Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Cattle feedlot in Colorado
Raising chickens intensively for meat in a broiler house, USA

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with the rearing and care of animals that are raised for food, fibre or other purposes of benefit to humans. It includes not only the practical care of the livestock but also the selective improvements by which genetic qualities and behavior, considered to be advantageous to humans, are further developed. The term husbandry can refer to the practice of selectively breeding and raising livestock to promote desirable traits in animals for utility, sport, pleasure, or research.[1]

Food is a requirement for human life and ultimately comes from the energy of the sun which is used by plants, through the process of photosynthesis, to produce new plant growth. The animals that feed on plants convert this energy into the animal products that humans, being omnivores, appreciate as part of their diet.[2] Before the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers supplied those needs, but the domestication of animals provided a much more stable supply of animal products.

Contents

HistoryEdit

Birth of husbandryEdit

The domestication of livestock was driven by the need to have food on hand when hunting was unproductive. The desirable characteristics of a domestic animal are that it should be useful to man, should be able to thrive in his company, should breed freely and be easy to tend.[3]

Animals were progressively domesticated early in the history of agriculture. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 13,000 BC.[4] Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 and 9,000 BC.[5] Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan around 8,500 BC.[6] In southern Asia, the elephant was domesticated by 6,000 BC.[7] Camels were domesticated late, perhaps around 3,000 BC.[8]

Ancient civilisationsEdit

 
Milking cattle in ancient Egypt

In ancient Egypt, cattle were the most important livestock; sheep, goats, and pigs were also kept. Poultry including ducks, geese, and pigeons were captured in nets and bred on farms, where they were force-fed with dough to fatten them.[9] The Nile provided a plentiful source of fish. Honey bees were domesticated from at least the Old Kingdom, providing both honey and wax.[10]

In ancient Rome, rabbits were domesticated for food by the first century BC. To help flush them out from their underground burrows, the polecat was domesticated as the ferret, its use described by Pliny the Elder.[11]

Medieval husbandryEdit

 
Shepherd with sheep in woven hurdle pen. Medieval France. 15th century, MS Douce 195

In northern Europe, agriculture including animal husbandry went into decline when the Roman empire collapsed. Some aspects such as the herding of animals continued throughout the period. By the 11th century, the economy had recovered and the countryside was again productive.[12] The Domesday Book recorded every parcel of land and every animal in Britain: "there was not one single hide, nor a yard of land, nay, moreover ... not even an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine was there left, that was not set down in [the king's] writ."[13] For example, the royal manor of Earley in Berkshire, one of thousands of villages recorded in the book, had in 1086 "2 fisheries worth [paying tax of] 7s and 6d [each year] and 20 acres of meadow [for livestock]. Woodland for [feeding] 70 pigs."[14]

Agricultural RevolutionEdit

 
The Lincoln Longwool breed was improved by Robert Bakewell in the 18th century.

Selective breeding for desired traits was established as a scientific practice by Robert Bakewell during the British Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century. One of his most important breeding programs was with sheep. Using native stock, he was able to quickly select for large, yet fine-boned sheep, with long, lustrous wool. The Lincoln Longwool was improved by Bakewell and in turn the Lincoln was used to develop the subsequent breed, named the New (or Dishley) Leicester. It was hornless and had a square, meaty body with straight top lines.[15] These sheep were exported widely and have contributed to numerous modern breeds. Under his influence, English farmers began to breed cattle for use primarily as beef. Long-horned heifers were crossed with the Westmoreland bull to create the Dishley Longhorn.[16]

The semi-natural, unfertilized pastures formed by traditional agricultural methods in Europe were managed by grazing. Because the ecological impact of this land management strategy is similar to the impact of a natural disturbance, the agricultural system will share many beneficial characteristics with a natural habitat including the promotion of biodiversity. This strategy is declining in the European context due to the intensification of agriculture, and mechanized and chemical based methods.[17]

HusbandryEdit

SystemsEdit

 
Herdwick sheep in an extensive hill farming system, Lake District, England

Traditionally, animal husbandry was part of the subsistence farmer's way of life, producing not only the food needed by the family but also the fuel, fertiliser, clothing, transport and draught power. Killing the animal for food was a secondary consideration, and wherever possible its products, such as wool, eggs, milk and blood (by the Maasai) were harvested while the animal was still alive.[2]

