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List of largest hydroelectric power stations

This article provides a list of the largest hydroelectric power stations by generating capacity. Only plants with capacity larger than 2,000 MW are listed.

The Three Gorges Dam in Hubei, China, has the world's largest instantaneous generating capacity (22,500 MW), with the Itaipu Dam in Brazil/Paraguay in second place (14,000 MW). Despite the large difference in installed capacity these two power stations generate nearly equal amounts of electrical energy during the course of an entire year - Itaipu 103.1 TWh in 2016[1] and Three Gorges 98.8 TWh in 2014,[2] because the Three Gorges experiences six months per year when there is very little water available to generate power, while the Paraná River that feeds the Itaipu has a much lower seasonal variance in flow. Power output of the Three Gorges reaches 125 TWh in years of high feed availability.

The Three Gorges (22,500 MW - 32 × 700 MW and 2 × 50 MW) is operated jointly with the much smaller Gezhouba Dam (2,715 MW), the total generating capacity of this two-dam complex is 25,215 MW. The Itaipu on the Brazil–Paraguay border has 20 generator units with overall 14,000 MW of installed capacity, however the maximum number of generating units allowed to operate simultaneously cannot exceed 18 (12,600 MW).

The Jinsha River (the upper stream of Yangtze River) complex is the largest hydroelectric generating system currently under construction. It has three phases. Phase one includes four dams on the downstream of the Jinsha River. They are Wudongde Dam, Baihetan Dam, Xiluodu Dam, and Xiangjiaba Dam, with generating capacity of 10,200 MW, 16,000 MW, 13,860 MW, and 6,448 MW respectively. Phase two includes eight dams on the middle stream of the Jinsha River. The total generating capacity is 21,150 MW. Phase three includes eight dams on the upper stream of the Jinsha River. The total generating capacity is 8,980 MW. The total combined capacity of the Jinsha complex with the Three Gorges complex will be 101,853 MW.

Preliminary plans exist for the construction of the next largest hydroelectric power station with an installed capacity of 39,000 MW.[3] The Project is called Grand Inga and is planned to be realised on the lower Congo River.[4] China is said to have been working on a 50,000 MW[5] dam as part of the Yarlung Tsangpo Hydroelectric and Water Diversion Project

Another proposal, Penzhin Tidal Power Plant, presumes an installed capacity up to 87,100 MW.

The largest hydroelectric power stations top the list of the largest power stations of any kind, are among the largest hydraulic structures and are some of the largest artificial structures in the world.

Contents

ListEdit

CompletedEdit

Only operational power stations with an installed capacity of at least 2,000 MW. Some of these may have additional units under construction, but only current installed capacity is listed.

