Unilever plc is a British multinational consumer packaged goods company founded on 2 September 1929 following the merger of British soap maker Lever Brothers and Dutch margarine producer Margarine Unie. It is currently headquartered in London.
|Founded||2 September 1929|
|Brands||See list of brands|
|Revenue||€60.073 billion (2022)|
|€10.755 billion (2022)|
|€8.269 billion (2022)|
|Total assets||€77.821 billion (2022)|
|Total equity||€21.701 billion (2022)|
Number of employees
Unilever products include baby food, beauty products, bottled water, breakfast cereals, cleaning agents, condiments, energy drinks, healthcare and hygiene products, ice cream, instant coffee, pet food, pharmaceuticals, soft drinks, tea, and toothpaste. It is the largest producer of soap in the world, and its products are available in over 190 countries.
Unilever's largest brands include Axe (Lynx), Ben & Jerry's, Dove, Hellmann's, Knorr, Lifebuoy, Lux, Magnum, Omo (Persil), Rexona, Sunlight, Sunsilk, and Wall's (Heartbrand). The company is organised into five business groups: Beauty & Wellbeing, Personal Care, Home Care, Nutrition, and Ice Cream. It has research and development facilities in China, India, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
In the 1930s, Unilever acquired the United Africa Company. During the second half of the 20th century, the company increasingly diversified from being a maker of products made of oils and fats, and expanded its operations worldwide. It has made numerous corporate acquisitions, including Lipton (1971), Brooke Bond (1984), Chesebrough-Ponds (1987), Hellmann's (2000), Ben & Jerry's (2000), Slim-Fast (2000), Knorr (2000), Alberto-Culver (2010), Dollar Shave Club (2016), and Pukka Herbs (2017). Unilever divested its specialty chemicals businesses to Imperial Chemical Industries in 1997. In the 2010s, under the leadership of Paul Polman, the company gradually shifted its focus towards health and beauty brands and away from food brands that showed slow growth.
In September 1929, Unilever was formed by a merger of the operations of Dutch Margarine Unie and British soapmaker Lever Brothers, with the name of the resulting company a portmanteau of the name of both companies. In the 1930s, the business grew, and new ventures were launched in Africa and Latin America. During this time, Unilever acquired the United Africa Company, created from a merger of the African & Eastern Trade Corporation and the Royal Niger Company, which oversaw British trade interests in present-day Nigeria during the colonial era. The Nazi occupation of Europe during the Second World War meant that Unilever was unable to reinvest its capital into Europe, so it instead acquired new businesses in the United Kingdom and the United States.
In 1943, it acquired T. J. Lipton, a majority stake in Frosted Foods (owner of the Birds Eye brand in the UK) and Batchelors Peas, one of the largest vegetables canners in the United Kingdom. In 1944, Pepsodent was acquired.
After 1945, Unilever's once-successful American businesses (Lever Brothers and T.J. Lipton) began to decline. As a result, Unilever began to operate a "hands-off" policy towards the subsidiaries and left American management to its own devices.
Sunsilk was first launched in the United Kingdom in 1954. Dove was first launched in the US in 1957. Unilever took full ownership of Frosted Foods in 1957, which it renamed Birds Eye. The US-based Good Humor ice cream business was acquired in 1961. By the mid-1960s, laundry soap and edible fats still contributed around half of Unilever's corporate profits. However, a stagnant market for yellow fats (butter, margarine, and similar products) and increasing competition in detergents and soaps from Procter & Gamble forced Unilever to diversify. In 1971, Unilever acquired the British-based Lipton Ltd from Allied Suppliers. In 1978, National Starch was acquired for $487 million, marking the largest ever foreign-acquisition of a US company at that point.
By the end of the 1970s through acquisitions, Unilever had gained 30 per cent of the Western European ice cream market. In 1982, Unilever management decided to reposition itself from an unwieldy conglomerate to a more concentrated fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) company.
In 1984, Unilever acquired Brooke Bond (maker of PG Tips tea) for £390 million in the company's first successful hostile takeover. In 1986, Unilever strengthened its position in the world skin care market by acquiring Chesebrough-Ponds (merged from Chesebrough Manufacturing and Pond's Creams), the maker of Ragú, Pond's, Aqua-Net, Cutex, and Vaseline in another hostile takeover. In 1989, Unilever bought Calvin Klein Cosmetics, Fabergé, and Elizabeth Arden, but the latter was later sold (in 2000) to FFI Fragrances.
