Open main menu

Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling

Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis,[1] and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.

Palm oil is naturally reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content. It is not to be confused with palm kernel oil derived from the kernel of the same fruit[2] or coconut oil derived from the kernel of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). The differences are in color (raw palm kernel oil lacks carotenoids and is not red), and in saturated fat content: palm mesocarp oil is 49 percent saturated, while palm kernel oil and coconut oil are 81 percent and 86 percent saturated fats, respectively. However, crude red palm oil that has been refined, bleached and deodorized, a common commodity called RBD palm oil, does not contain carotenoids.[3]

The oil palm produces bunches containing a large number of fruits with the fleshy mesocarp enclosing a kernel that is covered by a very hard shell. FAO considers palm oil (coming from the pulp) and palm kernels to be primary products. The oil extraction rate from a bunch varies from 17 to 27% for palm oil, and from 4 to 10% for palm kernels[4].

Along with coconut oil, palm oil is one of the few highly saturated vegetable fats and is semisolid at room temperature.[5] Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient in the tropical belt of Africa, Southeast Asia and parts of Brazil. Its use in the commercial food industry in other parts of the world is widespread because of its lower cost[6] and the high oxidative stability (saturation) of the refined product when used for frying.[7][8] One source reported that humans consumed an average 17 pounds (7.7 kg) of palm oil per person in 2015.[9]

The use of palm oil in food products has attracted the concern of environmental activist groups; the high oil yield of the trees has encouraged wider cultivation, leading to the clearing of forests in parts of Indonesia to make space for oil-palm monoculture.[10] This has resulted in significant acreage losses of the natural habitat of the three surviving species of orangutan. One species in particular, the Sumatran orangutan, has been listed as critically endangered.[11] In 2004, an industry group called the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil was formed to work with the palm oil industry to address these concerns.[12] Additionally, in 1992, in response to concerns about deforestation, the Government of Malaysia pledged to limit the expansion of palm oil plantations by retaining a minimum of half the nation's land as forest cover.[13][14] In March 2017, a documentary made by Deutsche Welle revealed that palm oil is used to make milk substitutes to feed calves in dairies in the German alps. These milk substitutes contain 30 percent milk powder and the remainder of raw protein made from skimmed milk powder, whey powder, and vegetable fats, mostly coconut oil and palm oil.[15]

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Oil palms (Elaeis guineensis)

Humans used oil palms as far as 5,000 years back; in the late–1800s, archaeologists discovered a substance that they concluded was originally palm oil in a tomb at Abydos dating back to 3,000 BCE.[16] It is believed that traders brought oil palm to Egypt.[17]

Palm oil from E. guineensiss has long been recognized in West and Central African countries, and is widely used as a cooking oil. European merchants trading with West Africa occasionally purchased palm oil for use as a cooking oil in Europe.

Palm oil became a highly sought-after commodity by British traders, for use as an industrial lubricant for machinery during Britain's Industrial Revolution.[18]

Palm oil formed the basis of soap products, such as Lever Brothers' (now Unilever) "Sunlight" soap, and the American Palmolive brand.[19]

By around 1870, palm oil constituted the primary export of some West African countries, such as Ghana and Nigeria, although this was overtaken by cocoa in the 1880s.[20][21]

CompositionEdit

Fatty acidsEdit

Palm oil, like all fats, is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol. Palm oil has an especially high concentration of saturated fat, specifically the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, to which it gives its name. Monounsaturated oleic acid is also a major constituent of palm oil. Unrefined palm oil is a significant source of tocotrienol, part of the vitamin E family.[22][23]

The approximate concentration of esterified fatty acids in palm oil is:[24]

Fatty acid content of palm oil (present as triglyceride esters)
Type of fatty acid pct
Myristic saturated C14
1.0%
Palmitic saturated C16
43.5%
Stearic saturated C18
4.3%
Oleic monounsaturated C18
36.6%
Linoleic polyunsaturated C18
9.1%
Other/Unknown
5.5%
black: Saturated; grey: Monounsaturated; blue: Polyunsaturated

CarotenesEdit

Red palm oil is rich in carotenes, such as alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lycopene, which give it a characteristic dark red color.[23][25] However, palm oil that has been refined, bleached and deodorized from crude palm oil (called "RBD palm oil") does not contain carotenes.[3]

Processing and useEdit

Many processed foods either contain palm oil or various ingredients made from it.[26]

RefiningEdit

After milling, various palm oil products are made using refining processes. First is fractionation, with crystallization and separation processes to obtain solid (stearin), and liquid (olein) fractions.[27] Then melting and degumming removes impurities. Then the oil is filtered and bleached. Physical refining[clarification needed] removes smells and coloration to produce "refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil" (RBDPO) and free fatty acids,[clarification needed] which are used in the manufacture of soaps, washing powder and other products. RBDPO is the basic palm oil product sold on the world's commodity markets. Many companies fractionate it further to produce palm oil for cooking oil, or process it into other products.[27]

