. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- "人民网 – 404页面". Archived from the original on January 1, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- Allin, Samuel Robert Fishleigh (November 30, 2004). An Examination of China's Three Gorges Dam Project Based on the Framework Presented in the Report of The World Commission on Dams (MS paper). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. hdl:10919/37152. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
- "Three Gorges Dam now at full capacity". China Daily. July 3, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
- 三峡升船机开工建设_荆楚网 [Three Gorges ship lift operation construction] (in Chinese). CnHubei. November 10, 2007. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
- "Water level at Three Gorges Project raised to full capacity". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on October 29, 2010.
- 三峡完成172.5米蓄水 中游航道正常维护(图)-搜狐新闻 [The Three Gorges completed the normal maintenance of the 172.5-meter water storage channel] (in Chinese). News.sohu.com. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- "Three Gorges Dam Project – Quick Facts". ibiblio.org. Archived from the original on November 25, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- 三峡水库：世界淹没面积最大的水库 (Three Gorges reservoir: World submergence area biggest reservoir) (in Chinese). Xinhua Net. November 21, 2003. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved April 10, 2008.
- "Beyond Three Gorges in China". International Water Power and Dam Construction. January 10, 2007. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- 国家重大技术装备 [The Three Gorges Project will be completed and accepted this year, including 8 special projects as well as hub projects] (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. January 11, 2009. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- 官方:三峡工程回收投资成本 [Official: Three Gorges Project recovers investment cost]. xw.qq.com (in Chinese). 中新社 (China News Service). December 20, 2013. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved May 21, 2016.
- 建三峡工程需要多少钱 [How much does it cost to build the Three Gorges Project?] (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. April 20, 2003. Archived from the original on April 7, 2007. Retrieved April 29, 2007.
- "China's Three Gorges Dam, by the Numbers". Science. June 9, 2006. Archived from the original on January 14, 2019. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- 李永安:我水轮发电机组已具完全自主设计制造能力_财经频道_新华网 [Li Yongan: Our hydroelectric generator set has completely independent design and manufacture capabilities] (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. August 28, 2008. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
- Morioka, Matthew; Abrishamkar, Alireza; Kay, Yve. "Three Gorges Dam" (PDF). eng.hawaii.edu. CEE 491. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 7, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- "三峡工程及其水电机组概况" [Three Gorges Project and water and electricity unit survey] (in Chinese). 中华商务网讯. July 26, 2002. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2008.
- "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). Government of China. October 18, 2006. Archived from the original on May 31, 2007. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
- 中国长江三峡工程开发总公司 [The stability of domestically produced large-scale generator sets continues to improve]. ctgpc.com.cn (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Corporation. May 5, 2008. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
- 三峡右岸电站19号机组完成72小时试运行 [Unit 19 of the Three Gorges Right Bank Power Station has completed a 72-hour test run]. ctgpc.com.cn (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Corporation. June 20, 2008. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
- 中国长江三峡工程开发总公司 [Unit 16 of Three Gorges Right Bank Power Station put into operation]. ctgpc.com.cn (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Corporation. July 4, 2008. Archived from the original on February 10, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- 三峡23号机组进入72小时试运行 [Three Gorges Unit 23 enters 72-hour trial operation]. ctgpc.com.cn (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Corporation. August 22, 2008. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
- 三峡地下电站30号机组充水启动 [Unit No. 30 of Three Gorges Underground Power Station filled with water and started up] (in Chinese). Three Gorges Corporation. July 4, 2011. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011.
- "Three Gorges underground power station water-filled start the third unit successfully put into operation in July plans" (in Chinese). Fenghuang Wang. Archived from the original on October 4, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- 中国电力新闻网 – 电力行业的门户网站 (in Chinese). Cepn.sp.com.cn. Retrieved August 1, 2009.[permanent dead link]
- 国家重大技术装备 (in Chinese). Chinaequip.gov.cn. January 8, 2010. Archived from the original on April 29, 2010. Retrieved August 20, 2010.