In 1996, Unilever merged Elida Gibbs and Lever Brothers in its UK operations. It also purchased Helene Curtis, significantly expanding its presence in the United States shampoo and deodorant market. The purchase brought Unilever the Suave and Finesse hair-care product brands and Degree deodorant brand.
In 2000, Unilever acquired the boutique mustard retailer Maille, Ben & Jerry's and Slim Fast for £1.63 billion, Bestfoods for £13.4 billion. The Bestfoods acquisition increased Unilever's scale in foods in America, and added brands including Knorr, Marmite, Bovril, and Hellmann's to its portfolio. In exchange for European regulatory approval of the deal, Unilever divested itself of Oxo, Lesieur, McDonnells, Bla Band, Royco, and Batchelors.
In 2001, Unilever split into two divisions: one for foods and one for home and personal care. In the UK, it merged its Lever Brothers and Elida Faberge businesses as Lever Faberge in January 2001.
In 2003, Unilever announced the strategic decision to sell off the Dalda brand in both India and Pakistan. In 2003, Bunge Limited acquired the Dalda brand from Hindustan Unilever Limited for reportedly under Rs 1 billion. On 30 March 2004, Unilever Pakistan accepted an offer of Rs. 1.33 billion for the sale of its Dalda brand and related business of edible oils and fats to the newly incorporated company Dalda Foods (Pvt.) Limited.
In 2002, the company sold its specialty oils and fats division, known as Loders Croklaan, for RM814 million (€218.5 million) to IOI Corporation, a Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia-based oil palm company. As part of the deal, the Loders Croklaan name was maintained. Unilever sold the brands Mazola, Argo & Kingsfords, Karo, Golden Griddle, and Henri's, along with several of its Canadian brands, to ACH Food Companies, an American subsidiary of Associated British Foods.
In 2004, Unilever Bangladesh, which was established in 1964 changed its former name Lever Brothers Bangladesh Ltd to its present name in December 2004, is owned 60.4% by Unilever and 39.6% by the Government of Bangladesh.
In 2009, Unilever agreed to acquire the personal care business of Sara Lee Corporation, including brands such as Radox, Badedas and Duschdas. The Sara Lee acquisition was completed on 6 December 2010.
In 2010, Unilever acquired the Diplom-Is in Denmark, Unilever announced that it had entered into a definitive agreement to sell its consumer tomato products business in Brazil to Cargill, purchased Alberto-Culver, a maker of personal care and household products including Simple, VO5, Nexxus, TRESemmé, and Mrs. Dash, for US$3.7 billion. acquired EVGA's ice cream brands, which included Scandal, Variete and Karabola, and its distribution network in Greece, for an undisclosed amount.
In 2014, Unilever agreed to acquire a majority stake in the China-based water purification company Qinyuan for an undisclosed price, acquired Talenti Gelato & Sorbetto, acquired Camay brand globally and the Zest brand outside of North America and the Caribbean from Procter & Gamble.
In 2015, Unilever acquired British niche skincare brand REN Skincare, This was followed in May 2015 by the acquisition of Kate Somerville Skincare LLC. The company also acquired the Italian premium ice cream maker GROM for an undisclosed amount. Unilever also separated its food spreads business, including its Flora and I Can't Believe It's Not Butter! brands, into a standalone entity named Unilever Baking, Cooking and Spreading. The separation was first announced in December 2014 and was made in response to declining worldwide sales in that product category.
Unilever bought the United States-based startup company Dollar Shave Club for a reported $1b (£764m) to compete in the male grooming market. On 16 August 2016, Unilever acquired Blueair, a supplier of mobile indoor air purification technologies. In September 2016, Unilever acquired Seventh Generation Inc. for $700 million. On 16 December 2016, Unilever acquired Living Proof Inc, a hair care products business.