Red palm oilEdit

Since the mid-1990s, red palm oil has been cold-pressed from the fruit of the oil palm and bottled for use as a cooking oil, in addition to other uses such as being blended into mayonnaise and vegetable oil.[3]

Oil produced from palm fruit is called red palm oil or just palm oil. It is around 50% saturated fat—considerably less than palm kernel oil—and 40% unsaturated fat and 10% polyunsaturated fat. In its unprocessed state, red palm oil has an intense deep red color because of its abundant carotene content. Like palm kernel oil, red palm oil contains around 50% medium chain fatty acids, but it also contains the following nutrients:[citation needed]

White palm oilEdit

White palm oil is the result of processing and refining. When refined, the palm oil loses its deep red color. It is extensively used in food manufacture and can be found in a variety of processed foods including peanut butter and chips. It is often labeled as palm shortening and is used as a replacement ingredient for hydrogenated fats in a variety of baked and fried products.

Butter and trans fat substituteEdit

The highly saturated nature of palm oil renders it solid at room temperature in temperate regions, making it a cheap substitute for butter or trans fats in uses where solid fat is desirable, such as the making of pastry dough and baked goods. A recent rise in the use of palm oil in the food industry has partly come from changed labelling requirements that have caused a switch away from using trans fats.[28] Palm oil has been found to be a reasonable replacement for trans fats;[29] however, a small study conducted in 2009 found that palm oil may not be a good substitute for trans fats for individuals with already-elevated LDL levels.[30] The USDA agricultural research service states that palm oil is not a healthy substitute for trans fats.[31]

Biomass and bioenergyEdit

Palm oil is used to produce both methyl ester and hydrodeoxygenated biodiesel.[32] Palm oil methyl ester is created through a process called transesterification. Palm oil biodiesel is often blended with other fuels to create palm oil biodiesel blends.[33] Palm oil biodiesel meets the European EN 14214 standard for biodiesels.[32] Hydrodeoxygenated biodiesel is produced by direct hydrogenolysis of the fat into alkanes and propane. The world's largest palm oil biodiesel plant is the Finnish-operated Neste Oil biodiesel plant in Singapore, which opened in 2011 and produces hydrodeoxygenated NEXBTL biodiesel.[34]

Significant amounts of palm oil exports to Europe are converted to biodiesel (as of early 2018: Indonesia: 40%, Malaysia 30%).[35]

The organic waste matter that is produced when processing oil palm, including oil palm shells and oil palm fruit bunches, can also be used to produce energy. This waste material can be converted into pellets that can be used as a biofuel.[36] Additionally, palm oil that has been used to fry foods can be converted into methyl esters for biodiesel. The used cooking oil is chemically treated to create a biodiesel similar to petroleum diesel.[37]

In wound careEdit

Although palm oil is applied to wounds for its supposed antimicrobial effects, research does not confirm its effectiveness.[38]

ProductionEdit

In 2016, the global production of palm oil was estimated at 62.6M tonnes, 2.7M tonnes more than in 2015. The palm oil production value was estimated at $39.3B in 2016, a increase of $2.4B (or +7%) against the production figure recorded in the previous year[39]. Between 1962 and 1982 global exports of palm oil increased from around half a million to 2.4 million tonnes annually and in 2008 world production of palm oil and palm kernel oil amounted to 48 million tonnes. According to FAO forecasts by 2020 the global demand for palm oil will double, and triple by 2050.[40]

 
A map of world palm oil output, 2013

IndonesiaEdit

Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil, surpassing Malaysia in 2006, producing more than 20.9 million tonnes.[41][42] Indonesia expects to double production by the end of 2030.[12] At the end of 2010, 60 percent of the output was exported in the form of crude palm oil.[43] FAO data show production increased by over 400 percent between 1994 and 2004, to over 8.66 million metric tonnes.

