A zoonosis (/ /,; plural zoonoses) or zoonotic disease is an infectious disease of humans caused by a pathogen (an infectious agent, such as a bacterium, virus, parasite or prion) that can jump from a non-human (usually a vertebrate) to a human and vice versa.
Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans in the early part of the 20th century, though it has now evolved into a separate human-only disease. Most strains of influenza that infect humans are human diseases, although many strains of bird flu and swine flu are zoonoses; these viruses occasionally recombine with human strains of the flu and can cause pandemics such as the 1918 Spanish flu or the 2009 swine flu. Taenia solium infection is one of the neglected tropical diseases with public health and veterinary concern in endemic regions. Zoonoses can be caused by a range of disease pathogens such as emergent viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites; of 1,415 pathogens known to infect humans, 61% were zoonotic. Most human diseases originated in non-humans; however, only diseases that routinely involve non-human to human transmission, such as rabies, are considered direct zoonoses.
Zoonoses have different modes of transmission. In direct zoonosis the disease is directly transmitted from non-humans to humans through media such as air (influenza) or through bites and saliva (rabies). In contrast, transmission can also occur via an intermediate species (referred to as a vector), which carry the disease pathogen without getting sick. When humans infect non-humans, it is called reverse zoonosis or anthroponosis. The term is from Greek: ζῷον zoon "animal" and νόσος nosos "sickness".
Host genetics plays an important role in determining which non-human viruses will be able to make copies of themselves in the human body. Dangerous non-human viruses are those that require few mutations to begin replicating themselves in human cells. These viruses are dangerous since the required combinations of mutations might randomly arise in the natural reservoir.
The emergence of zoonotic diseases originated with the domestication of animals. Zoonotic transmission can occur in any context in which there is contact with or consumption of animals, animal products, or animal derivatives. This can occur in a companionistic (pets), economic (farming, trade, butchering, etc.), predatory (hunting, butchering or consuming wild game) or research context.
Recently, there has been a rise in frequency of appearance of new zoonotic diseases. "Approximately 1.67 million undescribed viruses are thought to exist in mammals and birds, up to half of which are estimated to have the potential to spill over into humans", says a study led by researchers at the University of California, Davis. According to a report from the United Nations Environment Programme and International Livestock Research Institute a large part of the causes are environmental like climate change, unsustainable agriculture, exploitation of wildlife, land use change. Others are linked to changes in human society like more mobility. The organizations propose a set of measures to stop the rise.
Contamination of food or water supply Edit
In 2006 a conference held in Berlin focused on the issue of zoonotic pathogen effects on food safety, urging government intervention and public vigilance against the risks of catching food-borne diseases from farm-to-table dining.
Many food-borne outbreaks can be linked to zoonotic pathogens. Many different types of food that have an animal origin can become contaminated. Some common food items linked to zoonotic contaminations include eggs, seafood, meat, dairy, and even some vegetables.
Outbreaks involving contaminated food should be handled in preparedness plans to prevent widespread outbreaks and to efficiently and effectively contain outbreaks.
Farming, ranching and animal husbandry Edit
Contact with farm animals can lead to disease in farmers or others that come into contact with infected farm animals. Glanders primarily affects those who work closely with horses and donkeys. Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous anthrax infection, whereas inhalation anthrax infection is more common for workers in slaughterhouses, tanneries and wool mills. Close contact with sheep who have recently given birth can lead to infection with the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci, causing chlamydiosis (and enzootic abortion in pregnant women), as well as increase the risk of Q fever, toxoplasmosis, and listeriosis, in the pregnant or otherwise immunocompromised. Echinococcosis is caused by a tapeworm, which can spread from infected sheep by food or water contaminated by feces or wool. Bird flu is common in chickens and, while rare in humans, the main public health worry is that a strain of bird flu will recombine with a human flu virus and cause a pandemic like the 1918 Spanish flu. In 2017, free-range chickens in the UK were temporarily ordered to remain inside due to the threat of bird flu. Cattle are an important reservoir of cryptosporidiosis, which mainly affects the immunocompromised. Reports have shown mink can also become infected. In Western countries, Hepatitis E burden is largely dependent on exposure to animal products, and pork is a significant source of infection, in this respect.
Veterinarians are exposed to unique occupational hazards when it comes to zoonotic disease. In the US, studies have highlighted an increased risk of injuries and lack of veterinary awareness of these hazards. Research has proved the importance for continued clinical veterinarian education on occupational risks associated with musculoskeletal injuries, animal bites, needle-sticks, and cuts.
A July 2020 report by the United Nations Environment Programme stated that the increase in zoonotic pandemics is directly attributable to anthropogenic destruction of nature and the increased global demand for meat, and that the industrial farming of pigs and chickens in particular will be a primary risk factor for the spillover of zoonotic diseases in the future. Habitat loss of viral reservoir species has been identified as a significant source in at least one spillover event.
Wildlife trade or animal attacks Edit
The wildlife trade may increase spillover risk because it directly increases the number of interactions across animal species, sometimes in small spaces. The origin of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is traced to the wet markets in China.