In 2017, significantly smaller Kraft Heinz made a $143 billion bid for Unilever. The deal was declined by Unilever. On 20 April 2017, Unilever acquired Sir Kensington's, a New York-based condiment maker. On 15 May 2017, the company acquired the personal care and home care brands of Quala, a Latin American consumer goods company. In June, the company acquired Hourglass, a colour cosmetics brand. In July, the company then announced that it had acquired the organic herbal tea business, Pukka Herbs. In September 2017, Unilever acquired Weis, an Australian ice cream business. Later that month Unilever acquired Remgro's interest in Unilever South Africa in exchange for the Unilever South Africa spreads business plus cash consideration. Even later that month, Unilever agreed to acquire Carver Korea, with 2.7billion USD, a skincare business brand of AHC in North Asia. In October 2017, Unilever acquired Brazilian natural and organic food business Mãe Terra. In November, Unilever announced an agreement to acquire the Tazo speciality tea brand from Starbucks. Later in November 2017, the company acquired Sundial Brands, a skincare company. In December 2017, Unilever acquired Schmidt's Naturals, a US natural deodorant and soap company. In December 2017, Unilever sold its margarine and spreads division to investment firm KKR for €6.8bn. The sale was completed in July 2018, and the new company was named Upfield. Upfield's notable brands include Flora, Stork, I Can't Believe It's Not Butter, Rama, Country Crock, Becel, and Blue Band.
In April 2021, Unilever established a new stand-alone beauty business, Elida Beauty, which will own and manage the following brands: Brut, Brylcreem, Timotei, Q-tips, Noxema, TIGI, VO5, Toni & Guy, Matey, Moussel, Monsavon, Impulse, St Ives, Alberto Balsam, Badedas, Fissan, Pento, Pond's, Careess, Lever 2000, Williams, Elida, and Alberto. 
In August 2021, Florida governor Ron DeSantis placed Unilever on a list of "Scrutinized Companies that Boycott Israel" because it had "no current plan to prevent Ben & Jerry's from terminating business activities in Israeli-controlled territories". The ice-cream brand has 90 days to stop engaging in "the BDS movement", or the state will no longer contract with the parent company Unilever or any of its subsidiaries.
In November 2021, Unilever agreed to sell most of its tea business under the Ekaterra division to investment firm CVC Capital Partners for €4.5 billion. This deal excluded the Unilever tea business in India, Indonesia and Nepal, and the Lipton Ice Tea joint-venture with PepsiCo. The deal was completed in summer 2022.
Corporate operations edit
Legal structure edit
Unilever has a holding company Unilever PLC and N.V. with Anglo-Dutch structure, which has its registered office at Port Sunlight in Merseyside, United Kingdom and its head office at Unilever House in London, United Kingdom. The company has been restructured several times, for example in 2018 and 2020 (see "history").
In 2018, Unilever announced its intention to simplify this structure by centralising the duality of legal entities and keeping just one headquarters in Rotterdam, abandoning the London head office. Business groups and staff would have been unaffected, as would the dual listing. On 5 October 2018 the group announced it would cancel the restructuring due to concern that the United Kingdom shareholders would lose value if the company fell out of the London FTSE100. A shareholder vote was planned to decide for the listing of a new Unilever Dutch entity, which would have seen Unilever dropping out of the FTSE 100 Index. When it appeared that the vote would fail, due to uncertainty over the Netherlands dividend tax, the scheme was cancelled on 5 October 2018.
In October 2018, it acquired a 75% stake in the Italian personal-care business Equilibra and acquired the high-end, eco-friendly laundry and household cleaning products company The Laundress for an undisclosed sum. In 2018, UK recruitment website Indeed, named Unilever as the United Kingdom's ninth best private sector employer based on millions of employee ratings and reviews.
In 2020, Unilever announced it has reviewed its corporate structure again and that the company was to merge Unilever N.V. into Unilever PLC forming one holding company to be based in the United Kingdom. However, a Dutch 'exit tax' plan would require Unilever to reconsider this unification. In September 2020 Unilever's Dutch arm shareholders overwhelmingly voted for the N.V. to merge into the PLC. In October 2020 Unilever announced that 99 per cent of shareholders in its UK arm agreed with the merger, i.e., voted to base the group in London. The completion of the unification was announced on 30 November 2020. Since then there is one class of shares.
Senior management edit
In January 2019, Alan Jope succeeded Paul Polman as the chief executive officer. The chief financial officer, Graeme Pitkethly, is executive director. Jope will be proposed as joint executive director at Unilever's 2019 AGM.
Previously, Paul Polman was CEO for ten years, succeeding Patrick Cescau in 2009.