MalaysiaEdit

 
A palm oil plantation in Malaysia

In 2012, Malaysia, the world's second largest producer of palm oil,[44] produced 18.79 million tonnes of crude palm oil on roughly 5,000,000 hectares (19,000 sq mi) of land.[45][46] Though Indonesia produces more palm oil, Malaysia is the world's largest exporter of palm oil having exported 18 million tonnes of palm oil products in 2011. China, Pakistan, the European Union, India and the United States are the primary importers of Malaysian palm oil products.[47]

 
A palm oil plantation in Indonesia

NigeriaEdit

As of 2011, Nigeria was the third-largest producer, with approximately 2.3 million hectares (5.7×10^6 acres) under cultivation. Until 1934, Nigeria had been the world's largest producer. Both small- and large-scale producers participated in the industry.[48][49]

ThailandEdit

Thailand is the world's third largest producer of crude palm oil, producing approximately two million tonnes per year, or 1.2 percent of global output. Ninety-five percent of Thai production is consumed locally. Almost 85 percent of palm plantations and extraction mills are in south Thailand. At year-end 2016, 4.7 to 5.8 million rai were planted in oil palms, employing 300,000 farmers, mostly on small landholdings of 20 rai. ASEAN as a region accounts for 52.5 million tonnes of palm oil production, about 85 percent of the world total and more than 90 percent of global exports. Indonesia accounts for 52.2 percent of world exports. Malaysian exports total 37.9 percent. The biggest consumers of palm oil are India, the European Union, and China, with the three consuming nearly 50 percent of world exports. Thailand's Department of Internal Trade (DIT) usually sets the price of crude palm oil and refined palm oil. Thai farmers have a relatively low yield compared to those in Malaysia and Indonesia. Thai palm oil crops yield 4–17 percent oil compared to around 20 percent in competing countries. In addition, Indonesian and Malaysian oil palm plantations are 10 times the size of Thai plantations.[50]

ColombiaEdit

In the 1960s, about 18,000 hectares (69 sq mi) were planted with palm. Colombia has now become the largest palm oil producer in the Americas, and 35 percent of its product is exported as biofuel. In 2006, the Colombian plantation owners' association, Fedepalma, reported that oil palm cultivation was expanding to 1,000,000 hectares (3,900 sq mi). This expansion is being funded, in part, by the United States Agency for International Development to resettle disarmed paramilitary members on arable land, and by the Colombian government, which proposes to expand land use for exportable cash crops to 7,000,000 hectares (27,000 sq mi) by 2020, including oil palms. Fedepalma states that its members are following sustainable guidelines.[51]

Some Afro-Colombians claim that some of these new plantations have been expropriated from them after they had been driven away through poverty and civil war, while armed guards intimidate the remaining people to further depopulate the land, with coca production and trafficking following in their wake.[52]

Other countriesEdit

 
A satellite image showing deforestation in Malaysian Borneo to allow the plantation of oil palm

BeninEdit

Palm is native to the wetlands of western Africa, and south Benin already hosts many palm plantations. Its 'Agricultural Revival Programme' has identified many thousands of hectares of land as suitable for new oil palm export plantations. In spite of the economic benefits, Non-governmental organisations (NGOs), such as Nature Tropicale, claim biofuels will compete with domestic food production in some existing prime agricultural sites. Other areas comprise peat land, whose drainage would have a deleterious environmental impact. They are also concerned genetically modified plants will be introduced into the region, jeopardizing the current premium paid for their non-GM crops.[53][54]

CameroonEdit

Cameroon had a production project underway initiated by Herakles Farms in the US.[55] However, the project was halted under the pressure of civil society organizations in Cameroon. Before the project was halted, Herakles left the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil early in negotiations.[56] The project has been controversial due to opposition from villagers and the location of the project in a sensitive region for biodiversity.

KenyaEdit

Kenya's domestic production of edible oils covers about a third of its annual demand, estimated at around 380,000 metric tonnes. The rest is imported at a cost of around US$140 million a year, making edible oil the country's second most important import after petroleum. Since 1993 a new hybrid variety of cold-tolerant, high-yielding oil palm has been promoted by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in western Kenya. As well as alleviating the country's deficit of edible oils while providing an important cash crop, it is claimed to have environmental benefits in the region, because it does not compete against food crops or native vegetation and it provides stabilisation for the soil.[57]

GhanaEdit

Ghana has a lot of palm nut species, which may become an important contributor to the agriculture of the region. Although Ghana has multiple palm species, ranging from local palm nuts to other species locally called agric, it was only marketed locally and to neighboring countries. Production is now expanding as major investment funds are purchasing plantations, because Ghana is considered a major growth area for palm oil.

Social and environmental impactsEdit

SocialEdit

 
In Borneo, the forest (F), is being replaced by oil palm plantations (G). These changes are irreversible for all practical purposes (H).