Rank Name Country River Years of completion Installed
capacity
(MW)
Annual
production
(TW-hour)[6]
Area
flooded
(km²)
1 Three Gorges Dam   China Yangtze 2008/2012 22,500 98.8[7] 1,084
2 Itaipu Dam   Brazil
  Paraguay
Paraná 1984/1991, 2003[8] 14,000 103.1 [1] 1,350
3 Xiluodu   China Jinsha 2014[9] 13,860[10] 55.2
4 Guri   Venezuela Caroní 1978, 1986 10,235 53.41 4,250
5 Tucuruí   Brazil Tocantins 1984, 2007 8,370 41.43 3,014
6 Grand Coulee   United States Columbia 1942/1950, 1973, 1975/1980, 1983/1984, 1991[11] 6,809 20[12] 324
7 Xiangjiaba   China Jinsha 2014[13] 6,448 30.7 95.6
8 Longtan Dam   China Hongshui 2007/2009 6,426 18.7[14]
9 Sayano–Shushenskaya   Russia Yenisei 1985/1989, 2010/2014[15] 6,400 26.8 621
10 Krasnoyarsk   Russia Yenisei 1967/1972 6,000 15 2,000
11 Nuozhadu   China Mekong 2014[16] 5,850 23.9[17] 320
12 Robert-Bourassa   Canada La Grande 1979/1981 5,616[18][19] 26.5 2,835
13 Churchill Falls   Canada Churchill 1971/1974 5,428[20] 35 6,988
14 Jinping-II   China Yalong 2014 4,800 24.23
15 Bratsk   Russia Angara 1961/1966 4,515 22.6 5,470
16 Laxiwa Dam   China Yellow 2010 4,200[21] 10.2
17 Xiaowan Dam   China Mekong 2010 4,200[22] 19 190
18 Ust Ilimskaya   Russia Angara 1980 3,840 21.7 1,922
19 Jirau   Brazil Madeira 2014/2016 3,750 19.1 258
20 Jinping-I   China Yalong 2014 3,600 17 82.5
21 Santo Antonio   Brazil Madeira 2012/2016 3,580[23] 21.2 490
22 Tarbela Dam   Pakistan Indus 1976 3,478 13 250
23 Ilha Solteira Dam   Brazil Paraná 1973 3,444 17.9 1,195
24 Ertan Dam   China Yalong 1999 3,300 17 101
25 Pubugou Dam   China Dadu 2009/2010 3,300 14.6
26 Macagua   Venezuela Caroní 1961, 1996 3,167.5 15.2 47.4
27 Xingó Hydroelectrical Power Plant   Brazil São Francisco 1994/1997 3,162 18.7[24] 60
28 Yacyretá   Argentina
  Paraguay
Paraná 1994/1998, 2011 3,100 20.09 1,600
29 Nurek Dam   Tajikistan Vakhsh 1972/1979, 1988 3,015 11.2 98
30 Bath County PSP   United States - 1985, 2005/2009 3,003 3.32 3.3
31 Goupitan Dam   China Wu 2009/2011 3,000[25] 9.67 94
32 Guanyinyan Dam   China Jinsha 2014/2016 3,000 13.62
33 Boguchany Dam   Russia Angara 2012/2014 2,997 17.6 2,326
34 W. A. C. Bennett Dam   Canada Peace 1968, 2012 2,917 13.8 1,761
35 Mica Dam   Canada Columbia 1973, 2015 2,805 7.2 430
36 La Grande-4   Canada La Grande 1986 2,779[19] 765
37 Gezhouba Dam   China Yangtze 1988 2,715 17.01
38 Volzhskaya (Volgogradskaya)   Russia Volga 1958/1961 2,671[26] 12.84[27] 3,117
39 Manic-5 and Manic-5-PA   Canada Manicouagan 1970/1971, 1989/1990 2,656[28] 1,950
40 Niagara Falls (US)   United States Niagara 1961 2,625 [29] 0
41 Chief Joseph Dam   United States Columbia 1958/1973/1979 2,620 12.5 34
42 Changheba   China Dadu 2016/2017 2,600 10.8
43 Dagangshan   China Dadu 2015/2016 2,600 11.43
44 Revelstoke Dam   Canada Columbia 1984, 2011 2,480 8.75 115
45 Zhiguliovskaya (Samarskaya)   Russia Volga 1955/1957 2,467[30] 11.7[27] 6,450
46 Paulo Afonso IV   Brazil São Francisco 1979/1983 2,462.4[31]
47 Chicoasén (Manuel M. Torres) Dam   Mexico Grijalva 1980, 2005 2,430
48 La Grande-3   Canada La Grande 1984 2,418[19] 12.3 2,420
49 Atatürk Dam   Turkey Euphrates 1990 2,400 8.9 817
50 Jinanqiao Dam   China Jinsha 2010 2,400 11.043
51 Sơn La Dam   Vietnam Black 2010/2012 2,400 10.25 440
52 Bakun Dam   Malaysia Balui 2011 2,400 695
53 Liyuan Dam   China Jinsha 2014/2015 2,400 10.703 14,7
54 Guandi Dam   China Yalong 2013 2,400 11.87
55 Karun III Dam   Iran Karun 2005 2,280 4.17 48
56 Iron Gates-I   Romania
  Serbia
Danube 1970, 1998/2007, 2013 2,252.8 11.3 104.4
57 John Day Dam   United States Columbia 1971 2,160 8.42
58 Caruachi   Venezuela Caroní 2006 2,160 12.95 238
59 Ludila   China Jinsha 2014[32] 2,160 9.957
60 La Grande-2-A   Canada La Grande 1992 2,106[19][33] 2,835
61 Aswan   Egypt Nile 1967/1970 2,100 11 5,250
62 Itumbiara   Brazil Paranaíba 1980 2,082 9 778
63 Hoover Dam   United States Colorado 1936/1939, 1961, 1986/1993 2,080 4.2 640
64 Cahora Bassa   Mozambique Zambezi 1975/1977 2,075 2,739
65 Cleuson-Dixence Complex    Switzerland - 1965, 1998 2,069 4.51 4
66 Bureya Dam   Russia Bureya 2003/2009 2,010 6.59[27] 750
67 Lijiaxia Dam   China Yellow 1997/2000 2,000 5.9 383
68 Karun I (Shahid Abbaspour) Dam   Iran Karun 1976, 1995, 2006 2,000 54.8
69 Masjed Soleyman Dam   Iran Karun 2002/2007 2,000 3.7 7.5
70 Ahai Dam   China Jinsha 2014[34] 2,000 8.88 23,4

Under constructionEdit

This table lists stations under construction with expected installed capacity at least 2,000 MW.