- 峡 – 葛洲坝梯级电站全年发电1006.1亿千瓦时 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on September 1, 2011.
- "Three Gorges Project Generates 78.29 Bln Kwh of Electricity in 2011". Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
- 2012年三峡工程建设与运行管理成效十分显著 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- 三峡工程2013年建设运行情况良好 发挥综合效益 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on January 13, 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- "China's Three Gorges dam 'breaks world hydropower record'". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
- "Itaipu bate Três Gargantas e reassume liderança em produção" [Itaipu overtakes Three Gorges and resumes the lead in production]. itaipu.gov.br (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on January 16, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
- "Three Gorges Project reaches 1 trillion kWh milestone". China Daily. March 1, 2017. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
- "China's Three Gorges project increases power output in 2017". GBTimes.com. January 4, 2017. Archived from the original on March 3, 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- Zhang, Jie (December 21, 2018). "Three Gorges Dam generates record amount of power". China Daily. Archived from the original on March 21, 2019. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
- "三峡工程2019年运行情况良好 综合效益显著发挥". Sina Corp. January 7, 2020.
- "Three Gorges crosses 100b kWh power generation mark in 2021". waterpowermagazine.com. March 14, 2022.
- "长江电力：2022年总发电量1855.81亿千瓦时 同比减少10.92%". January 5, 2023.
- 三峡电站持续安稳运行累计发电突破5000亿千瓦时 (in Chinese). ctgpc.com.cn. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- "The 26 units of the left and right shore power stations of the Three Gorges Project were all put into commercial operation" 三峡工程左右岸电站26台机组全部投入商业运行 – 中国报道 – 国际在线 (in Chinese). CRI online. October 30, 2008. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
- 三峡电站月发电量首过百亿千瓦时 (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. August 15, 2008. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
- 三峡电站26台发电机组投产后首次满负荷发电 [The 26 generating units of the Three Gorges Power Station are fully loaded for the first time since being put into operation] (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. June 30, 2009. Archived from the original on July 5, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- 中国长江三峡工程开发总公司 (in Chinese). Ctgpc.com.cn. Archived from the original on September 8, 2011. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- 国家电网公司-主要水电厂来水和运行情况 (in Chinese). Sgcc.com.cn. Archived from the original on January 30, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- 国家电网公司-国调直调信息系统 (in Chinese). Sgcc.com.cn. Archived from the original on July 1, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- "China's Three Gorges sets new production record". Hydro World. January 10, 2013. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- 中国长江三峡工程开发总公司 (in Chinese). Ctgpc.com.cn. July 4, 2008. Archived from the original on February 10, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- "Construction of the Three Gorges Project and Ecological Protection". Chinagate.com.cn. November 27, 2007. Archived from the original on October 10, 2010. Retrieved March 24, 2014.
- "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission. December 20, 2007. Archived from the original on December 21, 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2007.
- "Three Gorges, China". ABB Group. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). Chinese Society for Electrical Engineering. May 25, 2006. Archived from the original on April 29, 2007. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
- 能源局:2011年全社会用电量累计达46928亿千瓦时 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
- "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). NDRC. March 7, 2007. Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
- 长江电力(600900)2008年上半年发电量完成情况公告 – 证券之星 [The Three Gorges sluice year transported goods volume may amount to 100,000,000 tons] (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. January 23, 2007. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
- Topping, Audrey Ronning (1996). "Environmental controversy over the Three Gorges Dam". The Earth Times. Archived from the original on November 25, 1996. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- Qing, Dai; Thibodeau, John G.; Williams, Michael R; et al. (2016). The River Dragon Has Come!: Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China's Yangtze River and Its People. Routledge. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-315-50276-2.
- 三峡大坝之忧 [Concern about the Three Gorges Dam]. The Wall Street Journal (in Chinese). August 31, 2007. Archived from the original on May 20, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- Winchester, Simon (1998). The River at the Center of the World. New York: Henry Holt & Co. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-8050-5508-5.