The palm oil industry has had both positive and negative impacts on workers, indigenous peoples and residents of palm oil-producing communities. Palm oil production provides employment opportunities, and has been shown to improve infrastructure, social services and reduce poverty.[58][59][60] However, in some cases, oil palm plantations have developed lands without consultation or compensation of the indigenous people occupying the land, resulting in social conflict.[61][62][63] The use of illegal immigrants in Malaysia has also raised concerns about working conditions within the palm oil industry.[64][65][66]

Some social initiatives use palm oil cultivation as part of poverty alleviation strategies. Examples include the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation's hybrid oil palm project in Western Kenya, which improves incomes and diets of local populations,[67] and Malaysia's Federal Land Development Authority and Federal Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Authority, which both support rural development.[68]

Food vs. fuelEdit

The use of palm oil in the production of biodiesel has led to concerns that the need for fuel is being placed ahead of the need for food, leading to malnutrition in developing nations. This is known as the food versus fuel debate. According to a 2008 report published in the Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, palm oil was determined to be a sustainable source of both food and biofuel. The production of palm oil biodiesel does not pose a threat to edible palm oil supplies.[69] According to a 2009 study published in the Environmental Science and Policy journal, palm oil biodiesel might increase the demand for palm oil in the future, resulting in the expansion of palm oil production, and therefore an increased supply of food.[70]

EnvironmentalEdit

Palm oil cultivation has been criticized for impacts on the natural environment,[71][72] including deforestation, loss of natural habitats,[73] which has threatened critically endangered species such as the orangutan[74][75] and Sumatran tiger,[76] as well as increased greenhouse gas emissions.[72][77] Many palm oil plantations are built on top of existing peat bogs, and clearing the land for palm oil cultivation contributes to rising greenhouse-gas emissions.[77][78]

Efforts to portray palm oil cultivation as sustainable have been made by organizations including the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil,[79] an industry lobby group, as well as the Malaysian government, which has committed to preserve 50 percent of its total land area as forest.[13] According to research conducted by the Tropical Peat Research Laboratory, a group studying palm oil cultivation in support of the industry,[80] oil-palm plantations (when compared to bare, unvegetated ground) act as carbon sinks, converting carbon dioxide into oxygen[81]. Also, according to Malaysia's Second National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the plantations contribute to Malaysia's status as a net carbon sink,[82] which considers unvegetated bare ground as its baseline, and not the carbon released as a consequence of the removal of the original native forest cover.[81]

Environmental groups such as Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth oppose the use of palm oil biofuels, claiming that the deforestation caused by oil palm plantations is more damaging for the climate than the benefits gained by switching to biofuel and utilizing the palms as carbon sinks.[78][83][84]

While only 5 percent of the world's vegetable oil farmland is used for palm plantations, palm cultivation produces 38 percent of the world's total vegetable oil supply.[85] In terms of oil yield, a palm plantation is 10 times more productive than soya bean and rapeseed cultivation because the palm fruit and kernel both provide usable oil.[85]

Roundtable On Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)Edit

 
Roundtable No 2 (RT2) in Zurich in 2005

The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) was created as a lobby group by industry in 2004[86] following concerns raised by non-governmental organizations about environmental impacts related to palm oil production. The organization has established international standards for sustainable palm oil production.[87] Products containing Certified Sustainable Palm Oil (CSPO) can carry the RSPO trademark.[88] Members of the RSPO include palm oil producers, environmental groups, and manufacturers who use palm oil in their products.[86][87]

Palm oil growers who produce Certified Sustainable Palm Oil have been critical of the organization because, though they have met RSPO standards and assumed the costs associated with certification, the market demand for certified palm oil remains low.[87][88] Low market demand has been attributed to the higher cost of Certified Sustainable Palm Oil, leading palm oil buyers to purchase cheaper non-certified palm oil. Palm oil is mostly fungible. In 2011, 12 percent of palm oil produced was certified "sustainable", though only half of that had the RSPO label.[89] Even with such a low proportion being certified, Greenpeace has argued that confectioners are avoiding responsibilities on sustainable palm oil, because it says that RSPO standards fall short of protecting rain forests and reducing greenhouse gases.[90]

MarketsEdit

According to the Hamburg-based Oil World trade journal,[citation needed] in 2008 global production of oils and fats stood at 160 million tonnes. Palm oil and palm kernel oil were jointly the largest contributor, accounting for 48 million tonnes, or 30 percent of the total output. Soybean oil came in second with 37 million tonnes (23 percent). About 38 percent of the oils and fats produced in the world were shipped across oceans. Of the 60 million tonnes of oils and fats exported around the world, palm oil and palm kernel oil made up close to 60 percent; Malaysia, with 45 percent of the market share, dominated the palm oil trade.