Animals can be kept extensively or intensively. Extensive systems involve animals roaming at will, or under the supervision of a herdsman, often for their protection from predators. Ranching in the Western United States involves large herds of cattle grazing widely over public and private lands.[18] Similar cattle stations are found in South America, Australia and other places with large areas of land and low rainfall. Similar ranching systems have been used for sheep, deer, ostrich, emu, llama and alpaca.[19] In the uplands of the United Kingdom, sheep are turned out on the fells in spring and graze the abundant mountain grasses untended, being brought to lower altitudes late in the year, with supplementary feeding being provided in winter.[20] In rural locations, pigs and poultry can obtain much of their nutrition from scavenging, and in African communities, hens may live for months without being fed, and still produce one or two eggs a week.[2]

 
Pigs confined to a barn in an intensive system, USA (midwest)

At the other extreme, in the more developed parts of the world, animals are often intensively managed; dairy cows may be kept in zero-grazing conditions with all their forage brought to them; beef cattle may be kept in high density feedlots;[21] pigs may be housed in climate-controlled buildings and never go outdoors;[22] poultry may be reared in barns and kept in cages as laying birds under lighting-controlled conditions. In between these two extremes are semi-intensive, often family run farms where livestock graze outside for much of the year, silage or hay is made to cover the times of year when the grass stops growing, and fertiliser, feed and other inputs are bought onto the farm from outside.[23]

FeedingEdit

 
Cattle around an outdoor feeder

Animals used as livestock are predominantly herbivorous, the main exception being the pig which is an omnivore. The herbivores can be divided into "concentrate selectors" which selectively feed on seeds, fruits and highly nutritious young foliage, "grazers" which mainly feed on grass, and "intermediate feeders" which choose their diet from the whole range of available plant material. Cattle, sheep, goats, deer and antelopes are ruminants; they digest food in two steps, chewing and swallowing in the normal way, and then regurgitating the semidigested cud to chew it again and thus extract the maximum possible food value.[24] The dietary needs of these animals is mostly met by eating grass. Grasses grow from the base of the leaf-blade which allows for continuous growth even when heavily grazed or cut.[25] In many climatological conditions, grass growth is seasonal, so some areas of the crop are set aside to be cut and preserved, either as hay (dried grass), or as silage (fermented grass).[26] Other forage crops are also grown and many of these, as well as crop residues, can be ensiled to fill the gap in the nutritional needs of livestock in the lean season.[27]

 
Cattle feed pellets of pressed linseed

Extensively reared animals may subsist entirely on forage, but more intensively kept livestock will require energy and protein-rich foods in addition. Energy is mainly derived from cereals and cereal by-products, fats and oils and sugar-rich foods, while protein may come from fish or meat meal, milk products, legumes and other plant foods, often the by-products of vegetable oil extraction.[28] Pigs and poultry are non-ruminants and unable to digest the cellulose in grass and other forages, so they are fed entirely on cereals and other high-energy foodstuffs. The ingredients for the animals' rations can be grown on the farm or can be bought, in the form of pelleted or cubed, compound foodstuffs specially formulated for the different classes of livestock, their growth stages and their specific nutritional requirements. Vitamins and minerals are added to balance the diet.[29] Farmed fish are usually fed pelleted food.[29]

BreedingEdit

The breeding of farm animals seldom occurs spontaneously but is managed by farmers with a view to encouraging certain traits that are seen as desirable. These include hardiness, prolificness, mothering abilities, fast growth rates, low feed consumption per unit of growth, better body proportions, higher yields, better fibre qualities and other characteristics. Undesirable traits such as health defects, aggressiveness or lack of docility are selected against.[30] Selective breeding has been responsible for some large increases in productivity. In 2007, a typical broiler chicken at eight weeks old was 4.8 times as heavy as a bird of similar age in 1957.[30] In the thirty years to 2007, the average milk yield of a dairy cow in the United States nearly doubled.[30]

Techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer are frequently used today, not only as methods to guarantee that females breed regularly but also to help improve herd genetics. This may be done by transplanting embryos from high-quality females into lower-quality surrogate mothers - freeing up the higher-quality mother to be reimpregnated. This practice vastly increases the number of offspring which may be produced by a small selection of the best quality parent animals. On one hand, this improves the ability of the animals to convert feed to meat, milk, or fiber more efficiently, and improve the quality of the final product. On the other, it decreases genetic diversity, increasing the severity of certain disease outbreaks among other risks.