Name Country River Expected
capacity (MW)
Expected
completion
Location
Baihetan   China Jinsha 16,000[35] 2021 28°15′06″N 103°39′34″E / 28.25167°N 103.65944°E / 28.25167; 103.65944 (Baihetan Dam)
Wudongde   China Jinsha 10,200 2018-2020 26°20′02″N 102°37′48″E / 26.33389°N 102.63000°E / 26.33389; 102.63000 (Wudongde Dam)
Belo Monte   Brazil Xingu 11,233 2019 03°07′27″S 51°42′01″W / 3.12417°S 51.70028°W / -3.12417; -51.70028 (Belo Monte Dam)
TaSang   Myanmar Salween 7,110 ?? (on hold) 20°27′23″N 98°39′0″E / 20.45639°N 98.65000°E / 20.45639; 98.65000
Ethiopian Renaissance   Ethiopia Blue Nile 6,450 2018-2022 11°12′51″N 35°05′35″E / 11.21417°N 35.09306°E / 11.21417; 35.09306 (Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam)
Diamer-Bhasha Dam   Pakistan Indus River 4,500 2023[36] 35°31′08″N 73°47′10″E / 35.51889°N 73.78611°E / 35.51889; 73.78611 (Diamer-Bhasha Dam)
Dasu Dam   Pakistan Indus River 4,320 2023 35°31′10″N 73°44′21″E / 35.51944°N 73.73917°E / 35.51944; 73.73917 (Dasu Dam)
Rogun   Tajikistan Vakhsh 3,600 2018-2020 38°41′03″N 69°46′26″E / 38.68417°N 69.77389°E / 38.68417; 69.77389 (Rogun Dam)
Myitsone   Myanmar Irrawaddy 3,600 ?? (on hold) 25°41′23″N 97°31′04″E / 25.68972°N 97.51778°E / 25.68972; 97.51778
Mambilla   Nigeria Donga 3,050 2024[37] 07°09′44″N 10°34′17″E / 7.16222°N 10.57139°E / 7.16222; 10.57139 (Mambilla Power Station)
Lianghekou   China Yalong 3,000 2021-2023 30°09′46″N 101°00′49″E / 30.16278°N 101.01361°E / 30.16278; 101.01361 (Lianghekou Dam)
Ituango   Colombia Cauca 2,456 2018 (on hold) 7°05′03.6″N 75°41′16.8″W / 7.084333°N 75.688000°W / 7.084333; -75.688000 (Hidroituango)
Tocoma   Venezuela Caroní 2,320 ?? (on hold) 27°33′13″N 94°15′31″E / 27.55361°N 94.25861°E / 27.55361; 94.25861 (Tocoma Dam)
Maerdang   China Yellow 2,200 2018 34°40′21″N 100°41′32″E / 34.67250°N 100.69222°E / 34.67250; 100.69222 (Maerdang Dam)
Koysha   Ethiopia Omo 2,160[38] 2021[39] 6°27′36″N 36°20′24″E / 6.46000°N 36.34000°E / 6.46000; 36.34000 (Koysha Dam)
Lauca   Angola Cuanza 2,069.5 2017-2018 9°44′34.9″S 15°07′32.2″E / 9.743028°S 15.125611°E / -9.743028; 15.125611 (Lauca Dam)
Shuangjiangkou   China Dadu 2,000 2018 31°47′29″N 101°56′03″E / 31.79139°N 101.93417°E / 31.79139; 101.93417 (Shuangjiangkou Dam)
Subansiri   India Subansiri 2,000 2018 27°33′13″N 94°15′31″E / 27.55361°N 94.25861°E / 27.55361; 94.25861 (Subansiri Lower Dam)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Brasil retiró casi 92 millones MWh de la producción récord de Itaipú". Abc.com. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  2. ^ "China's Three Gorges dam 'breaks world hydropower record'". Dailymail.co.uk. 2015-01-02. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  3. ^ Development of the Grand Inga, retrieved 2010-03-21
  4. ^ "Africa plans biggest dam project, the Grand Inga", BBC News, 2008-04-21, retrieved 2010-03-21
  5. ^ "World's largest hydropower project planned for Tibetan Plateau". www.chinadialogue.net. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  6. ^ Generating capacity is not the only factor determining the amount of electricity generated, as this also depends on consistent utilization of the plant's capacity. Factors enhancing this are the free capacity of the reservoir and the consistency of water supply during and across years.
  7. ^ "China's Three Gorges dam 'breaks world hydropower record'". News.yahoo.com. 2015-01-02. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  8. ^ first unit installed in 1984, 18th in 1991; in 2003 2 additional units were installed