Food label regulationsEdit

Previously, palm oil could be listed as "vegetable fat" or "vegetable oil" on food labels in the European Union (EU). From December 2014, food packaging in the EU is no longer allowed to use the generic terms "vegetable fat" or "vegetable oil" in the ingredients list. Food producers are required to list the specific type of vegetable fat used, including palm oil. Vegetable oils and fats can be grouped together in the ingredients list under the term "vegetable oils" or "vegetable fats" but this must be followed by the type of vegetable origin (e.g., palm, sunflower, or rapeseed) and the phrase "in varying proportions".[91]

Supply chain institutionsEdit

The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) was established in 2004[86] following concerns raised by non-governmental organizations about environmental impacts resulting from palm oil production. The organization has established international standards for sustainable palm oil production.[87] Products containing Certified Sustainable Palm Oil (CSPO) can carry the RSPO trademark.[88] Members of the RSPO include palm oil producers, environmental groups, and manufacturers who use palm oil in their products.[86][87]

The RSPO is applying different types of programmes to supply palm oil to producers.[92]

  • Book and claim: no guarantee that the end product contains certified sustainable palm oil, supports RSPO-certified growers and farmers
  • Identity preserved: the end user is able to trace the palm oil back to a specific single mill and its supply base (plantations)
  • Segregated: this option guarantees that the end product contains certified palm oil
  • Mass balance: the refinery is only allowed to sell the same amount of mass balance palm oil as the amount of certified sustainable palm oil purchased

GreenPalm is one of the retailers executing the book and claim supply chain and trading programme. It guarantees that the palm oil producer is certified by the RSPO. Through GreenPalm the producer can certify a specified amount with the GreenPalm logo. The buyer of the oil is allowed to use the RSPO and the GreenPalm label for sustainable palm oil on their products.[92]

Nutrition and healthEdit

Contributing significant calories as a source of fat, palm oil is a food staple in many cuisines.[93][94][95] On average globally, humans consumed 17 pounds (7.7 kg) of palm oil per person in 2015.[9] Although the relationship of palm oil consumption to disease risk has been previously assessed, the quality of the clinical research specifically assessing palm oil effects has been generally poor.[96] Consequently, research has focused on the deleterious effects of palm oil and palmitic acid consumption as sources of saturated fat content in edible oils, leading to conclusions that palm oil and saturated fats should be replaced with polyunsaturated fats in the diet.[97][98]