Insect vectors Edit
- African sleeping sickness
- Eastern equine encephalitis
- Japanese encephalitis
- Saint Louis encephalitis
- Scrub typhus
- Venezuelan equine encephalitis
- West Nile fever
- Western equine encephalitis
- Zika fever
Pets can transmit a number of diseases. Dogs and cats are routinely vaccinated against rabies. Pets can also transmit ringworm and Giardia, which are endemic in both animal and human populations. Toxoplasmosis is a common infection of cats; in humans it is a mild disease although it can be dangerous to pregnant women. Dirofilariasis is caused by Dirofilaria immitis through mosquitoes infected by mammals like dogs and cats. Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana, which are transmitted by fleas that are endemic to cats. Toxocariasis is the infection of humans by any of species of roundworm, including species specific to dogs (Toxocara canis) or cats (Toxocara cati). Cryptosporidiosis can be spread to humans from pet lizards, such as the leopard gecko. Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidial parasite carried by many mammals, including rabbits, and is an important opportunistic pathogen in people immunocompromised by HIV/AIDS, organ transplantation, or CD4+ T-lymphocyte deficiency.
Pets may also serve as a reservoir of viral disease and contribute to the chronic presence of certain viral diseases in the human population. For instance, approximately 20% of domestic dogs, cats and horses carry anti-Hepatitis E virus antibodies and thus these animals probably contribute to human Hepatitis E burden as well. For non-vulnerable populations (people who are not immunocompromised) the associated disease burden is, however, small.
Outbreaks of zoonoses have been traced to human interaction with, and exposure to, other animals at fairs, live animal markets, petting zoos, and other settings. In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued an updated list of recommendations for preventing zoonosis transmission in public settings. The recommendations, developed in conjunction with the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, include educational responsibilities of venue operators, limiting public animal contact, and animal care and management.
Hunting and bushmeat Edit
Deforestation, biodiversity loss and environmental degradation Edit
Kate Jones, Chair of Ecology and Biodiversity at University College London, says zoonotic diseases are increasingly linked to environmental change and human behaviour. The disruption of pristine forests driven by logging, mining, road building through remote places, rapid urbanisation and population growth is bringing people into closer contact with animal species they may never have been near before. The resulting transmission of disease from wildlife to humans, she says, is now "a hidden cost of human economic development". In a guest article, published by IPBES, President of the EcoHealth Alliance and zoologist Peter Daszak, along with three co-chairs of the 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Josef Settele, Sandra Díaz, and Eduardo Brondizio, wrote that "rampant deforestation, uncontrolled expansion of agriculture, intensive farming, mining and infrastructure development, as well as the exploitation of wild species have created a 'perfect storm' for the spillover of diseases from wildlife to people."
Joshua Moon, Clare Wenham and Sophie Harman said that there is evidence that decreased biodiversity has an effect on the diversity of hosts and frequency of human-animal interactions with potential for pathogenic spillover.
An April 2020 study, published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society's Part B journal, found that increased virus spillover events from animals to humans can be linked to biodiversity loss and environmental degradation, as humans further encroach on wildlands to engage in agriculture, hunting and resource extraction they become exposed to pathogens which normally would remain in these areas. Such spillover events have been tripling every decade since 1980. An August 2020 study, published in Nature, concludes that the anthropogenic destruction of ecosystems for the purpose of expanding agriculture and human settlements reduces biodiversity and allows for smaller animals such as bats and rats, who are more adaptable to human pressures and also carry the most zoonotic diseases, to proliferate. This in turn can result in more pandemics.
In October 2020, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services published its report on the 'era of pandemics' by 22 experts in a variety of fields, and concluded that anthropogenic destruction of biodiversity is paving the way to the pandemic era, and could result in as many as 850,000 viruses being transmitted from animals – in particular birds and mammals – to humans. The increased pressure on ecosystems is being driven by the "exponential rise" in consumption and trade of commodities such as meat, palm oil, and metals, largely facilitated by developed nations, and by a growing human population. According to Peter Daszak, the chair of the group who produced the report, "there is no great mystery about the cause of the Covid-19 pandemic, or of any modern pandemic. The same human activities that drive climate change and biodiversity loss also drive pandemic risk through their impacts on our environment."
Climate change Edit
According to a report from the United Nations Environment Programme and International Livestock Research Institute, entitled "Preventing the next pandemic – Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission", climate change is one of the 7 human-related causes of the increase in the number of zoonotic diseases. The University of Sydney issued a study, in March 2021, that examines factors increasing the likelihood of epidemics and pandemics like the COVID-19 pandemic. The researchers found that "pressure on ecosystems, climate change and economic development are key factors" in doing so. More zoonotic diseases were found in high-income countries.
In 2022, a study dedicated to the link between climate change and Zoonosis was published. The study found a strong link between climate change and the epidemic emergence in the last 15 years, as it caused a massive migration of species to new areas, and consequently contact between species which do not normally come in contact with one another. Even in a scenario with weak climatic changes, there will be 15,000 spillover of viruses to new hosts in the next decades. The areas with the most possibilities for spillover are the mountainous tropical regions of Africa and southeast Asia. Southeast Asia is especially vulnerable as it has a large number of bat species that generally do not mix, but could easily if climate change forced them to begin migrating.
A 2021 study found possible links between climate change and transmission of COVID-19 through bats. The authors suggest that climate-driven changes in the distribution and robustness of bat species harboring coronaviruses may have occurred in eastern Asian hotspots (southern China, Myanmar and Laos), constituting a driver behind the evolution and spread of the virus.