Animal healthEdit

Good husbandry, proper feeding, and hygiene are the main contributors to animal health on the farm, bringing economic benefits through maximised production. When, despite these precautions, animals still become sick, they are treated with veterinary medicines, by the farmer and the veterinarian. In the European Union, when farmers treat their own animals, they are required to follow the guidelines for treatment and to record the treatments given.[31]

Animals are susceptible to a number of diseases and conditions that may affect their health. Some, like classical swine fever[32] and scrapie[33] are specific to one type of stock, while others, like foot-and-mouth disease affect all cloven-footed animals.[34] Where the condition is serious, governments impose regulations on import and export, on the movement of stock, quarantine restrictions and the reporting of suspected cases. Vaccines are available against certain diseases, and antibiotics are widely used where appropriate. At one time, antibiotics were routinely added to certain compound foodstuffs to promote growth, but this practice is now frowned on in many countries because of the risk that it may lead to antibiotic resistance. Animals living under intensive conditions are particularly prone to internal and external parasites; increasing numbers of sea lice are affecting farmed salmon in Scotland.[35] Reducing the parasite burdens of livestock results in increased productivity and profitability.[36]

Governments are particularly concerned with zoonoses, diseases that humans may acquire from animals. Wild animal populations may harbour diseases that can affect domestic animals which may acquire them as a result of insufficient biosecurity measures being in place. An outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia in 1999 was traced back to pigs becoming ill after contact with fruit-eating flying foxes, their faeces and urine. The pigs in turn passed the infection to humans.[37] Avian flu H5N1 is present in wild bird populations and can be carried large distances by migrating birds. This virus is easily transmissible to domestic poultry, and potentially to humans living in close proximity with them. Other infectious diseases affecting wild animals, farm animals and humans include rabies, leptospirosis, brucellosis, tuberculosis and trichinosis.[38]

 
Familiar livestock: ink and watercolour drawing of a farmyard with cow, horse, pigs, and chickens, 1869

Range of speciesEdit

There is no single universally agreed definition of which species are livestock. Widely agreed types of livestock include cattle for beef and dairy, sheep, goats, pigs, and poultry. Various other species are sometimes considered livestock, such as horses, while poultry birds are sometimes excluded. In some parts of the world, livestock includes species such as buffalo, and the South American camelids, the alpaca and llama.[39][40][41] Some authorities use much broader definitions to include fish in aquaculture, micro-livestock such as rabbits and guinea pigs, as well as insects from honey bees to crickets raised for human consumption.[42]

ProductsEdit

 
Shearing a Merino sheep for its wool

Animals are raised for a wide variety of products, principally meat, wool, milk, and eggs, but also including tallow, isinglass and rennet.[43][44] Animals are also kept for more specialised purposes, such as to produce vaccines[45] and antiserum (containing antibodies) for medical use.[46] Where fodder or other crops are grown alongside animals, manure can serve as a fertiliser, returning minerals and organic matter to the soil in a semi-closed organic system.[47]

BranchesEdit

DairyEdit

 
A modern rotary milking parlour, Germany

Although all mammals produce milk to nourish their young, the cow is predominantly used throughout the world to produce milk and milk products for human consumption. Other animals used to a lesser extent for this purpose include sheep, goats, camels, buffaloes, yaks, reindeer, horses and donkeys.[48] All these animals have been domesticated over the centuries, being bred for such desirable characteristics as fecundity, productivity, docility and the ability to thrive under the prevailing conditions. Whereas in the past, cattle had multiple functions, modern dairy cow breeding has resulted in specialised Holstein Friesian-type animals that produce large quantities of milk economically. Artificial insemination is widely available to allow farmers to select for the particular traits that suit their circumstances.[49]

In many communities, milk production is only part of the purpose of keeping an animal which may also be used as a beast of burden or to draw a plough, or for the production of fibre, meat and leather, with the dung being used for fuel or for the improvement of soil fertility. Sheep and goats may be favoured for dairy production in climates and conditions that do not suit dairy cows.[48]

MeatEdit

 
The Hereford is a hardy breed of beef cattle, now raised in many countries around the world.

Meat, mainly from farmed animals, is a major source of dietary protein around the world, averaging about 8% of man's energy intake. The actual types eaten depend on local preferences, availability, cost and other factors, with cattle, sheep, pigs and goats being the main species involved. Cattle generally produce a single offspring annually which takes more than a year to mature; sheep and goats often have twins and these are ready for slaughter in less than a year; pigs are more prolific, producing more than one litter of up to about 11[50] piglets each year.[51] Horses, donkeys, deer, buffalo, llamas, alpacas, guanacos and vicunas are farmed for meat in various regions. Some desirable traits of animals raised for meat include fecundity, hardiness, fast growth rate, ease of management and high food conversion efficiency. About half of the world's meat is produced from animals grazing on open ranges or on enclosed pastures, the other half being produced intensively in various factory-farming systems; these are mostly cows, pigs or poultry, and often reared indoors, typically at high densities.[52]