Palmitic acidEdit

Excessive intake of palmitic acid, which makes up 44 percent of palm oil, increases blood levels of low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol, and so increases risk of cardiovascular diseases.[97][98][99] Other reviews, the World Health Organization, and the US National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute have encouraged consumers to limit the consumption of palm oil, palmitic acid and foods high in saturated fat.[93][97][99][100]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Reeves, James B.; Weihrauch, John L; Consumer and Food Economics Institute (1979). Composition of foods: fats and oils. Agriculture handbook 8-4. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration. p. 4. OCLC 5301713.
  2. ^ Poku, Kwasi (2002). "Origin of oil palm". Small-Scale Palm Oil Processing in Africa. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 148. Food and Agriculture Organization. ISBN 92-5-104859-2. Archived from the original on 23 September 2009.[page needed]
  3. ^ a b c Nagendran, B.; Unnithan, U. R.; Choo, Y. M.; Sundram, Kalyana (2000). "Characteristics of red palm oil, a carotene- and vitamin E–rich refined oil for food uses" (PDF). Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 21 (2): 77–82. doi:10.1177/156482650002100213.
  4. ^ "FAO data - dimension-member - Oil, palm fruit". ref.data.fao.org. Retrieved 2018-08-17.
  5. ^ Behrman, E. J.; Gopalan, Venkat (2005). William M. Scovell, ed. "Cholesterol and Plants" (PDF). Journal of Chemical Education. 82 (12): 1791. Bibcode:2005JChEd..82.1791B. doi:10.1021/ed082p1791. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 October 2012.
  6. ^ "Palm Oil Continues to Dominate Global Consumption in 2006/07" (PDF) (Press release). United States Department of Agriculture. June 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
  7. ^ Che Man, YB; Liu, J.L.; Jamilah, B.; Rahman, R. Abdul (1999). "Quality changes of RBD palm olein, soybean oil and their blends during deep-fat frying". Journal of Food Lipids. 6 (3): 181–193. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4522.1999.tb00142.x.
  8. ^ Matthäus, Bertrand (2007). "Use of palm oil for frying in comparison with other high-stability oils". European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 109 (4): 400–409. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200600294.
  9. ^ a b Raghu, Anuradha (17 May 2017). "We Each Consume 17 Pounds of Palm Oil a Year". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  10. ^ "Deforestation". www.sustainablepalmoil.org. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  11. ^ International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; Pongo abelii. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2012. . Accessed: 2016-04-22
  12. ^ a b Natasha Gilbert (4 July 2012). "Palm-oil boom raises conservation concerns: Industry urged towards sustainable farming practices as rising demand drives deforestation". Nature. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012.
  13. ^ a b Morales, Alex (18 November 2010). "Malaysia Has Little Room for Expanding Palm-Oil Production, Minister Says". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 12 September 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  14. ^ Scott-Thomas, Caroline (17 September 2012). "French firms urged to back away from 'no palm oil' label claims". Foodnavigator. Archived from the original on 12 March 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  15. ^ "Too much milk in Europe (Interview with Sprayfo)". Deutsche Welle. 25 March 2017.
  16. ^ Kiple, Kenneth F.; Conee Ornelas, Kriemhild, eds. (2000). The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521402166. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  17. ^ Obahiagbon, F.I. (2012). "A Review: Aspects of the African Oil Palm (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.)" (PDF). American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2 (3): 1–14. doi:10.3923/ajbmb.2012.106.119. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  18. ^ "British Colonial Policies and the Oil Palm Industry in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, 1900–1960" (PDF). African Study Monographs. 21 (1): 19–33. 2000. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 January 2013.
  19. ^ Bellis, Mary. "The History of Soaps and Detergents". About.com. In 1864, Caleb Johnson founded a soap company called B.J. Johnson Soap Co., in Milwaukee. In 1898, this company introduced a soap made of palm and olive oils, called Palmolive.
  20. ^ antislavery.org
  21. ^ Commercial Agriculture, the Slave Trade and Slavery in Atlantic Africa ISBN 978-1-847-01075-9 p. 22
  22. ^ Ahsan H, Ahad A, Siddiqui WA (2015). "A review of characterization of tocotrienols from plant oils and foods". J Chem Biol. 8 (2): 45–59. doi:10.1007/s12154-014-0127-8. PMC 4392014. PMID 25870713.
  23. ^ a b Oi-Ming Lai, Chin-Ping Tan, Casimir C. Akoh (Editors) (2015). Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Characterization, and Uses. Elsevier. pp. 471, Chap. 16. ISBN 0128043466.
  24. ^ "Oil, vegetable, palm per 100 g; Fats and fatty acids". Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Release SR-21. 2014. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  25. ^ Ng, M. H.; Choo, Y. M. (2016). "Improved Method for the Qualitative Analyses of Palm Oil Carotenes Using UPLC". Journal of Chromatographic Science. 54 (4): 633–638. doi:10.1093/chromsci/bmv241. PMC 4885407. PMID 26941414.
  26. ^ "Palm oil products and the weekly shop". BBC Panorama. 22 February 2010. Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
  27. ^ a b "Investment in Technology". PT. Asianagro Agungjaya. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007.
  28. ^ Lian Pin Koh; David S. Wilcove (2007). "Cashing in palm oil for conservation". Nature. 448 (7157): 993–994. Bibcode:2007Natur.448..993K. doi:10.1038/448993a. Archived from the original on 26 January 2011.
  29. ^ Heller, Lorraine (16 December 2005). "Palm oil 'reasonable' replacement for trans fats, say experts". Foodnavigator. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  30. ^ "Palm Oil Not A Healthy Substitute For Trans Fats, Study Finds". Science Daily Website: Science News. ScienceDaily LLC. 11 May 2009. Archived from the original on 14 May 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
  31. ^ Rosalie Marion Bliss (2009). "Palm Oil Not a Healthy Substitute for Trans Fats". Archived from the original on 12 May 2013.