- Segers, Henrik; Martens, Koen (2005). The River at the Center of the World. Springer. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-4020-3745-0.
- Yang, Sung. "No Casualties in Three Gorges Dam Landslide". Xinhua News Network. CRIEnglish.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
- Richard Jones, Michael Sheridan (May 30, 2010). "Chinese dam causes quakes and landslides". The Times. London. Archived from the original on September 18, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- 湖北省三峡治污项目三年内投入约23.5亿元 [In the Hubei Province Three Gorges anti-pollution project three years invest the approximately 2,350,000,000 Yuan] (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. April 19, 2007. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
- Collins, Peter (November 15, 2007). "Falling here, rising there". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- Li, Long (1989). Environmental planning of large-scale water projects: The Three Gorges Dam case, China (MA thesis). Wilfrid Laurier University.
- Wu, J.; Huang, J.; Han, X.; Xie, Z.; Gao, X. (2003). "Three-Gorges Dam – Experiment in Habitat Fragmentation?". Science. 300 (5623): 1239–1240. doi:10.1126/science.1083312. PMID 12764179. S2CID 128845721.
- Chetham, Deirdre (2002). Before the Deluge: The Vanishing World of the Yangtze's Three Gorges. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6428-1.
- Xie, P. (2003). "Three-Gorges Dam: Risk to Ancient Fish". Science. 302 (5648): 1149b–1151. doi:10.1126/science.302.5648.1149b. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 14615514. S2CID 31587732. Archived from the original on October 8, 2019. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- Toy, Mary-Anne (September 27, 2007). "Three Gorges Dam 'could be huge disaster'". The Age. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- "Three Gorges Dam Case Study". American University, The School of International Service. Archived from the original on December 6, 2000. Retrieved January 20, 2008.
- Theuerkauf, Ethan (October 2, 2007). "Three Gorges Dam: A Blessing or an Environmental Disaster?". The Flat Hat. Archived from the original on February 22, 2008. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- "Chinese Paddlefish". www.iucnredlist.org. IUCN Red List. Archived from the original on May 16, 2023. Retrieved May 16, 2023.
- "NASA Details Earthquake Effects on the Earth". NASA/JPL. Archived from the original on August 10, 2017. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- Wang, Yaxiang; Cao, Ziyi; Pang, Zhaojun; Liu, Yan; Tian, Jiawei; Li, Juan; Yin, Lirong; Zheng, Wenfeng; Liu, Shan (January 1, 2022). "Influence of Three Gorges Dam on earthquakes based on GRACE gravity field". Open Geosciences. 14 (1): 453–461. Bibcode:2022OGeo...14..350W. doi:10.1515/geo-2022-0350. ISSN 2391-5447. S2CID 248724077.
- 三峡工程的防洪作用将提前两年实现-经济-人民网. People's Daily (in Chinese). Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- 三峡工程防洪、通航、发电三大效益提前全面发挥 (in Chinese). Chn-consulate-sapporo.or.jp. May 16, 2006. Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- "39.1931, 1935, 1954, 1998 年长江流域发生的4次大洪水造成了怎样的洪水灾害??". People's Daily. Archived from the original on July 24, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Dai, Qing (1994). Yangtze! Yangtze!. Earthscan. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-85383-187-4.
- (Consequences of the Three Gorges Project, in German
- "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). CTGPC. April 20, 2002. Archived from the original on April 7, 2007. Retrieved June 3, 2007.
- 经过不懈努力三峡枢纽主体工程建设任务提前完成 (in Chinese). Gov.cn. Archived from the original on April 22, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- 三峡水库可如期消落至145米汛限水位 [The Three Gorges Reservoir can drop to the flood limit water level of 145 meters as scheduled] (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. February 19, 2009. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- 中国长江三峡工程开发总公司 (in Chinese). Ctgpc.com.cn. August 7, 2009. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- "Three Gorges Dam will meet the first large-scale flood since being completed". easyseosolution.com. July 10, 2010. Archived from the original on July 23, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- 三峡迎来7万立方米/秒特大洪峰 规模超1998年 [The Three Gorges ushered in 70,000 cubic meters / sec] (in Chinese). SINA Corporation. Archived from the original on July 22, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
- "Yangtze as a vital logistics aid". China Economic Review (in Chinese). May 30, 2007. Archived from the original on August 7, 2010. Retrieved June 3, 2007.