PoultryEdit

 
Battery hens, Brazil

Poultry, kept for their eggs and for their meat, include chickens, turkeys, geese and ducks. The great majority of laying birds used for egg production are chickens. Methods for keeping layers range from free-range systems, where the birds can roam as they will but are housed at night for their own protection, through semi-intensive systems where they are housed in barns and have perches, litter and some freedom of movement, to intensive systems where they are kept in cages. The battery cages are arranged in long rows in multiple tiers, with external feeders, drinkers, and egg collection facilities. This is the most labour saving and economical method of egg production but has been criticised on animal welfare grounds as the birds are unable to exhibit their normal behaviours.[53]

In the developed world, the majority of the poultry reared for meat, is raised indoors in big sheds, with automated equipment under environmentally controlled conditions. Chickens raised in this way are known as broilers, and genetic improvements have meant that they can be grown to slaughter weight within six or seven weeks of hatching. Newly hatched chicks are restricted to a small area and given supplementary heating. Litter on the floor absorbs the droppings and the area occupied is expanded as they grow. Feed and water is supplied automatically and the lighting is controlled. The birds may be harvested on several occasions or the whole shed may be cleared at one time.[54] A similar rearing system is usually used for turkeys, which are less hardy than chickens, but they take longer to grow and are often moved on to separate fattening units to finish.[55] Ducks are particularly popular in Asia and Australia and can be killed at seven weeks under commercial conditions.[56]

AquacultureEdit

 
Freshwater fish farming, France

Aquaculture has been defined as "the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants and implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated."[57] In practice it can take place in the sea or in freshwater, and be extensive or intensive. Whole bays, lakes or ponds may be devoted to aquaculture, or the farmed animal may be retained in cages (fish), artificial reefs, racks or strings (shellfish). Fish and prawns can be cultivated in rice paddy, either arriving naturally or being introduced, and both crops can be harvested together.[58]

Fish hatcheries provide larval and juvenile fish, crustaceans and shellfish, for use in aquaculture systems. When large enough these are transferred to growing-on tanks and sold to fish farms to reach harvest size. Some species that are commonly raised in hatcheries include shrimps, prawns, salmon, tilapia, oysters and scallops. Similar facilities can be used to raise species with conservation needs to be released into the wild, or game fish for restocking waterways. Important aspects of husbandry at these early stages include selection of breeding stock, control of water quality and nutrition. In the wild, there is a massive amount of mortality at the nursery stage, and farmers will seek to minimise this while at the same time maximising growth rates.[59]

InsectsEdit

 
Crickets being raised for human consumption, Thailand

Bees have been kept in hives since at least the First Dynasty of Egypt, five thousand years ago,[60] and man had been harvesting honey from the wild long before that. Fixed comb hives are used in many parts of the world and are made from any locally available material.[61] In more advanced economies, where modern strains of domestic bee have been selected for docility and productiveness, various designs of hive are used which enable the combs to be removed for processing and extraction of honey. Quite apart from the honey and wax they produce, honey bees are important pollinators of crops and wild plants, and in many places hives are transported around the countryside to assist in pollination.[62]

Sericulture, the rearing of silkworms, was first adopted by the Chinese during the Shang dynasty.[63] The only species farmed commercially is the domesticated silkmoth. When it spins its cocoon, each larva produces an exceedingly long, slender thread of silk. The larvae feed on mulberry leaves and in Europe, only one generation is normally raised each year as this is a deciduous tree. In China, Korea and Japan however, two generations are normal, and in the tropics, multiple generations are expected. Most production of silk occurs in the Far East, with a synthetic diet being used to rear the silkworms in Japan.[64]

Insects form part of the human diet in some cultures, and in Thailand, crickets are farmed for this purpose in the north of the country and palm weevil larvae in the south. The crickets are kept in pens, boxes or drawers and fed on commercial pelleted poultry food, and the palm weevil larvae live on cabbage palm and sago palm trees, which limits their production to areas where these trees grow.[65] Another delicacy of this region is the bamboo caterpillar, and the best rearing and harvesting techniques in semi-natural habitats are being studied.[65]

EffectsEdit

Environmental impactEdit

 
Livestock production requires large areas of land.