  32. ^ a b Rojas, Mauricio (3 August 2007). "Assessing the Engine Performance of Palm Oil Biodiesel". Biodiesel Magazine. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  33. ^ Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini; Muhammad Maarof Moskin; W. Mahmood. Mat. Yunus; Ahmad Mohammadi; Zainal Abidin Talib (24 August 2010). Optical Characterization of Palm Oil Biodiesel Blend. Journal of Materials Science and Engineering (Report). Archived from the original on 19 January 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  34. ^ Yahya, Yasmine (9 March 2011). "World's Largest Biodiesel Plant Opens in Singapore". The Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 26 June 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  35. ^ https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/european-ban-on-palm-oil-in-biofuels-upsets-jakarta-kl
  36. ^ Choong, Meng Yew (27 March 2012). "Waste not the palm oil biomass". The Star Online. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  37. ^ Loh Soh Kheang; Choo Yuen May; Cheng Sit Food; Ma Ah Ngan (18 June 2006). Recovery and conversion of palm olein-derived used frying oil to methyl esters for biodiesel (PDF). Journal of Palm Oil Research (Report). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  38. ^ Antimicrobial effects of palm kernel oil and palm oil Archived 2 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Ekwenye, U.N and Ijeomah, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Science Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jan–Jun 2005
  39. ^ "Global Palm Oil Market Overview - 2018 - IndexBox". www.indexbox.io. Retrieved 2018-08-17.
  40. ^ Prokurat, Sergiusz (2013). "Palm oil - strategic source of renewable energy in Indonesia and Malaysia" (PDF). Journal of Modern Science: 425–443. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016.
  41. ^ Scientific American Board of Editors (December 2012), "The Other Oil Problem", Scientific American, 307 (6), p. 10, doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1212-10, ...such as Indonesia, the world's largest producer of palm oil.
  42. ^ Indonesia: Palm Oil Production Prospects Continue to Grow Archived 10 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. December 31, 2007, USDA-FAS, Office of Global Analysis
  43. ^ "P&G may build oleochemical plant to secure future supply". The Jakarta Post. 24 May 2011. Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
  44. ^ Pakiam, Ranjeetha (3 January 2013). "Palm Oil Advances as Malaysia's Export Tax May Boost Shipments". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  45. ^ "MPOB expects CPO production to increase to 19 million tonnes this year". The Star Online. 15 January 2013. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  46. ^ "MALAYSIA: Stagnating Palm Oil Yields Impede Growth". USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. 11 December 2012. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  47. ^ May, Choo Yuen (September 2012). "Malaysia: economic transformation advances oil palm industry". American Oil Chemists' Society. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  48. ^ Ayodele, Thompson (August 2010). "African Case Study: Palm Oil and Economic Development in Nigeria and Ghana; Recommendations for the World Bank's 2010 Palm Oil Strategy" (PDF). Initiative For Public Policy Analysis. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  49. ^ Ayodele, Thompson (15 October 2010). "The World Bank's Palm Oil Mistake". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 January 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  50. ^ Arunmas, Phusadee; Wipatayotin, Apinya (28 January 2018). "EU move fuelling unease among palm oil producers" (Spectrum). Bangkok Post. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  51. ^ Fedepalma Annual Communication of Progress Archived 16 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, 2006
  52. ^ Bacon, David. "Blood on the Palms: Afro-Colombians fight new plantations". Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. See also "Unfulfilled Promises and Persistent Obstacles to the Realization of the Rights of Afro-Colombians," [1] A Report on the Development of Ley 70 of 1993 by the Repoport Center for Human Rights and Justice, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Jul 2007.
  53. ^ Pazos, Flavio (3 August 2007). "Benin: Large scale oil palm plantations for agrofuel". World Rainforest Movement. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014.
  54. ^ African Biodiversity Network (2007). Agrofuels in Africa: the impacts on land, food and forests: case studies from Benin, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. translated by. African Biodiversity Network. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016.
  55. ^ Report Assails Palm Oil Project in Cameroon Archived 9 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. September 5, 2012 New York Times
  56. ^ "Cameroon changes mind on Herakles palm oil project". World Wildlife Fund. 21 June 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  57. ^ "Hybrid oil palms bear fruit in western Kenya". UN FAO. 24 November 2003. Archived from the original on 22 January 2015.
  58. ^ Budidarsono, Suseno; Dewi, Sonya; Sofiyuddin, Muhammad; Rahmanulloh, Arif. "Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of Palm Oil Production" (PDF). World Agroforestry Centre. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  59. ^ Norwana, Awang Ali Bema Dayang; Kunjappan, Rejani (2011). "The local impacts of oil palm expansion in Malaysia" (PDF). cifor.org. Center for International Forestry Research. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  60. ^ Ismail, Saidi Isham (9 November 2012). "Palm oil transforms economic landscape". Business Times. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  61. ^ "Palm oil cultivation for biofuel blocks return of displaced people in Colombia" (PDF) (Press release). Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. 5 November 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 November 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  62. ^ Colchester, Marcus; Jalong, Thomas; Meng Chuo, Wong (2 October 2012). "Free, Prior and Informed Consent in the Palm Oil Sector – Sarawak: IOI-Pelita and the community of Long Teran Kanan". Forest Peoples Program. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  63. ^ ""Losing Ground" – report on indigenous communities and oil palm development from LifeMosaic, Sawit Watch and Friends of the Earth". Forest Peoples Programme. 28 February 2008. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  64. ^ Indonesian migrant workers: with particular reference in the oil palm plantation industries in Sabah, Malaysia. Biomass Society (Report). Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University. 11 December 2010. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014.