- "Three Gorges Dam". Missouri Chapter American Fisheries Society. April 20, 2002. Archived from the original on November 18, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- "Its Buildings with Biggest Indices". China Three Gorges Project. 2002. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- "Shipping throughput of Three Gorges Dam hits new record". Xinhua – China, World, Business, Sports, Photos and Video English. Retrieved February 22, 2023.
- MacKie, Nick (May 4, 2005). "China's west seeks to impress investors". BBC. Archived from the original on November 24, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- "Its Buildings with Biggest Indices". China Three Gorges Project. 2002. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- MacKie, Nick (May 4, 2005). "China's west seeks to impress investors". BBC. Archived from the original on November 24, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- "Three Gorges Dam Ship Lift, People's Republic of China". 2013. Archived from the original on April 21, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- "Three Gorges Dam ready to go". The Taipei Times. May 21, 2006. Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- "China Completes Three Gorges Dam". CBS News. May 20, 2006. Archived from the original on July 18, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- "Tower columns for Three Gorges shiplift to be built". Yichang, Hubei Province. Xinhua News Agency. February 27, 2012. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013.
The entire shiplift will be completed in 2015.
- "Three Gorges Dam exceeds cargo target set for 2030". South China Morning Post. May 23, 2014. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
- Wang Yichen (February 17, 2016). "China shifts from follower to leader in hydropower development". China Economic Net. Archived from the original on February 18, 2016. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
CTGC announced on January 6 that the Three Gorges ship lift with the maximum lifting height reaching 113 meters and allowing ships with displacement of 3000-ton passing the dam has conducted real vessel experiment successfully in late December last year.
- Jan Akkermann; Thomas Runte; Dorothea Krebs (2009). "Ship lift at Three Gorges Dam, China − design of steel structures" (PDF). Steel construction 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 6, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
The ship chamber is designed for passenger ships with a max. water displacement of 3000 tonnes, max. length of 84.5 m, max. width of 17.2 m and max. draught of 2.65 m.
- "Phase I Field Trial of Ship Lift at Three Gorges Dam Successfully Ends". China Three Gorges Project. August 14, 2016. Archived from the original on August 14, 2016. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
- "World's largest shiplift starts operation at China's Three Gorges Dam". Shanghai Daily. September 18, 2016. Archived from the original on September 18, 2016.
A permanent shiplift on the Three Gorges Dam in central China's Hubei Province began trial operation on Sunday.
- 湖北议案提案：提升三峡翻坝转运能力 [Hubei's Proposal: raise the Three Gorges dam-bypassing transportation capacity]. People's Daily (in Chinese). March 17, 2013. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- 三峡翻坝铁路前期工作启动 建成实现水铁联运 [Dam in Three Gorges railway preliminary work completed to start the implementation of water and railway transport] (in Chinese). October 12, 2012. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- 三峡四期移民工程通过阶段性验收 (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. August 22, 2008. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
- 三峡库区城镇完成拆迁 [Towns in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, Demolition Completed]. The Wall Street Journal (in Chinese). July 24, 2008. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- "Three Gorges Dam". International Rivers. Archived from the original on May 5, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
- "China dam to displace millions more". MWC News. October 13, 2007. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- "2012 Hydropower Roadmap" (PDF). iea.org. p. 37. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- "Edward Burtynsky: Three Gorges Dam Project". MacKenzie Art Gallery. Retrieved February 14, 2023.
- "Photographs: China". Edward Burtynsky. Retrieved February 14, 2023.