Animal husbandry is responsible for 20%-33% of all fresh water consumption in the world today.[66][67][68][69] Livestock, and the production of feed for them, occupy about a third of the earth's ice-free land.[70] Livestock production is a leading cause of species extinction, desertification,[71][72][73][74][75] ocean dead zones,[76][77][78][79] water pollution,[80] and habitat destruction.[81] Animal agriculture contributes to species extinction in various ways. Habitat is destroyed by clearing forests and converting land to grow feed crops and for animal grazing, while predators and herbivores are frequently targeted and hunted because of a perceived threat to livestock profits; for example, animal husbandry is responsible for up to 91% of the deforestation in the Amazon region.[82][83] The widespread use of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers used in the production of feed crops often interferes with the reproductive systems of animals and pollute waterways.[84][85][86][87] Livestock and their byproducts account for at least 32 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year, or 51% of all worldwide greenhouse gas emissions, contributing substantially to climate change.[88][89][90][91] In addition, cows produce some 570 million cubic metres of methane per day.[92] Livestock is responsible for 65% of all human-related emissions of the powerful and long-lived greenhouse gas nitrous oxide.[93] Since animal husbandry causes the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, it is being studied to identify ways to mitigate its environmental impact. Strategies include using biogas from manure.[94]

Animal welfareEdit

Since the 18th century, people have become increasingly concerned about the welfare of farm animals. Possible measures of welfare include longevity, behavior, physiology, reproduction, freedom from disease, and freedom from immunosuppression. Standards and laws for animal welfare have been created worldwide, broadly in line with the most widely held position in the western world, a form of utilitarianism: that it is morally acceptable for humans to use non-human animals, provided that no unnecessary suffering is caused, and that the benefits to humans outweigh the costs to the livestock. An opposing view is that animals have rights, should not be regarded as property, and should never be used by humans.[95][96][97][98][99]

In cultureEdit

 
Opening of the budget; - or - John Bull giving his breeches to save his bacon[a] by James Gillray (d. 1815)

Since the 18th century, the farmer John Bull has represented Englishness, first in John Arbuthnot's political satires, and soon afterwards in cartoons by James Gillray and others including John Tenniel. He likes food, beer, dogs, horses, and country sports; he is practical and down to earth, and anti-intellectual.[100]

Farm animals are widespread in books and songs for children, though these often depict a rural idyll of happy animals in attractive countryside, glossing over the realities of farm life such as intensive indoor rearing and slaughter. For example, pigs appear in several of Beatrix Potter's "little books", as Piglet in A. A. Milne's Winnie the Pooh stories, and somewhat more darkly (with a hint of animals going to slaughter) as Babe in Dick King-Smith's The Sheep-Pig, and as Wilbur in Charlotte's Web.[101] The children's song "Old MacDonald Had a Farm" describes a farmer named MacDonald and the various animals he keeps, celebrating the noises they each make.[102]