Secondary transmission Edit
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2020)
During most of human prehistory groups of hunter-gatherers were probably very small. Such groups probably made contact with other such bands only rarely. Such isolation would have caused epidemic diseases to be restricted to any given local population, because propagation and expansion of epidemics depend on frequent contact with other individuals who have not yet developed an adequate immune response. To persist in such a population, a pathogen either had to be a chronic infection, staying present and potentially infectious in the infected host for long periods, or it had to have other additional species as reservoir where it can maintain itself until further susceptible hosts are contacted and infected. In fact, for many "human" diseases, the human is actually better viewed as an accidental or incidental victim and a dead-end host. Examples include rabies, anthrax, tularemia and West Nile virus. Thus, much of human exposure to infectious disease has been zoonotic.
Many diseases, even epidemic ones, have zoonotic origin and measles, smallpox, influenza, HIV, and diphtheria are particular examples. Various forms of the common cold and tuberculosis also are adaptations of strains originating in other species. Some experts have suggested that all human viral infections were originally zoonotic.
Zoonoses are of interest because they are often previously unrecognized diseases or have increased virulence in populations lacking immunity. The West Nile virus first appeared in the United States in 1999, in the New York City area. Bubonic plague is a zoonotic disease, as are salmonellosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease.
A major factor contributing to the appearance of new zoonotic pathogens in human populations is increased contact between humans and wildlife. This can be caused either by encroachment of human activity into wilderness areas or by movement of wild animals into areas of human activity. An example of this is the outbreak of Nipah virus in peninsular Malaysia, in 1999, when intensive pig farming began within the habitat of infected fruit bats. The unidentified infection of these pigs amplified the force of infection, transmitting the virus to farmers, and eventually causing 105 human deaths.
Similarly, in recent times avian influenza and West Nile virus have spilled over into human populations probably due to interactions between the carrier host and domestic animals. Highly mobile animals, such as bats and birds, may present a greater risk of zoonotic transmission than other animals due to the ease with which they can move into areas of human habitation.
Because they depend on the human host for part of their life-cycle, diseases such as African schistosomiasis, river blindness, and elephantiasis are not defined as zoonotic, even though they may depend on transmission by insects or other vectors.
Use in vaccines Edit
The first vaccine against smallpox by Edward Jenner in 1800 was by infection of a zoonotic bovine virus which caused a disease called cowpox. Jenner had noticed that milkmaids were resistant to smallpox. Milkmaids contracted a milder version of the disease from infected cows that conferred cross immunity to the human disease. Jenner abstracted an infectious preparation of 'cowpox' and subsequently used it to inoculate persons against smallpox. As a result, smallpox has been eradicated globally, and mass vaccination against this disease ceased in 1981. There are a variety of vaccine varieties, including traditional inactivated pathogen vaccines, Subunit vaccines, live attenuated vaccines. There are also new vaccine technologies such as viral vector vaccines and DNA/RNA Vaccines, which includes the SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus vaccines.
Lists of diseases Edit
|Disease||Pathogen(s)||Animals involved||Mode of transmission||Emergence|
|African sleeping sickness||Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense||range of wild animals and domestic livestock||transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly||'present in Africa for thousands of years' – major outbreak 1900–1920, cases continue (sub-Saharan Africa, 2020)|
|Angiostrongyliasis||Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis||rats, cotton rats||consuming raw or undercooked snails, slugs, other mollusks, crustaceans, contaminated water, and unwashed vegetables contaminated with larvae|
|Anisakiasis||Anisakis||whales, dolphins, seals, sea lions, other marine animals||eating raw or undercooked fish and squid contaminated with eggs|
|Anthrax||Bacillus anthracis||commonly – grazing herbivores such as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, and pigs||by ingestion, inhalation or skin contact of spores|
|Babesiosis||Babesia spp.||mice, other animals||tick bite|
|Baylisascariasis||Baylisascaris procyonis||raccoons||ingestion of eggs in feces|
|Barmah Forest fever||Barmah Forest virus||kangaroos, wallabies, opossums||mosquito bite|
|Bird flu||Influenza A virus subtype H5N1||wild birds, domesticated birds such as chickens||close contact||2003–19 Avian Influenza in Southeast Asia and Egypt|
|Bovine spongiform encephalopathy||Prions||cattle||eating infected meat||isolated similar cases reported in ancient history; in recent UK history probable start in the 1970s|
|Brucellosis||Brucella spp.||cattle, goats, pigs, sheep||infected milk or meat||historically widespread in Mediterranean region; identified early 20th century|
|Bubonic plague, Pneumonic plague, Septicemic plague, Sylvatic plague||Yersinia pestis||rabbits, hares, rodents, ferrets, goats, sheep, camels||flea bite||Epidemics like Black Death in Europe around 1347–53 during the Late Middle Age, Third Plague Pandemic in China-Qing dynasty and India alone|
