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Nanzhuangtou (Chinese: 南庄头, Nánzhuāngtóu), dated to 12,600–11,300 cal BP[1] or 11,500–11,000 cal BP,[2], roughly 9,500–9,000 BC, or 10,700–9,500 BP,[3] roughly 8,700–7,500 BC, is a Initial Neolithic site[3] near Lake Baiyangdian in Xushui County, Hebei, China. The site was discovered under a peat bog.[4] Over 47 pieces of pottery were discovered at the site. Nanzhuangtou is also the earliest Neolithic site yet discovered in northern China. There is evidence that the people at Nanzhuangtou domesticated the dog.[5] Stone grinding slabs and rollers and bone artifacts were also discovered at the site. It is one of the earliest sites showing evidence of millet cultivation dating to 10,500 BP.[2] Pottery can also be dated to 10,200 BP.[1]

Nanzhuangtou
南莊頭
Nanzhuangtou is located in China
Nanzhuangtou
location in China
LocationHebei
RegionNorth China Plain
Coordinates39°07′00″N 115°39′00″E / 39.1167°N 115.65°E / 39.1167; 115.65
History
Founded12,600 BP
Abandoned11,300 BP
PeriodsNeolithic China

The site was discovered in 1986, when a cultural layer of unearthed animal bones, charcoal, and stone tools was discovered. The layer was 180 centimeters below the ground, which is covered with lake deposits such as thick black and gray silt clay. Three archeological excavations have been carried out so far by institutions such as the Department of Archaeology in Peking University, the Department of History in Hebei University, the Hebei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and other cultural institutions in the city and county level.

The Early Neolithic period (7,000-5,000 BC) succeeds Nanzhuangtou, and is characterized by the rise of farming villages across the alluvial plains of China, as seen in the site of Peiligang.[3]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Kuzmin, Yaroslav V. "Chronology of the earliest pottery in East Asia: progress and pitfalls" ANTIQUITY-OXFORD- 80, no. 308 (2006): 362.
  2. ^ a b Xiaoyan Yang, Zhiwei Wan, Linda Perry, Houyuan Lu, Qiang Wang, Chaohong Zhao, Jun Li, Fei Xie, Jincheng Yu, Tianxing Cui, Tao Wang, Mingqi Li, and Quansheng Ge "Early millet use in northern China" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2012 vol 109 (10) pp. 3726–3730.
  3. ^ a b c Liu, Li (2005). The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN 9781139441704.
  4. ^ The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective, p. 28.
  5. ^ Archaeology of Asia, pp. 124

CitationsEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • Allan, Sarah (ed), The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective, ISBN 0-300-09382-9
  • Liu, Li. The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States, ISBN 0-521-81184-8
  • Sagart, Laurent, Roger Blench and Alicia Sanchez-Mazas (eds), The Peopling of East Asia ISBN 0-415-32242-1
  • Stark, Miriam T. (ed), Archaeology of Asia, ISBN 1-4051-0213-6
  • Yang, Xiaoyan et al., Early millet use in northern China, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 109 no. 10, 3726–3730, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1115430109
BC
11000
Europe Egypt Syria
Levant
Anatolia Khabur Sinjar Mountains
Assyria
Middle Tigris Low
Mesopotamia
Iran
(Khuzistan)
Iran Indus/
India
China
10000 Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
Gesher[2]
Mureybet
(10,500 BC)
 
Early Pottery
(18,000 BC)[3]
9000 Jericho
Tell Abu Hureyra
(Agriculture)[4]
8000 Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Jericho
Tell Aswad
Göbekli Tepe
Çayönü
Aşıklı Höyük
Initial Neolithic
(Pottery)
Nanzhuangtou
(8500–8000 BC)
7000 Egyptian Neolithic
Nabta Playa
(7500 BC)
Çatalhöyük
(7500-5500)
Hacilar
(7000 BC)
Tell Sabi Abyad
Bouqras
Jarmo Ganj Dareh
Chia Jani
Ali Kosh
Mehrgarh I[2]
6500 Neolithic Europe
Franchthi
Sesklo
(Agriculture)[5]
Pre-Pottery Neolithic C
('Ain Ghazal)
Pottery Neolithic
Tell Sabi Abyad
Bouqras
Pottery Neolithic
Jarmo
Chogha Bonut Teppe Zagheh Pottery Neolithic
Peiligang
(7000-5000 BC)
6000 Pottery Neolithic
Sesklo
Dimini
Pottery Neolithic
Yarmukian
(Sha'ar HaGolan)
Pottery Neolithic
Ubaid 0
(Tell el-'Oueili)
Pottery Neolithic
Chogha Mish
Pottery Neolithic
Sang-i Chakmak
Pottery Neolithic
Lahuradewa


Mehrgarh II






Mehrgarh III
5600 Faiyum A
Amuq A

Halaf






Halaf-Ubaid
Umm Dabaghiya
Samarra
(6000-4800 BC)
Tepe Muhammad Djafar Tepe Sialk
5200 Linear Pottery culture
(5500-4500 BC)

Amuq B
Hacilar

Mersin
24-22
 

Hassuna

Ubaid 1
(Eridu 19-15)

Ubaid 2
(Hadji Muhammed)
(Eridu 14-12)

Susiana A
Yarim Tepe
Hajji Firuz Tepe
4800 Pottery Neolithic
Merimde
(Agriculture)[6]

Amuq C
Hacilar
Mersin
22-20
Hassuna Late

Gawra 20

Tepe Sabz
Kul Tepe Jolfa
4500
Amuq D
Gian Hasan
Mersin
19-17
Ubaid 3 Ubaid 3
(Gawra)
19-18
Ubaid 3 Khazineh
Susiana B

3800
Badarian
Naqada
Ubaid 4

Coordinates: 39°07′N 115°39′E / 39.117°N 115.650°E / 39.117; 115.650


  1. ^ Liverani, Mario (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Routledge. p. 13, Table 1.1 "Chronology of the Ancient Near East". ISBN 9781134750917.
  2. ^ a b Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme R.; Gangal, Kavita (7 May 2014). "The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia". PLOS ONE. 9 (5): 1-20 and Appendix S1. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095714. ISSN 1932-6203.
  3. ^ Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Arpin, Trina; Pan, Yan; Cohen, David; Goldberg, Paul; Zhang, Chi; Wu, Xiaohong (29 June 2012). "Early Pottery at 20,000 Years Ago in Xianrendong Cave, China". Science. 336 (6089): 1696–1700. doi:10.1126/science.1218643. ISSN 0036-8075.
  4. ^ Thorpe, I. J. (2003). The Origins of Agriculture in Europe. Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 9781134620104.
  5. ^ Price, T. Douglas (2000). Europe's First Farmers. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780521665728.
  6. ^ Jr, William H. Stiebing; Helft, Susan N. (2017). Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 9781134880836.