In November 2019, Unilever announced that Nils Andersen would be replacing Chairman Marijn Dekkers, who stepped down after three years in the role.
Gallery of global assets edit
Unilever R&D Centre in Bangalore, India
Unilever R&D Centre in Colworth, United Kingdom
Unilever R&D Centre in Port Sunlight, United Kingdom
Unilever-Haus in Hamburg, Germany
Soap factory in Mannheim, Germany
Financial data edit
The three markets of the United States, China and India account for over one third of turnover.
Thirteen brands account for over half of sales.
Branding and advertising edit
In 1930, the logo of Unilever was in a sans-serif typeface and all-caps. The current Unilever corporate logo was introduced in 2004 and was designed by Wolff Olins, a brand consultancy agency. The 'U' shape is now made up of 25 distinct symbols, each icon representing one of the company's sub-brands or its corporate values. The brand identity was developed around the idea of "adding vitality to life".
Dove describes itself as being dedicated to "help ... women develop a positive relationship with the way they look – helping them raise their self-esteem and realize their full potential". Dove uses advertising to display messages of positive self-esteem. In September 2004 Dove created a Real Beauty campaign, focusing predominately on women of all shapes and colour. Later in 2007, this campaign furthered itself to include women of all ages. This campaign consisted mostly of advertisements, shown on television and popularised by the internet. Dove fell under scrutiny from the general public as they felt the Dove advertisements described the opinion that cellulite was still unsightly and that women's aging process was something for which to be ashamed.
Axe, known as Lynx in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Australia and New Zealand, is a toiletries brand marketed towards young men between the ages of 16 and 24. Its marketing is a "tongue-in-cheek take on the 'mating game'", suggesting that women are instantly drawn to men who use the products. Unlike Dove's long-running beauty campaign, Lynx advertising often creates mini-series of advertisements based around a singular product rather than communicating an overarching idea. Using images the company knows it will receive complaints garners the brand more free publicity and notoriety, often through controversy. A wide variety of these adverts have been banned in countries around the world. In 2012, Lynx's 'Clean Balls' advert was banned. In 2011, in the United Kingdom, Lynx's shower gel campaign was banned.
Both advertising campaigns make stark comparisons between how women and their sexuality are portrayed in advertising and sales efficiency. Lynx commonly portrays women as hypersexual, flawless and stereotypically attractive who are aroused by men, of all ages and stature, because of their use of the Lynx product.
Social media advertising edit
On 26 June 2020, Unilever said it would halt advertising to U.S. customers on social media giants Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter until at least the end of 2020 following a campaign started by various American civil-rights groups, such as the Anti-Defamation League and the NAACP, protesting Facebook's policies on hate speech and misinformation named "Stop Hate For Profit". However, Unilever did not formally sign on to the campaign. The company cited their "Responsibility Framework and the polarized atmosphere in the U.S." and said that "continuing to advertise on these platforms at this time would not add value to people and society".
Later that year in December, Unilever revealed it would resume advertising on Facebook and its affiliated platforms, stating that Facebook had made enough progress in changing their management to continue advertising with them. Executive vice president of global media for the company, Luis Di Como, released a clarifying statement: "We are encouraged by the commitments the platforms are making to build healthier environments for consumers, brands and society in alignment with the principles of the Global Alliance for Responsible Media. This is why we plan to end our social media investment pause in the U.S. in January. We will continue to reassess our position as necessary."
Corporate sponsorship edit
Environmental record edit
Mercury contamination edit
In 2001, a mercury thermometer factory operated by the Indian subsidiary of Unilever in the South Indian hilltown of Kodaikanal was shut down by state regulators after the company was caught dumping toxic mercury wastes in a densely populated part of town. By the company's own admissions, more than 2 tonnes of mercury were discharged into Kodaikanal's environment. A 2011 Government of India study on workers' health concluded that many workers suffered from illnesses caused by workplace exposure to mercury. The scandal opened up a series of issues in India such as corporate liability, corporate accountability and corporate negligence.
In March 2016, Unilever reached an out of court settlement (for an undisclosed amount) with 591 ex-workers of the unit who had sued the company for knowingly exposing them to the toxic element.
Palm oil edit
In 2014, Unilever was criticised by Greenpeace for causing deforestation. In 2008, Greenpeace UK criticised the company for buying palm oil from suppliers that were damaging Indonesia's rainforests. By 2008, Indonesia was losing 2% of its remaining rainforest each year, having the fastest deforestation rate of any country. The United Nations Environmental Programme stated that palm oil plantations are the leading cause of deforestation in Indonesia.