|Capillariasis||Capillaria spp.||rodents, birds, foxes||eating raw or undercooked fish, ingesting embryonated eggs in fecal-contaminated food, water, or soil|
|Cat-scratch disease||Bartonella henselae||cats||bites or scratches from infected cats|
|Chagas disease||Trypanosoma cruzi||armadillos, Triatominae (kissing bug)||Contact of mucosae or wounds with feces of kissing bugs. Accidental ingestion of parasites in food contaminated by bugs or infected mammal excretae.|
|Clamydiosis / Enzootic abortion||Chlamydophila abortus||domestic livestock, particularly sheep||close contact with postpartum ewes|
|suspected: COVID-19||Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2||suspected: bats, felines, raccoon dogs, minks. White-tailed deer||respiratory transmission||COVID-19 pandemic; 2019–present; Ongoing pandemic|
|Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease||PrPvCJD||cattle||eating meat from animals with Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)||1996–2001: United Kingdom|
|Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever||Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus||cattle, goats, sheep, birds, multimammate rats, hares||tick bite, contact with bodily fluids|
|Cryptococcosis||Cryptococcus neoformans||commonly – birds like pigeons||inhaling fungi|
|Cryptosporidiosis||Cryptosporidium spp.||cattle, dogs, cats, mice, pigs, horses, deer, sheep, goats, rabbits, leopard geckos, birds||ingesting cysts from water contaminated with feces|
|Cysticercosis and taeniasis||Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata||commonly – pigs and cattle||consuming water, soil or food contaminated with the tapeworm eggs (cysticercosis) or raw or undercooked pork contaminated with the cysticerci (taeniasis)|
|Dirofilariasis||Dirofilaria spp.||dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, cats, monkeys, raccoons, bears, muskrats, rabbits, leopards, seals, sea lions, beavers, ferrets, reptiles||mosquito bite|
|Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis||Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus||horses, donkeys, zebras, birds||mosquito bite|
|Ebola virus disease (a haemorrhagic fever)||Ebolavirus spp.||chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, fruit bats, monkeys, shrews, forest antelope and porcupines||through body fluids and organs||2013–16; possible in Africa|
|Other haemorrhagic fevers (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Dengue fever, Lassa fever, Marburg viral haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever)||Varies – commonly viruses||varies (sometimes unknown) – commonly camels, rabbits, hares, hedgehogs, cattle, sheep, goats, horses and swine||infection usually occurs through direct contact with infected animals||2019–20 dengue fever|
|Echinococcosis||Echinococcus spp.||commonly – dogs, foxes, jackals, wolves, coyotes, sheep, pigs, rodents||ingestion of infective eggs from contaminated food or water with feces of an infected definitive host|
|Fasciolosis||Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica||sheep, cattle, buffaloes||ingesting contaminated plants|
|Fasciolopsiasis||Fasciolopsis buski||pigs||eating raw vegetables such as water spinach|
|Foodborne illnesses (commonly diarrheal diseases)||Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Shigella spp. and Trichinella spp.||animals domesticated for food production (cattle, poultry)||raw or undercooked food made from animals and unwashed vegetables contaminated with feces|
|Giardiasis||Giardia lamblia||beavers, other rodents, raccoons, deer, cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats||ingesting spores and cysts in food and water contaminated with feces|
|Glanders||Burkholderia mallei.||horses, donkeys||direct contact|
|Gnathostomiasis||Gnathostoma spp.||dogs, minks, opossums, cats, lions, tigers, leopards, raccoons, poultry, other birds, frogs||raw or undercooked fish or meat|
|Hantavirus||Hantavirus spp.||deer mice, cotton rats and other rodents||exposure to feces, urine, saliva or bodily fluids|
|Henipavirus||Henipavirus spp.||horses, bats||exposure to feces, urine, saliva or contact with sick horses|
|Hepatitis E||Hepatitis E virus||domestic and wild animals||contaminated food or water|
|Histoplasmosis||Histoplasma capsulatum||birds, bats||inhaling fungi in guano|
|HIV||SIV Simian immunodeficiency virus||Non-human primates||Blood||Immunodeficiency resembling human AIDS was reported in captive monkeys in the United States beginning in 1983. SIV was isolated in 1985 from some of these animals, captive rhesus macaques who had simian AIDS (SAIDS). The discovery of SIV was made shortly after HIV-1 had been isolated as the cause of AIDS and led to the discovery of HIV-2 strains in West Africa. HIV-2 was more similar to the then-known SIV strains than to HIV-1, suggesting for the first time the simian origin of HIV. Further studies indicated that HIV-2 is derived from the SIVsmm strain found in sooty mangabeys, whereas HIV-1, the predominant virus found in humans, is derived from SIV strains infecting chimpanzees (SIVcpz)|
|Japanese encephalitis||Japanese encephalitis virus||pigs, water birds||mosquito bite|
|Kyasanur Forest disease||Kyasanur Forest disease virus||rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys||tick bite|
|La Crosse encephalitis||La Crosse virus||chipmunks, tree squirrels||mosquito bite|
|Leishmaniasis||Leishmania spp.||dogs, rodents, other animals||sandfly bite||2004 Afghanistan|
|Leprosy||Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium lepromatosis||armadillos, monkeys, rabbits, mice||direct contact, including meat consumption. However, scientists believe most infections are spread human to human.|