  9. ^ 2425 (2014-07-02). "世界第三大水电站溪洛渡水电站机组全部投产-能源-人民网". Energy.people.com.cn. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  10. ^ "China's second-largest hydropower station in full operation - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2014-07-02. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  11. ^ first unit installed in 1942, 18th in 1950, 21st in 1991; 6 units in third powerplant were installed between 1975 and 1980, 2 units of pumped-storage plant were installed in 1973, 4 more units in 1983 and 1984
  12. ^ "Generation Records Fall at Grand Coulee Dam". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2006-11-18.
  13. ^ 马常艳 (2014-06-28). "中国第三大水电站向家坝水电站将全部投产发电". Ce.cn. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  14. ^ "龙滩水电站创世界建设最快纪录-能源-人民网". Energy.people.com.cn. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  15. ^ 10 units were installed between 1985 and 1989, after 2009 failure new units were installed between 2010 and 2014
  16. ^ "云南省最大水电站糯扎渡水电站全面建成投产". Yn.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  17. ^ "Largest hydropower station on Mekong River starts operation - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2012-09-06. Archived from the original on 2014-08-26. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  18. ^ Combined with adjacent La Grande-2-A the LG-2 complex has 7,722 MW of installed capacity
  19. ^ a b c d Hydro-Québec (April 2009). Powering Our Future : Annual Report 2008 (PDF). Montreal. p. 125. ISBN 978-2-550-55046-4.
  20. ^ Nalcor Operations. "Churchill Falls". Nalcor Energy. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ "小湾电站机组全部投产 我国水电装机突破2亿千瓦". Yn.xinhuanet.com. 2010-08-25. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  23. ^ "Geração – Santo Antônio Energia". Santoantonioenergia.com.br. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  24. ^ "Form 20-F". Sec.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  25. ^ [2]
  26. ^ "Волжская ГЭС увеличила установленную мощность в результате модернизации оборудования". www.volges.rushydro.ru. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  27. ^ a b c "2013". Rushydro.ru. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  28. ^ Hydro-Québec (2010), Hydroelectric Generating Stations, Montreal: Hydro-Québec, retrieved 2010-08-16
  29. ^ Combined US-CA capacity >= 2 GW greater than this so would be about 15th place.
  30. ^ "Выработка Жигулевской ГЭС в 2017 году на 14% превысила среднемноголетние значения". www.zhiges.rushydro.ru. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  31. ^ Combined with adjacent Paulo Afonso IV, Paulo Afonso I, II, III and Apollonius Sales the Paulo Afonso Hydroelectric Complex has 4,279 MW of installed capacity
  32. ^ "鲁地拉水电站事故生态放水孔已封堵-中国水力发电工程学会". Hydropower.org.cn. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  33. ^ Combined with Robert-Bourassa, it would place LG-2 complex in 5th place
  34. ^ "金沙江流域阿海水电站5台机组全部投产_云南网". Yn.yunnan.cn. 2014-06-08. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  35. ^ "中国东方电气集团有限公司". Dongfang.com. 2015-07-08. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  36. ^ Kiani, Khaleeq (27 August 2013). "Dasu power project gets precedence over Bhasha". dawn.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  37. ^ "Construction begins on Nigeria's 3,050-MW Mambilla hydropower plant". www.hydroworld.com. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
  38. ^ "Koysha Hydroelectric Project - Salini Impregilo". www.salini-impregilo.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  39. ^ https://www.salini-impregilo.com/static/upload/wat/water-power-africa.pdf