Furthermore, Indonesia was the 14th largest emitter of greenhouse gases, largely due to the destruction of rainforests for the palm oil industry, which contributed to 4% of global green house gas emissions. According to Greenpeace, palm oil expansion was taking place with little oversight from central or local government as procedures for environmental impact assessment, land-use planning and ensuring a proper process for development of concessions were neglected. Plantations that were off-limits, by law, for palm oil plantations were being established as well as the illegal use of fire to clear forest areas was commonplace.
Unilever, as a founding member of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), responded by publicising its plan to obtain all of its palm oil from sources that are certified as sustainable by 2015. It claims to have met this goal in 2012 and is encouraging the rest of the industry to become 100% sustainable by 2020.
In Côte d'Ivoire, one of Unilever's palm oil suppliers was accused of clearing forest for plantations, an activity that threatened a primate species, Miss Waldron's red colobus. Unilever intervened to halt the clearances pending the results of an environmental assessment.
According to an Amnesty International report published in 2016, Unilever's palm oil supplier Wilmar International profited from child labour and forced labour. Some workers were extorted, threatened or not paid for work. Some workers suffered severe injuries from banned chemicals. In 2016 Singapore-based Wilmar International was the world's biggest palm oil grower.
Plastic pollution edit
In 2019, Unilever was cited by BreakFreeFromPlastic as one of the top ten global plastic polluters.
Nevertheless, in 2019, Unilever announced that it plans to halve its non-recycled plastic packaging by 2025. In 2020, Unilever joined 13 EU member states and more than 60 companies to sign a pact to use recycled plastic for all plastic packaging and single-use plastic products by 2025.
In June 2022, a Reuters report revealed that Unilever had lobbied the governments of India and the Philippines to stop legislation which would ban the sale of cosmetics in single-use plastic sachets, despite vowing in 2020 to stop using them. The design of these sachets had been called 'evil' by Hanneke Faber, Unilever's president for Global Food and Refreshments, 'because you cannot recycle it'. The bans were then dropped by lawmakers. In Sri Lanka, the company pressed the government to reconsider a proposed ban on sachets, and then tried to manoeuvre around the ban after regulations were implemented.
Rainforest Alliance edit
Unilever certifies its tea products by the Rainforest Alliance scheme. The company has stated that at least 50% of the tea in its products originates from certified farms, compared to the Alliance's 30% minimum entry point. Unilever decided on the scheme over Fairtrade, because according to the company's analysis, Fairtrade might "lack the scale and the organizational flexibility to certify industrial tea estates".
The Rainforest Alliance certification scheme has been criticised for not offering producers minimum or guaranteed price, therefore, leaving them vulnerable to market price variations. The alternative certificate, Fairtrade, has received similar criticism. The Rainforest Alliance certification has furthermore been criticised for allowing the use of the seal on products that contain only a minimum of 30% of certified content, which according to some endangers the integrity of the certification.
Salmonella contamination edit
In July 2016, rumours about salmonella contamination in cereals spread among Israeli consumers. Initially, Unilever did not provide public information about the subject and queries on the matter were rebuffed by the company as a non-story and nonsense. On 26 July 2016, Unilever had stopped transferring cornflakes to retailer chains. On 28 July, Yedioth Ahronoth reported tens of thousands of boxes of breakfast cereal had been destroyed. By 28 July, despite the company's assurances that nothing contaminated was released for consumption, many customers stopped buying Unilever products and started to throw away all cornflakes made by Unilever. The company withheld information about the affected production dates. Unilever had published more information about Telma cereals handled on the packaging line in which the contamination was discovered and that a Telma announcement had been made: "We again stress that all Telma products in the stores and in your homes are safe to eat. According to our company's strict procedures, every production batch is checked and put on hold. These products are not marketed until test results for this product series are returned, confirming that all is well. If any flaw is discovered, the batch is not marketed to stores, as was the case." In the following days the Health Minister, Yakov Litzman, threatened to pull Unilever's licence in Israel. He accused Unilever of lying to his ministry regarding salmonella-infected breakfast cereals.