|Leptospirosis||Leptospira interrogans||rats, mice, pigs, horses, goats, sheep, cattle, buffaloes, opossums, raccoons, mongooses, foxes, dogs||direct or indirect contact with urine of infected animals||1616–20 New England infection: Present day in the United States)|
|Lassa fever||Lassa fever virus||rodents||exposure to rodents|
|Lyme disease||Borrelia burgdorferi||deer, wolves, dogs, birds, rodents, rabbits, hares, reptiles||tick bite|
|Lymphocytic choriomeningitis||Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus||rodents||exposure to urine, feces, or saliva|
|Melioidosis||Burkholderia pseudomallei||various animals||direct contact with contaminated soil and surface water|
|Microsporidiosis||Encephalitozoon cuniculi||Rabbits, dogs, mice, and other mammals||ingestion of spores|
|Middle East respiratory syndrome||MERS coronavirus||bats, camels||close contact||2012–present: Saudi Arabia|
|Monkeypox||Monkeypox virus||rodents, primates||contact with infected rodents, primates, or contaminated materials|
|Nipah virus infection||Nipah virus (NiV)||bats, pigs||direct contact with infected bats, infected pigs|
|Orf||Orf virus||goats, sheep||close contact|
|Powassan encephalitis||Powassan virus||ticks||tick bites|
|Psittacosis||Chlamydophila psittaci||macaws, cockatiels, budgerigars, pigeons, sparrows, ducks, hens, gulls and many other bird species||contact with bird droplets|
|Q fever||Coxiella burnetii||livestock and other domestic animals such as dogs and cats||inhalation of spores, contact with bodily fluid or faeces|
|Rabies||Rabies virus||commonly – dogs, bats, monkeys, raccoons, foxes, skunks, cattle, goats, sheep, wolves, coyotes, groundhogs, horses, mongooses and cats||through saliva by biting, or through scratches from an infected animal||Variety of places like Oceanic, South America, Europe; Year is unknown|
|Rat-bite fever||Streptobacillus moniliformis, Spirillum minus||rats, mice||bites of rats but also urine and mucus secretions|
|Rift Valley fever||Phlebovirus||livestock, buffaloes, camels||mosquito bite, contact with bodily fluids, blood, tissues, breathing around butchered animals or raw milk||2006–07 East Africa outbreak|
|Rocky Mountain spotted fever||Rickettsia rickettsii||dogs, rodents||tick bite|
|Ross River fever||Ross River virus||kangaroos, wallabies, horses, opossums, birds, flying foxes||mosquito bite|
|Saint Louis encephalitis||Saint Louis encephalitis virus||birds||mosquito bite|
|Severe acute respiratory syndrome||SARS coronavirus||bats, civets||close contact, respiratory droplets||2002–04 SARS outbreak; started in China|
|Smallpox||Variola virus||Possible Monkeys or horses||Spread to person to person quickly||The last cases was in 1977; WHO certified to Eradicated (for the world) in December 1979 or 1980.|
|Swine influenza||A new strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs (excludes H1N1 swine flu, which is a human virus).||pigs||close contact||2009–10; 2009 swine flu pandemic; The outbreak began in Mexico.|
|Taenia crassiceps infection||Taenia crassiceps||wolves, coyotes, jackals, foxes||contact with soil contaminated with feces|
|Toxocariasis||Toxocara spp.||dogs, foxes, cats||ingestion of eggs in soil, fresh or unwashed vegetables or undercooked meat|
|Toxoplasmosis||Toxoplasma gondii||cats, livestock, poultry||exposure to cat feces, organ transplantation, blood transfusion, contaminated soil, water, grass, unwashed vegetables, unpasteurized dairy products and undercooked meat|
|Trichinosis||Trichinella spp.||rodents, pigs, horses, bears, walruses, dogs, foxes, crocodiles, birds||eating undercooked meat|
|Tuberculosis||Mycobacterium bovis||infected cattle, deer, llamas, pigs, domestic cats, wild carnivores (foxes, coyotes) and omnivores (possums, mustelids and rodents)||milk, exhaled air, sputum, urine, faeces and pus from infected animals|
|Tularemia||Francisella tularensis||lagomorphs (type A), rodents (type B), birds||ticks, deer flies, and other insects including mosquitoes|
|West Nile fever||Flavivirus||birds, horses||mosquito bite|
|Zika fever||Zika virus||chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, monkeys, baboons||mosquito bite, sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and sometimes bites of monkeys||2015–16 epidemic in the Americas and Oceanic|
See also Edit
- Animal welfare#Animal welfare organizations – Well-being of non-human animals
- Conservation medicine
- Cross-species transmission – Transmission of a pathogen between different species
- Emerging infectious disease – Infectious disease of emerging pathogen, often novel in its outbreak range or transmission mode
- Foodborne illness – Illness from eating spoiled food
- Spillover infection – Occurs when a reservoir population causes an epidemic in a novel host population
- Wildlife disease – diseases in wild animals
- Veterinary medicine – Deals with the diseases of animals
- Wildlife smuggling and zoonoses – Health risks associated with the trade in exotic wildlife
- List of zoonotic primate viruses
- "zoonosis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
- WHO. "Zoonoses". Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- "A glimpse into Canada's highest containment laboratory for animal health: The National Centre for Foreign Animal Diseases". science.gc.ca. Government of Canada. 22 October 2018. Archived from the original on 20 June 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases which jump from a non-human host or reservoir into humans.
- Sharp PM, Hahn BH (September 2011). "Origins of HIV and the AIDS pandemic". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 1 (1): a006841. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a006841. PMC 3234451. PMID 22229120.
