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North China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Huáběi; literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.[1]

North China
250px
Area
 • Total2,185,105 km2 (843,674 sq mi)
Population
 • Total164,823,136
 • Density75/km2 (200/sq mi)
Another broader definition of North China (in pink)
The Qinling Huaihe Line separates China into its Northern and Southern regions

The heartland of North China is the North China Plain, or the Yellow River Plain. North China is usually restricted to the northern part of China proper (inner China and excludes Xinjiang and often Manchuria and Northeast China.

The vast region in China from the Yellow River Valley south to the Yangtze River was the centre of Chinese empires and home to Confucian civilization. Historically, the language used in this area was Ancient Chinese of the Huaxia, Old Chinese of the Shang, Zhou and Han dynasties. In prehistory and early history, the plain (Henan in particular) is considered the origin of Chinese civilization in official Chinese history.

Rice domestication originated in this area at least 9000 years ago, although later on in Chinese history, cultivation of wheat took over as the soils became leeched with the arrivals of the Mongolians and Manchurians from the North, which greatly influenced the area culturally, politically, linguistically and genetically, while earlier scions and their descendants migrated South of the Yangtze River to flee from the invasion of the barbarians. Refugees have fled the area since the collapse of the Han dynasty established by Qinshihuang, especially the Royalty. Imperialty, as well as families of soldiers which formed the Hakka migration, in order to escape persecutions from the new dynasties of the barbarians.

In modern times, the area has shifted in terms of linguistic, cultural, socio-political, economic and genetic composition. Nowadays unique embracing a North Chinese culture, it is heavily influenced by Marxism, Communism, Leninism, Soviet systems of farming while preserving a Traditional Chinese indigenous culture. The region has been cultivating wheat, and most inhabitants here nowadays speak variants of Northern Chinese languages such as the standard (Mandarin), which includes Beijing dialect, which is largely the basis of Standard Chinese (Mandarin), the official language of the People's Republic of China (PRC), and its cousin variants. Jin Chinese and Mongolian are also widely spoken due to the political and cultural history of the area. Other than the British Colony of Hong Kong, the revival of Shanghai as financial center, the old imperial city of the Purple Forbidden Citadel of China's Last 24 Emperors known by Westerners as Peking, now modernized as Beijing City, this is the ancient and historical region which remains truly at the heart of Chinese civilisation. It remains the political, military, and cultural center of the People's Republic of China.

Contents

HistoryEdit

In prehistory, the region was home to the Yangshao and Longshan cultures. Peking man was found near modern-day Beijing (Peking).

Culturally Northern China also includes Shandong, northern parts of Anhui and Xuzhou.

Tens of millions of people have starved to death or died of floods in northern china, most notably the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79 which killed about 13 million, 1938 Yellow River flood which killed up to 800,000, 1887 Yellow River flood killed 900,000, Chinese famine of 1942–43 killed 3 million and the Great famine which killed tens of millions of mandarin speaking peoples in Northern China and Sichuan.

Administrative divisions in the PRCEdit

GB[2] ISO №[3] Province Chinese Name Capital Population¹ Density² Area³ Abbreviation/Symbol
BJ 11 Beijing Municipality 北京市
Běijīng Shì
Beijing 19,612,368 1,167.40 16,800
Jīng
TJ 12 Tianjin Municipality 天津市
Tiānjīn Shì
Tianjin 12,938,224 1,144.46 11,305
Jīn
HE 13 Hebei Province 河北省
Héběi Shěng
Shijiazhuang 71,854,202 382.81 187,700
SX 14 Shanxi Province 山西省
Shānxī Shěng
Taiyuan 35,712,111 228.48 156,300
Jìn
NM 15 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Nei Mongol Autonomous Region
內蒙古自治区
Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū
Hohhot 24,706,321 20.88 1,183,000 蒙(內蒙古)
Měng (Nèi Měnggǔ)

Cities with urban area over one million in populationEdit

Provincial capitals in bold.

# City Urban area[4] District area[4] City proper[4] Prov. Census date
1 Beijing 16,446,857 18,827,262 19,612,368 BJ 2010-11-01
2 Tianjin 9,562,255 11,090,783 12,938,693 TJ 2010-11-01
3 Taiyuan 3,154,157 3,426,519 4,201,592 SX 2010-11-01
4 Shijiazhuang 2,770,344 2,834,942 10,163,788 HE 2010-11-01
5 Tangshan 2,128,191 3,187,171 7,577,289 HE 2010-11-01
6 Baotou 1,900,373 2,096,851 2,650,364 NM 2010-11-01
7 Hohhot 1,497,110 1,980,774 2,866,615 NM 2010-11-01
8 Datong 1,362,314 1,737,514 3,318,054 SX 2010-11-01
9 Handan 1,316,674 1,445,338 9,174,683 HE 2010-11-01
10 Baoding 1,038,195 1,138,521 11,194,382 HE 2010-11-01

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Shuangshuang, LI; Saini, YANG; Xianfeng, LIU (10 September 2015). "Spatiotemporal variability of extreme precipitation in north and south of the Qinling-Huaihe region and influencing factors during 1960-2013". The Chinese journal of geography. 34 (3): 354–363. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  2. ^ GB/T 2260 codes for the provinces of China
  3. ^ ISO 3166-2:CN (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of China)
  4. ^ a b c 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Press. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.