On 7 August 2016, Globes reported that contamination may be sourced in pigeon faeces, the Health Ministry said that there might be other sources for the contamination and pigeon faeces are not the only possible source. Globes also said that the production line is automatic ("without human hands") and the possibility that the source is human is a very slim chance. On 8 August 2016, the Israeli Health minister suspended a manufacturing license until Unilever carry out several corrections; the action came after an inspection of the Arad plant, stating "This was a series of negligent mistakes and not an incident with malicious intent by the firm's management and quality control procedures." An investigation led by Prof. Itamr Grutto and Eli Gordon concluded that the event was caused by negligence. Reportedly the cereals produced between the 18th and 20th at the Arad plant had traces of salmonella.
Two class actions were filed in Israel, one for a sum of 1.2 million NIS (~$329K USD) against Unilever for hiding the contamination and misleading the public, and another for a sum of 76 million NIS (~$23m USD) against Unilever after a 15-year-old teen had been hospitalised for Salmonellosis after allegedly contracting it from Unilever products.
Hampton Creek lawsuit edit
In November 2014, Unilever filed a lawsuit against rival Hampton Creek. In the suit, Unilever claimed that Hampton Creek was "seizing market share" and the losses were causing Unilever "irreparable harm". Unilever used standard of identity regulations in claiming that Hampton Creek's Just Mayo products are falsely advertised because they don't contain eggs. The Washington Post headline on the suit read "Big Food's Weird War Over The Meaning of Mayonnaise." The Los Angeles Times began its story with "Big Tobacco, Big Oil, now Big Mayo?" A Wall Street Journal writer described that "Giant corporation generates huge quantities of free advertising and brand equity for tiny rival by suing it." In December 2014, Unilever dropped the claim.
Pressuring media to promote skin whiteners edit
Kinita Shenoy, an editor of the Sri Lanka edition of Cosmopolitan, refused to promote skin whiteners for a brand of Unilever. Unilever put pressure on Shenoy and asked Cosmopolitan to fire her.
Violence against striking workers edit
In 2019, security forces hired by Unilever attacked workers that were peacefully picketing at a Unilever facility in Durban in South Africa. Workers were shot at with rubber bullets and paint balls and sprayed with pepper spray while attempting to walk to their cars parked on the premises. Four workers were seriously injured.
Trade in the occupied Palestinian Territories edit
In July 2021, Ben & Jerry's announced plans to end sales in "Occupied Palestinian Territory", within which Israeli settlements are considered illegal under international law, while continuing sales in other parts of Israel. Prior to the release of the statement, Unilever had clashed with Ben & Jerry's independent board of directors, which had not wanted to comment on the continuation of sales in other parts of Israel, as this required board approval. Board chair Anuradha Mittalttal said the board had resolved to end sales in Israeli settlements in July 2020, but the CEO, Matthew McCarthy, appointed by Unilever in 2018, "never operationalized" the resolution.
In June 2022, Unilever announced that it had sold its Ben & Jerry's division in Israel to American Quality Products, the company that has the exclusive license to sell Ben & Jerry's products in Israel and the Palestinian territories. The sale of the division to American Quality Products allows it to continue to sell Ben & Jerry's products in Israel and the Palestinian territories. Later that day, Ben & Jerry's tweeted that it disagreed with its parent company's decision and that the "arrangement means Ben & Jerry's in Israel will be owned and operated by AQP. [...] We continue to believe it is inconsistent with Ben & Jerry's values for our ice cream to be sold in the Occupied Palestinian Territory."
Trade in Russia amid the Russo-Ukrainian War edit
Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, many Western companies curtailed their operations in Russia. Unilever have temporarily suspended all imports and exports to Russia, but its Russian wing continues to trade there. Between 2021 and 2022 profits in Russia doubled to 9.2 billion rubles (€108 million) and the business paid 3.2 billion rubles (€38 million) in taxes; giving rise to criticism that the company is directly helping to fund Russia's war effort in Ukraine.
In response to this, and claims that the company had broken previous promises to only sell essential items, and to cut all advertising spending in Russia, Unilever's CEO Alan Jope said: "We still believe that staying is the best option, both to prevent our company from falling directly or indirectly into Russian hands and to protect our people."