- Faria NR, Rambaut A, Suchard MA, Baele G, Bedford T, Ward MJ, et al. (October 2014). "HIV epidemiology. The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations". Science. 346 (6205): 56–61. Bibcode:2014Sci...346...56F. doi:10.1126/science.1256739. PMC 4254776. PMID 25278604.
- Marx PA, Alcabes PG, Drucker E (June 2001). "Serial human passage of simian immunodeficiency virus by unsterile injections and the emergence of epidemic human immunodeficiency virus in Africa". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 356 (1410): 911–920. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0867. PMC 1088484. PMID 11405938.
- Scotch M, Brownstein JS, Vegso S, Galusha D, Rabinowitz P (September 2011). "Human vs. animal outbreaks of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic". EcoHealth. 8 (3): 376–380. doi:10.1007/s10393-011-0706-x. PMC 3246131. PMID 21912985.
- Coral-Almeida M, Gabriël S, Abatih EN, Praet N, Benitez W, Dorny P (6 July 2015). "Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 9 (7): e0003919. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003919. PMC 4493064. PMID 26147942.
- Taylor LH, Latham SM, Woolhouse ME (July 2001). "Risk factors for human disease emergence". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 356 (1411): 983–989. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0888. PMC 1088493. PMID 11516376.
- Marx PA, Apetrei C, Drucker E (October 2004). "AIDS as a zoonosis? Confusion over the origin of the virus and the origin of the epidemics". Journal of Medical Primatology. 33 (5–6): 220–226. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0684.2004.00078.x. PMID 15525322.
- "Zoonosis". Medical Dictionary. Archived from the original on 28 June 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- Messenger AM, Barnes AN, Gray GC (2014). "Reverse zoonotic disease transmission (zooanthroponosis): a systematic review of seldom-documented human biological threats to animals". PLOS ONE. 9 (2): e89055. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...989055M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089055. PMC 3938448. PMID 24586500.
- Warren CJ, Sawyer SL (April 2019). "How host genetics dictates successful viral zoonosis". PLOS Biology. 17 (4): e3000217. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.3000217. PMC 6474636. PMID 31002666.
- Nibert D (2013). Animal Oppression and Human Violence: Domesecration, Capitalism, and Global Conflict. Columbia University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0231151894.
- Agbalaka, P; Ejinaka, O; Etukudoh, NS; Obeta, U; Shaahia, D; Utibe, E (2020). "Zoonotic and Parasitic Agents in Bioterrorism". Journal of Infectious Diseases & Travel Medicine. 4 (2): 1–7. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
- Grange ZL, Goldstein T, Johnson CK, Anthony S, Gilardi K, Daszak P, et al. (April 2021). "Ranking the risk of animal-to-human spillover for newly discovered viruses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 118 (15). Bibcode:2021PNAS..11802324G. doi:10.1073/pnas.2002324118. PMC 8053939. PMID 33822740.
- "Coronavirus: Fear over rise in animal-to-human diseases". BBC. 6 July 2020. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
- "Preventing the next pandemic – Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission". United Nations Environmental Programm. United Nations. 15 May 2020. Archived from the original on 6 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
- Humphrey T, O'Brien S, Madsen M (July 2007). "Campylobacters as zoonotic pathogens: a food production perspective". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 117 (3): 237–257. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.01.006. PMID 17368847.
- Cloeckaert A (June 2006). "Introduction: emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in the zoonotic foodborne pathogens Salmonella and Campylobacter". Microbes and Infection. 8 (7): 1889–1890. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2005.12.024. PMID 16714136.
- Murphy FA (1999). "The threat posed by the global emergence of livestock, food-borne, and zoonotic pathogens". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 894 (1): 20–27. Bibcode:1999NYASA.894...20M. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08039.x. PMID 10681965. S2CID 13384121.
- Med-Vet-Net. "Priority Setting for Foodborne and Zoonotic Pathogens" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
- Abebe, Engidaw; Gugsa, Getachew; Ahmed, Meselu (29 June 2020). "Review on Major Food-Borne Zoonotic Bacterial Pathogens". Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2020: 4674235. doi:10.1155/2020/4674235. ISSN 1687-9686. PMC 7341400. PMID 32684938.
- "Issuing Foodborne Outbreak Notices | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 11 January 2022. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
- "Inhalation Anthrax". cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "Avian flu: Poultry to be allowed outside under new rules". BBC News. 28 February 2017. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- Lassen B, Ståhl M, Enemark HL (June 2014). "Cryptosporidiosis - an occupational risk and a disregarded disease in Estonia". Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 56 (1): 36. doi:10.1186/1751-0147-56-36. PMC 4089559. PMID 24902957.
- "Mink found to have coronavirus on two Dutch farms – ministry". Reuters. 26 April 2020. Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- Li TC, Chijiwa K, Sera N, Ishibashi T, Etoh Y, Shinohara Y, et al. (December 2005). "Hepatitis E virus transmission from wild boar meat". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (12): 1958–1960. doi:10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100350. PMC 8606544. PMID 16485490.
- Rood KA, Pate ML (January 2019). "Assessment of Musculoskeletal Injuries Associated with Palpation, Infection Control Practices, and Zoonotic Disease Risks among Utah Clinical Veterinarians". Journal of Agromedicine. 24 (1): 35–45. doi:10.1080/1059924X.2018.1536574. PMID 30362924. S2CID 53092026.