  65. ^ "Malaysia Plans High-Tech Card for Foreign Workers". ABC News. 9 January 2014. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014.
  66. ^ "Malaysia rounds up thousands of migrant workers". BBC News. 2 September 2013. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013.
  67. ^ hybrid oil palm project in Western Kenya Archived 22 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine. FAO
  68. ^ Ibrahim, Ahmad (31 December 2012). "Felcra a success story in rural transformation". New Straits Times. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  69. ^ Man Kee Kam; Kok Tat Tan; Keat Teong Lee; Abdul Rahman Mohamed (9 September 2008). Malaysian Palm oil: Surviving the food versus fuel dispute for a sustainable future. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review (Report). Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  70. ^ Corley, R. H. V. (2009). "How much palm oil do we need?". Environmental Science & Policy. 12 (2): 134–838. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2008.10.011.
  71. ^ Clay, Jason (2004). World Agriculture and the Environment. World Agriculture and the Environment. p. 219. ISBN 1-55963-370-0.
  72. ^ a b "Palm oil: Cooking the Climate". Greenpeace. 8 November 2007. Archived from the original on 10 April 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  73. ^ "The bird communities of oil palm and rubber plantations in Thailand" (PDF). The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB). Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  74. ^ "Palm oil threatening endangered species" (PDF). Center for Science in the Public Interest. May 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 September 2012.
  75. ^ Shears, Richard (30 March 2012). "Hundreds of orangutans killed in north Indonesian forest fires deliberately started by palm oil firms". Daily Mail. London. Archived from the original on 20 April 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
  76. ^ "Camera catches bulldozer destroying Sumatra tiger forest". World Wildlife Fund. 12 October 2010. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  77. ^ a b Foster, Joanna M. (1 May 2012). "A Grim Portrait of Palm Oil Emissions". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  78. ^ a b Rosenthal, Elisabeth (31 January 2007). "Once a Dream Fuel, Palm Oil May Be an Eco-Nightmare". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  79. ^ Adnan, Hanim (28 March 2011). "A shot in the arm for CSPO". The Star Online. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  80. ^ Masilamany, Joseph. "Peatlands are in danger of human encroachment and degradation worldwide". Free Malaysia Today.
  81. ^ a b "The truth about oil palms and carbon sinks". New Straits Times. 7 November 2010. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  82. ^ Malaysia: Second National Communication to the UNFCCC (PDF) (Report). Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Malaysia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  83. ^ Andre, Pachter (12 October 2007). "Greenpeace Opposing Neste Palm-Based Biodiesel". Epoch Times. Archived from the original on 12 November 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
  84. ^ Fargione, Joseph; Hill, Jason; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Hawthorne, Peter (7 February 2008). "Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt". Science. 319 (5867): 1235–1238. Bibcode:2008Sci...319.1235F. doi:10.1126/science.1152747. PMID 18258862. Archived from the original on 28 May 2011.
  85. ^ a b Spinks, Rosie J (17 December 2014). "Why does palm oil still dominate the supermarket shelves?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  86. ^ a b c d Browne, Pete (6 November 2009). "Defining 'Sustainable' Palm Oil Production". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  87. ^ a b c d e Gunasegaran, P. (8 October 2011). "The beginning of the end for RSPO?". The Star Online. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  88. ^ a b c Yulisman, Linda (4 June 2011). "RSPO trademark, not much gain for growers: Gapki". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  89. ^ Watson, Elaine (5 October 2012). "WWF: Industry should buy into GreenPalm today, or it will struggle to source fully traceable sustainable palm oil tomorrow". Foodnavigator. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  90. ^ Growing pressure for stricter palm oil standards. Agritrade 19 Jan 2014 Archived 24 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  91. ^ New EU Food Labeling Rules Published (PDF). USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (Report). 12 January 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 April 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  92. ^ a b "What is Green Palm?". Green Palm. Archived from the original on 3 October 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  93. ^ a b Diet Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (PDF). World Health Organization (Report). 2003. p. 82,88. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-09-21. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
  94. ^ "The other oil spill". The Economist. 24 June 2010. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  95. ^ Bradsher, Keith (19 January 2008). "A New, Global Oil Quandary: Costly Fuel Means Costly Calories". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  96. ^ Mancini, A; Imperlini, E; Nigro, E; Montagnese, C; Daniele, A; Orrù, S; Buono, P (2015). "Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health". Molecules. 20 (9): 17339–61. doi:10.3390/molecules200917339. PMID 26393565.
  97. ^ a b c Sacks FM, Lichtenstein AH, Wu JHY, Appel LJ, Creager MA, Kris-Etherton PM, Miller M, Rimm EB, Rudel LL, Robinson JG, Stone NJ, Van Horn LV (2017). "Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory from the American Heart Association". Circulation. 136 (3): e1–e23. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000510. PMID 28620111.
  98. ^ a b Mozaffarian, D; Clarke, R (2009). "Quantitative effects on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease risk of replacing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with other fats and oils" (PDF). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 63 Suppl 2: S22–33. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602976. PMID 19424216.
  99. ^ a b Brown, Ellie; Jacobson, Michael F. (2005). Cruel Oil: How Palm Oil Harms Health, Rainforest & Wildlife (PDF). Center for Science in the Public Interest. Washington, D.C. pp. iv, 3–5. OCLC 224985333. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2009.
  100. ^ Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases, WHO Technical Report Series 916, Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2003, p. 88 (Table 10)