Many urban children experience animal husbandry for the first time at a petting farm; in Britain, some five million people a year visit a farm of some kind. This presents some risk of infection, especially if children handle animals and then fail to wash their hands; a strain of E. coli infected 93 people who had visited an interactive farm in an outbreak in 2009.[103] Historic farms offer farmstays and "a carefully curated version of farming to those willing to pay for it",[104] sometimes giving visitors a romanticised image of a pastoral ideal from an unspecified time in the pre-industrial past.[104]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Both the name Bull and the reference to bacon indicate the archetypal livestock farmer.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Jarman, M.R.; Clark, Grahame; Grigson, Caroline; Uerpmann, H.P.; Ryder, M.L. (1976). "Early Animal Husbandry". The Royal Society. 275 (936): 85–97. doi:10.1098/rstb.1976.0072. 
  2. ^ a b c Webster, John (2013). Animal Husbandry Regained: The Place of Farm Animals in Sustainable Agriculture. Routledge. pp. 4–10. ISBN 978-1-84971-420-4. 
  3. ^ Clutton-Brock, Juliet (1999). A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-521-63495-3. 
  4. ^ Nelson, Sarah M. (1998). Ancestors for the Pigs. Pigs in prehistory. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. 
  5. ^ Ensminger, M.E.; Parker, R.O. (1986). Sheep and Goat Science (Fifth ed.). Interstate Printers and Publishers. ISBN 0-8134-2464-X. 
  6. ^ McTavish, E.J., Decker, J.E., Schnabel, R.D., Taylor, J.F. and Hillis, D.M. (2013). "New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110: 1398–406. doi:10.1073/pnas.1303367110. PMC 3625352 . PMID 23530234. 
  7. ^ Gupta, Anil K. in Origin of agriculture and domestication of plants and animals linked to early Holocene climate amelioration, Current Science, Vol. 87, No. 1, 10 July 2004 59. Indian Academy of Sciences.
  8. ^ Sapir-Hen, Lidar; Erez Ben-Yosef (2013). "The Introduction of Domestic Camels to the Southern Levant: Evidence from the Aravah Valley" (PDF). Tel Aviv. 40: 277–285. doi:10.1179/033443513x13753505864089. 
  9. ^ Manuelian, Peter der (1998). Egypt: The World of the Pharaohs. Cologne, Germany: Könemann. p. 381. ISBN 3-89508-913-3. 
  10. ^ Nicholson, Paul T. (2000). Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 409. ISBN 0-521-45257-0. 
  11. ^ Clutton-Brock, Juliet (1981). Domesticated animals from early times. Heinemann. p. 145. 
  12. ^ O'Connor, Terry (30 September 2014). "Livestock and animal husbandry in early medieval England". Quaternary International. 346: 109–118. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2013.09.019. 
  13. ^ "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle". Translated by Giles, J. A.; Ingram, J. Project Gutenberg. 1996. 
  14. ^ "Interpreting Domesday". The National Archives. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  15. ^ "Robert Bakewell (1725–1795)". BBC History. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  16. ^ "English Longhorn". The Cattle Site. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  17. ^ Pykala, Juha (2000). "Mitigating Human Effects of European Biodiversity Through Traditional Animal Husbandry". Conservation Biology. 14 (3): 705–712. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.99119.x. 
  18. ^ Starrs, Paul F. (2000). Let the Cowboy Ride: Cattle Ranching in the American West. JHU Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-8018-6351-6. 
  19. ^ Levinson, David; Christensen, Karen (2003). Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World. Sage. p. 1139. ISBN 978-0-7619-2598-9. 
  20. ^ Rebanks, James (2015). The Shepherd's Life. Penguin: Random House. p. 286. ISBN 978-0141-97936-6. 
  21. ^ Silbergeld, Ellen K; Graham, Jay; Price, Lance B (2008). "Industrial food animal production, antimicrobial resistance, and human health". Annual Review of Public Health. 29: 151–169. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090904. 
  22. ^ Meyer, Vernon M.; Driggers, L. Bynum; Ernest, Kenneth; Ernest, Debra. "Swine Growing-Finishing Units" (PDF). Pork Industry handbook. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved 17 May 2017. 
  23. ^ Blount, W.P. (2013). Intensive Livestock Farming. Elsevier. pp. 360–362. ISBN 978-1-4831-9565-0. 
  24. ^ Dryden, Gordon McL. (2008). Animal Nutrition Science. CABI. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-1-78064-056-3. 
  25. ^ Attenborough, David (1984). The Living Planet. British Broadcasting Corporation . pp. 113–114. ISBN 0-563-20207-6. 
  26. ^ United States. Agricultural Research Service. Animal Husbandry Research Division (1959). Hay crop silage. 
  27. ^ Jianxin, Liu; Jun, Guo. "Ensiling crop residues". Animal production based on crop residues. FAO. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  28. ^ Dryden, Gordon McL. (2008). Animal Nutrition Science. CABI. pp. 16–19. ISBN 978-1-84593-412-5. 
  29. ^ a b "What farm animals eat". Food Standards Agency. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  30. ^ a b c Turner, Jacky (2010). Animal Breeding, Welfare and Society. Routledge. p. Introduction. ISBN 978-1-136-54187-2. 