- Carrington D (6 July 2020). "Coronavirus: world treating symptoms, not cause of pandemics, says UN". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
- von Csefalvay, Chris (2023), "Host-vector and multihost systems", Computational Modeling of Infectious Disease, Elsevier, pp. 121–149, doi:10.1016/b978-0-32-395389-4.00013-x, ISBN 978-0-323-95389-4, retrieved 6 March 2023
- Glidden CK, Nova N, Kain MP, Lagerstrom KM, Skinner EB, Mandle L, et al. (October 2021). "Human-mediated impacts on biodiversity and the consequences for zoonotic disease spillover". Current Biology. 31 (19): R1342–R1361. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2021.08.070. PMC 9255562. PMID 34637744. S2CID 238588772.
- You M (October 2020). "Changes of China's regulatory regime on commercial artificial breeding of terrestrial wildlife in time of COVID-19 outbreak and impacts on the future". Biological Conservation. Oxford University Press. 250 (3): 108756. doi:10.1093/bjc/azaa084. PMC 7953978. PMID 32863392.
- Blattner C, Coulter K, Wadiwel D, Kasprzycka E (2021). "Covid-19 and Capital: Labour Studies and Nonhuman Animals – A Roundtable Dialogue". Animal Studies Journal. University of Wollongong. 10 (1): 240–272. doi:10.14453/asj.v10i1.10. ISSN 2201-3008. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
- Sun J, He WT, Wang L, Lai A, Ji X, Zhai X, et al. (May 2020). "COVID-19: Epidemiology, Evolution, and Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives". Trends in Molecular Medicine. 26 (5): 483–495. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2020.02.008. PMC 7118693. PMID 32359479.
- "WHO Points To Wildlife Farms In Southern China As Likely Source Of Pandemic". NPR. 15 March 2021.
- Maxmen A (April 2021). "WHO report into COVID pandemic origins zeroes in on animal markets, not labs". Nature. 592 (7853): 173–174. Bibcode:2021Natur.592..173M. doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00865-8. PMID 33785930. S2CID 232429241.
- Prevention, CDC – Centers for Disease Control and. "Toxoplasmosis – General Information – Pregnant Women". cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- Weese JS (2011). Companion animal zoonoses. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 282–84. ISBN 978-0813819648.
- Li Y, Qu C, Spee B, Zhang R, Penning LC, de Man RA, et al. (2020). "Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in pets in the Netherlands and the permissiveness of canine liver cells to the infection". Irish Veterinary Journal. 73: 6. doi:10.1186/s13620-020-00158-y. PMC 7119158. PMID 32266057.
- Chomel BB, Belotto A, Meslin FX (January 2007). "Wildlife, exotic pets, and emerging zoonoses". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 13 (1): 6–11. doi:10.3201/eid1301.060480. PMC 2725831. PMID 17370509.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005). "Compendium of Measures To Prevent Disease Associated with Animals in Public Settings, 2005: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. (NASPHV)" (PDF). MMWR. 54 (RR–4): inclusive page numbers. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- "NASPHV – National Association of Public Health Veterinarians". www.nasphv.org. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
- Vidal J (18 March 2020). "'Tip of the iceberg': is our destruction of nature responsible for Covid-19?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- Carrington D (27 April 2020). "Halt destruction of nature or suffer even worse pandemics, say world's top scientists". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- Moon J, Wenham C, Harman S (November 2021). "SAGO has a politics problem, and WHO is ignoring it". BMJ. 375: n2786. doi:10.1136/bmj.n2786. PMID 34772656. S2CID 244041854.
- Shield C (16 April 2020). "Coronavirus Pandemic Linked to Destruction of Wildlife and World's Ecosystems". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
- Carrington D (5 August 2020). "Deadly diseases from wildlife thrive when nature is destroyed, study finds". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- Woolaston K, Fisher JL (29 October 2020). "UN report says up to 850,000 animal viruses could be caught by humans, unless we protect nature". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
- Carrington D (29 October 2020). "Protecting nature is vital to escape 'era of pandemics' – report". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
- "Escaping the 'Era of Pandemics': experts warn worse crises to come; offer options to reduce risk". EurekAlert!. 29 October 2020. Archived from the original on 17 November 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
- "Factors that may predict next pandemic". ScienceDaily. University of Sydney. Archived from the original on 19 May 2021. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
- Yong, Ed (28 April 2022). "We Created the 'Pandemicene'". The Atlantic. Retrieved 6 May 2022.
- Beyer RM, Manica A, Mora C (May 2021). "Shifts in global bat diversity suggest a possible role of climate change in the emergence of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2". The Science of the Total Environment. 767: 145413. Bibcode:2021ScTEn.767n5413B. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145413. PMC 7837611. PMID 33558040.
- Bressan D. "Climate Change Could Have Played A Role In The Covid-19 Outbreak". Forbes. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
- "Early Concepts of Disease". sphweb.bumc.bu.edu. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
- Van Seventer, Jean Maguire; Hochberg, Natasha S. (2017). "Principles of Infectious Diseases:Transmission, Diagnosis, Prevention, and Control". International Encyclopedia of Public Health: 22–39. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-803678-5.00516-6. ISBN 9780128037089. PMC 7150340.
- Health (US), National Institutes of; Study, Biological Sciences Curriculum (2007). Understanding Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases. National Institutes of Health (US).