- Fletcher, Gem. "Muge travels the Yangtze River, tenderly photographing communities displaced by flooding - 1854 Photography". www.1854.photography. Retrieved February 14, 2023.
- jess (December 5, 2014). "Zeng Nian: Remembering the Three Gorges Dam". Angkor Photo Festival & Workshops. Retrieved February 14, 2023.
- Dykstra, Jean (December 27, 2012). "Nadav Kander: Yangtze: The Long River". Photographmag.com. Retrieved February 14, 2023.
- Christoph Seeber, Lorenz King: Umsiedlungen am Yangtze – ein Erfolg? Ausmaß und Folgen des Landnutzungswandels in der Drei-Schluchten-Region. – Spiegel der Forschung 1/20: S. 50–63, 2010. Full text (PDF; 1,1 MB)
- "Millions forced out by China dam". BBC News. October 12, 2007. Archived from the original on March 9, 2008. Retrieved January 20, 2008.
- Wang Hongjiang (October 11, 2007). "Millions more face relocation from Three Gorges Reservoir Area". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved January 20, 2008.
- Jiang Yuxia (September 26, 2007). "China warns of environmental "catastrophe" from Three Gorges Dam". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on May 27, 2011. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- Guo Jinjia; Yang Shanyin (November 16, 2007). 重庆澄清"三峡库区二次移民四百万"传闻. People's Daily (in Chinese). Archived from the original on November 19, 2007. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
- Liang Chao (July 15, 2004). "More bid farewell to Three Gorges". China Daily. Archived from the original on December 4, 2007. Retrieved January 20, 2008.
- C.Michael Hogan. Andy Burnham (ed.). "Shen Nong Gorge Hanging Coffins". The Megalithic Portal. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2008.
- "Annual report on the military power of the People's Republic of China (.pdf)" (PDF). US Department of Defense. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 6, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2007.
- "Just Two Missiles could blow up China's Three Gorges Dam and kill millions : Strategist". Defence News. January 18, 2018. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
- "Troops sent to protect China dam". BBC. September 14, 2004. Archived from the original on February 9, 2009. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- "China's Three Gorges Dam 'can survive nuclear attack' says nation's hydropower expert after academics raise safety concerns". South China Morning Post. March 22, 2016.
- "Can Taiwanese missiles destroy Three Gorges Dam? Only tiny dents: expert". taiwannews. November 6, 2017. Archived from the original on December 27, 2021. Retrieved December 27, 2021.
- "台灣射彈攻擊三峽大壩？綠網民遭專家打臉直轟：軍事白癡！". SET News. November 6, 2017.
- Pan, Zhenqiang (2016). "China's No First Use of Nuclear Weapons". Understanding: Chinese Nuclear Thinking. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. JSTOR resrep26903.
- Fravel, M. Taylor; Medeiros, Evan S. (October 2010). "China's Search for Assured Retaliation: The Evolution of Chinese Nuclear Strategy and Force Structure". International Security. 35 (2): 48–87. doi:10.1162/ISEC_a_00016. hdl:1721.1/60548. S2CID 38157268.
- "Three Gorges Dam". International Rivers. Archived from the original on June 30, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
- Adams, Jerry. "Three Gorges Dam". Electronic Data Interchange. Awesome Library. Archived from the original on July 22, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
- "Three Gorges Dam". Living On Earth. Archived from the original on December 28, 2010. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
- 三峡工程质量处于良好受控状态 (in Chinese). Aqsiq.gov.cn. Archived from the original on August 15, 2009. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- 中国三峡总公司拟在金沙江上建４座梯级水电站 总装机容量为３８５０万千瓦_中国电力网新闻中心 (in Chinese). chinapower.com.cn. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- "Beijing Environment, Science and Technology Update". U.S. Embassy in China. March 7, 2003. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved January 20, 2008.
- "New mega hydropower station to begin operations – China.org.cn". china.org.cn. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
- "Beyond Three Gorges in China". Water Power Magazine. January 10, 2007. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. Retrieved November 23, 2010.