  31. ^ "Farmers". European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals. 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  32. ^ "Classical swine fever" (PDF). The Center for Food Security and Public Health. October 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  33. ^ "Scrapie Fact Sheet". National Institute for Animal Agriculture. 2001. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  34. ^ "Foot-and-mouth". The Cattle Site. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  35. ^ Fraser, Douglas (14 February 2017). "Scottish salmon farming's sea lice 'crisis'". BBC. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  36. ^ "Parasite control". Animal Health Ireland. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  37. ^ Chua, K.B.; Chua, B.H.; Wang, C.W. (2002). "Anthropogenic deforestation, El Niño and the emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia". The Malaysian Journal of Pathology. 24 (1): 15–21. PMID 16329551. 
  38. ^ Norrgren, Leif; Levengood, Jeffrey M. (2012). Ecology and Animal Health. Baltic University Press. pp. 103–104. ISBN 978-91-86189-12-9. 
  39. ^ Ferguson, W.; Ademosun, A. A.; von Kaufmann, R.; Hoste, C.; Rains, A. Blair. "5. Livestock resources and management". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 
  40. ^ "Livestock Species". Texas A&M University Department of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 
  41. ^ Steinfeld, H.; Mäki-Hokkonen, J. "A classification of livestock production systems". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 
  42. ^ Myers, Melvin L. "Chapter 70 - Livestock Rearing". Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 
  43. ^ Unklesbay, Nan (1992). World Food and You. Routledge. pp. 179ff. 
  44. ^ Walling, Philip (2014). Counting Sheep: A Celebration of the Pastoral Heritage of Britain. Profile Books. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-84765-803-6. 
  45. ^ Bae, K.; Choi, J.; Jang, Y.; Ahn, S.; Hur, B. (2009). "Innovative vaccine production technologies: the evolution and value of vaccine production technologies". Arch Pharm Res. 32 (4): 465–80. doi:10.1007/s12272-009-1400-1. PMID 19407962. 
  46. ^ Leenaars, Marlies; Hendriksen, Coenraad F. M. (2005). "Critical Steps in the Production of Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies: Evaluation and Recommendations". ILAR Journal. 46 (3): 269–279. doi:10.1093/ilar.46.3.269. 
  47. ^ Godinho, Denise. "Animal Husbandry in Organic Agriculture". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 25 May 2017. 
  48. ^ a b "Dairy animals". Dairy production and products. FAO. Retrieved 23 May 2017. 
  49. ^ "Breeding". Dairy production and products. FAO. Retrieved 23 May 2017. 
  50. ^ Aherne, Frank; Kirkwood, Roy (16 February 2001). "Factors Affecting Litter Size". The Pig Site. 
  51. ^ Gregory, Neville G.; Grandin, Temple (2007). Animal Welfare and Meat Production. CABI. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-1-84593-216-9. 
  52. ^ Miller, G. Tyler; Spoolman, Scott (2014). Sustaining the Earth. Cengage Learning. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-285-76949-3. 
  53. ^ "About egg laying hens". Compassion in World Farming. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  54. ^ "Growing meat chickens". Australian Chicken Meat Federation Inc. 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  55. ^ Sherwin, C.M., (2010). Turkeys: Behavior, Management and Well-Being. In "The Encyclopaedia of Animal Science". Wilson G. Pond and Alan W. Bell (Eds). Marcel Dekker. pp. 847-849
  56. ^ "Duck". Poultry Hub. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  57. ^ "Global Aquaculture Production". Fishery Statistical Collections. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  58. ^ "Fish culture in rice fields". Fishery Statistical Collections. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  59. ^ Mosig, John; Fallu, Ric (2004). Australian Fish Farmer: A Practical Guide to Aquaculture. Landlinks Press. pp. 25–28. ISBN 978-0-643-06865-0. 
  60. ^ "Ancient Egypt: Bee-keeping". Reshafim.org.il. 6 June 2003. Retrieved 22 May 2017. 
  61. ^ "Fixed combs". Bees for Development. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2017. 
  62. ^ Jabr, Ferris (1 September 2013). "The Mind-Boggling Math of Migratory Beekeeping". Scientific American. Retrieved 22 May 2017. 
  63. ^ Barber, E.J.W. (1992). Prehistoric textiles: the development of cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with special reference to the Aegean. Princeton University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-691-00224-8. 
  64. ^ Hill, Dennis S. (2012). The Economic Importance of Insects. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-94-011-5348-5. 
  65. ^ a b Six-legged Livestock: Edible insect farming, collection and marketing in Thailand (PDF). Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2013. ISBN 978-92-5-107578-4. 
  66. ^ Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Arjen Y. Hoekstra (2012). "A Global Assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products" (PDF). Water Footprint Network. 
  67. ^ "The water footprint of poultry, pork and beef: A comparative study in different countries and production systems". Water Resources and Industry. Science Direct. 1–2: 25–36. doi:10.1016/j.wri.2013.03.001. 