- Baum, Stephen G. (2008). "Zoonoses-With Friends Like This, Who Needs Enemies?". Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association. 119: 39–52. ISSN 0065-7778. PMC 2394705. PMID 18596867.
- Weiss, Robin A; Sankaran, Neeraja (18 January 2022). "Emergence of epidemic diseases: zoonoses and other origins". Faculty Reviews. 11: 2. doi:10.12703/r/11-2. ISSN 2732-432X. PMC 8808746. PMID 35156099.
- Wolfe, Nathan D.; Dunavan, Claire Panosian; Diamond, Jared (May 2007). "Origins of major human infectious diseases". Nature. 447 (7142): 279–283. Bibcode:2007Natur.447..279W. doi:10.1038/nature05775. ISSN 1476-4687. PMC 7095142. PMID 17507975.
- Benatar D (September 2007). "The chickens come home to roost". American Journal of Public Health. 97 (9): 1545–1546. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.090431. PMC 1963309. PMID 17666704.
- Meerburg BG, Singleton GR, Kijlstra A (2009). "Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health". Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 35 (3): 221–270. doi:10.1080/10408410902989837. PMID 19548807. S2CID 205694138.
- Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD (February 2001). "Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife". Acta Tropica. 78 (2): 103–116. doi:10.1016/S0001-706X(00)00179-0. PMID 11230820.
- Looi, Lai-Meng; Chua, Kaw-Bing (2007). "Lessons from the Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia". Malaysian Journal of Pathology. 29 (2): 63–67. PMID 19108397. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
- Field H, Young P, Yob JM, Mills J, Hall L, Mackenzie J (April 2001). "The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses". Microbes and Infection. 3 (4): 307–314. doi:10.1016/S1286-4579(01)01384-3. PMID 11334748.
- Basu, Dr Muktisadhan (16 August 2022). "Zoonotic Diseases and Its Impact on Human Health". Agritech Consultancy Services. Retrieved 25 March 2023.
- 
- "History of Smallpox | Smallpox | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 21 February 2021. Archived from the original on 14 June 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
- "The Spread and Eradication of Smallpox | Smallpox | CDC". 19 February 2019.
- "Why vaccines matter in the fight against zoonotic diseases". www.thepigsite.com. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
- Information in this table is largely compiled from: World Health Organization. "Zoonoses and the Human-Animal-Ecosystems Interface". Archived from the original on 6 December 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- "Bird flu (Avian influenza) - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic.
- Prusiner SB (May 2001). "Shattuck lecture--neurodegenerative diseases and prions". The New England Journal of Medicine. 344 (20): 1516–1526. doi:10.1056/NEJM200105173442006. PMID 11357156.
- "Why Omicron-infected white-tailed deer pose an especially big risk to humans". Fortune.
- "Haemorrhagic fevers, Viral". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 27 July 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
- Letvin NL, Eaton KA, Aldrich WR, Sehgal PK, Blake BJ, Schlossman SF, et al. (May 1983). "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a colony of macaque monkeys". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 80 (9): 2718–2722. Bibcode:1983PNAS...80.2718L. doi:10.1073/pnas.80.9.2718. PMC 393899. PMID 6221343.
- Daniel MD, Letvin NL, King NW, Kannagi M, Sehgal PK, Hunt RD, et al. (June 1985). "Isolation of T-cell tropic HTLV-III-like retrovirus from macaques". Science. 228 (4704): 1201–1204. Bibcode:1985Sci...228.1201D. doi:10.1126/science.3159089. PMID 3159089.
- King NW, Hunt RD, Letvin NL (December 1983). "Histopathologic changes in macaques with an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)". The American Journal of Pathology. 113 (3): 382–388. PMC 1916356. PMID 6316791.
- "Parasites – Leishmaniasis". CDC. 27 February 2019. Archived from the original on 15 June 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
- "Leishmaniasis". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
- Clark L. "How Armadillos Can Spread Leprosy". Smithsonianmag.com. Smithsonian.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
- Shute N (22 July 2015). "Leprosy From An Armadillo? That's An Unlikely Peccadillo". NPR. National Public Radio. Archived from the original on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
- Bardosh K (2016). One Health: Science, Politics and Zoonotic Disease in Africa. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-96148-7..
- Crawford D (2018). Deadly Companions: How Microbes Shaped our History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198815440.
- Felbab-Brown V (6 October 2020). "Preventing the next zoonotic pandemic". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 21 January 2021. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
- Greger M (2007). "The human/animal interface: emergence and resurgence of zoonotic infectious diseases". Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 33 (4): 243–299. doi:10.1080/10408410701647594. PMID 18033595. S2CID 8940310. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- H. Krauss, A. Weber, M. Appel, B. Enders, A. v. Graevenitz, H. D. Isenberg, H. G. Schiefer, W. Slenczka, H. Zahner: Zoonoses. Infectious Diseases Transmissible from Animals to Humans. 3rd Edition, 456 pages. ASM Press. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 2003. ISBN 1-55581-236-8.
- González JG (2010). Infection Risk and Limitation of Fundamental Rights by Animal-To-Human Transplantations. EU, Spanish and German Law with Special Consideration of English Law (in German). Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovac. ISBN 978-3-8300-4712-4.
- Quammen D (2013). Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-34661-9.