  68. ^ "Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems". US National Academy of Sciences. 
  69. ^ "Freshwater Abuse and Loss: Where Is It All Going?". Forks Over Knives. 
  70. ^ "Livestock a major threat to environment". Food and Agriculture Organizations of the United Nations. 
  71. ^ "UN launches international year of deserts and desertification". UN news centre. 2006. 
  72. ^ "Desertification". UWC. 
  73. ^ "Overgrazing". The Encyclopedia of Earth. 
  74. ^ "Desertification, Drought Affect One Third of Planet, World's Poorest People, Second Committee Told as It Continues Debate on Sustainable Development". UN. 
  75. ^ "Saving the World With Livestock? The Allan Savory Approach Examined". Free From Harm. 
  76. ^ "what is a dead zone". NOAA. 
  77. ^ "What Causes Ocean "Dead Zones"?". Scientific American. 
  78. ^ "Press Release" (PDF). Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium. 2014. 
  79. ^ "NOAA-, EPA-supported scientists find average but large Gulf dead zone". NOAA News. 2014. 
  80. ^ "Risk Assessment Evaluation for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Research and Development. 2004. 
  81. ^ "Unit 9: Biodiversity Decline // Section 7: Habitat Loss: Causes and Consequences". Annenberg Learner. 
  82. ^ "Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon" (PDF). World Bank. 
  83. ^ Margulis, Sergio (2003). "Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Rainforest". Washington: World Bank Publications. 
  84. ^ "Livestock impacts on the environment". FAO. Archived from the original on August 28, 2015. 
  85. ^ "Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2006. 
  86. ^ "The Causes of Extinction". The Encyclopedia of Earth. 
  87. ^ "Biodiversity conservation: The key is reducing meat consumption". Science of The Total Environment. Science Direct. 536: 419–431. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.022. 
  88. ^ Goodland, Robert; Jeff Anhang (2009). "Livestock and Climate Change: What if the key actors in climate change were pigs, chickens and cows?". Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC: 10–19. 
  89. ^ "'comment to editor' Goodland, Anhang". Animal Feed Science and Technology. 
  90. ^ "Study claims meat creates half of all greenhouse gases". The Independent. 2009. 
  91. ^ "What's the Problem?". United States Environmental Protection Agency. 
  92. ^ Ross, Philip (2013). "Cow farts have 'larger greenhouse gas impact' than previously thought; methane pushes climate change". International Business Times. 
  93. ^ "Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2006. 
  94. ^ Monteny, Gert-Jan; Andre Bannink; David Chadwick (2006). "Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategies for Animal Husbandry, Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment". Agriculutre, Ecosystems, and Environment. 112 (2–3): 163–170. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2005.08.015. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  95. ^ Grandin, Temple (2013). "Animals are not things: A view on animal welfare based on neurological complexity" (PDF). Trans-Scripts 3: An Interdisciplinary Online Journal in Humanities And Social Sciences at UC Irvine. 
  96. ^ Hewson, C.J. (2003). "What is animal welfare? Common definitions and their practical consequences". The Canadian Veterinary Journal. 44 (6): 496–99. PMC 340178 . PMID 12839246. 
  97. ^ Broom, D.M. (1991). "Animal welfare: concepts and measurement". Journal of Animal Science. 69 (10): 4167–75. PMID 1778832. 
  98. ^ Garner, R. (2005). Animal Ethics. Polity Press. 
  99. ^ Regan, T. (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. University of California Press. 
  100. ^ Johnson, Ben. "John Bull". Historic UK. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  101. ^ "Livestock in literature". Compassion in World Farming. 1 October 2015. 
  102. ^ Waltz, Robert B.; Engle, David G. (2016). "Old MacDonald Had a Farm". The Traditional Ballad Index. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  103. ^ Laurance, Jeremy (15 June 2010). "Children's Petting Farms Face Tough New Rules". The Independent. 
  104. ^ a b Searle, Sarah (30 June 2014). "Stop Romanticizing Farms". Modern Farmer. 

SourcesEdit

  • Saltini, Antonio. Storia delle scienze agrarie, 4 vols, Bologna 1984-89, ISBN 88-206-2412-5, ISBN 88-206-2413-3, ISBN 88-206-2414-1, ISBN 88-206-2415-X
  • Clutton Brock, Juliet. The walking larder. Patterns of domestication, pastoralism and predation, Unwin Hyman, London 1988
  • Clutton Brock, Juliet. Horse power: a history of the horse and donkey in human societies, National history Museum publications, London 1992
  • Fleming, George; Guzzoni, M. Storia cronologica delle epizoozie dal 1409 av. Cristo sino al 1800, in Gazzetta medico-veterinaria, I-II, Milano 1871-72
  • Hall, S; Clutton Brock, Juliet. Two hundred years of British farm livestock, Natural History Museum Publications, London 1988
  • Janick, Jules; Noller, Carl H.; Rhyker, Charles L. The Cycles of Plant and Animal Nutrition, in Food and Agriculture, Scientific American Books, San Francisco 1976
  • Manger, Louis N. A History of the Life Sciences, M. Dekker, New York, Basel 2002

External linksEdit