In July 2023, the Ukrainian National Agency on Corruption Prevention included Unilever in the list of “war sponsors” for not ceasing operations in Russia, but continuing to profit from this market. It was reported that the company paid €331 million in taxes in Russia in 2022, with a spokesperson for the Ukraine Solidarity Project saying: "Unilever is contributing hundreds of millions in tax revenues to a state which is killing civilians and funding a mercenary group about to be designated a terrorist organisation in the UK. It risks its staff and resources being mobilised into Putin’s machine. Some of the world’s biggest companies have already left Russia. It’s possible – after 16 months of war – that the time for excuses has passed." In a letter to B4Ukraine, Unilever said it paid 3.8bn roubles (£33m) in tax in 2022, similar to the previous year.
On 25 July 2023, the new CEO of Unilever, Hein Schumacher, appointed that month, told reporters that the company had considered leaving Russia or selling the business. The first option, according to him, was abandoned, fearing the nationalization of the company, as was the second, because they could not find a worthy buyer. As a result, the continuation of a limited presence in Russia was considered the lesser evil. "None of the options are actually good, but the final option of operating our business in a constrained manner is the least bad and that is where we are," he said.
See also edit
- Traded through PT Unilever Indonesia Tbk
- "Annual Results 2022" (PDF). Unilever. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
- "At a glance". Unilever. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
- "UK aid and Unilever to target a billion people in global handwashing campaign". Gov.uk. British Government. Archived from the original on 23 July 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- "Our approach to sustainability". Unilever. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Unilever R&D Locations Archived 9 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Unilever, viewed 19 December 2013
- Boyle, Matthew; Jarvis, Paul (4 December 2014). "Unilever Spreads Split Boosts Chance of Exit as Shares Gain". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
- "1920–1929: Unilever is formed". Unilever global company website. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015.
- "The United Africa Company Ltd". Unilever Archives. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
- Ben Wubs (2008). International Business and National War Interests: Unilever Between Reich and Empire, 1939–45. Routledge. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-134-11652-2.
- Oddy, Derek J. (2003). From Plain Fare to Fusion Food: British Diet from the 1890s to the 1990s. Boydell Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0851159348.
- Jones, Geoffrey; Miskell, Peter (2007). "Acquisitions and firm growth: Creating Unilever's ice cream and tea business" (PDF). Business History. 49 (1): 8–28. doi:10.1080/00076790601062974. S2CID 40340372. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 January 2021. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Jones, Geoffrey; Kraft, Alison (2004). "Corporate venturing: the origins of Unilever's pregnancy test" (PDF). Business History. 46 (1): 100–122. doi:10.1080/00076790412331270139. S2CID 11532001. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "Unilever sets aside $427m for expansion". The Jakarta Post. 20 May 2011. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
- Jones, Geoffrey (9 December 2002). "Unilever – A Case Study". Working Knowledge. Harvard Business School. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
- Greg Thain; John Bradley (2014). FMCG: The Power of Fast-Moving Consumer Goods. First Edition Design Pub. p. 426. ISBN 978-1-62287-647-1. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- Manuel Hensmans; Gerry Johnson; George Yip (2013). Strategic Transformation: Changing While Winning. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-137-26845-7.
- "1960–1969". unilever.co.uk. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Manuel Hensmans; Gerry Johnson; George Yip (2013). Strategic Transformation: Changing While Winning. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 140. ISBN 978-1-137-26845-7.
- Manuel Hensmans; Gerry Johnson; George Yip (2013). Strategic Transformation: Changing While Winning. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-137-26845-7.
- Collins, Glenn (15 February 1996). "Unilever Agrees to Buy Helene Curtis". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "Ghana Business Index". Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2008.
- Jones, Geoffrey (2005). Renewing Unilever: Transformation and Tradition. Oxford University Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-19-160842-1. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- "Unilever moots merger of Elida Gibbs and Lever Bros". Marketing Week. UK. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
Unilever is understood to be planning to merge its Elida Gibbs and Lever Brother's operations after Elida Gibbs relocates its headquarters to Lever House in Kingston, Surrey.
- Jones, Geoffrey (2005). Renewing Unilever: Transformation and Tradition. Oxford University Press. p. 364. ISBN 978-0-19-160842-1. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- "Sustainable agriculture". unilever.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "Unilever swallows up French mustard maker for £460m". The Independent. 25 November 1999. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- Hamilton, Martha M. (13 April 2000). "Unilever to Buy Ben & Jerry's". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 10 November 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- "Unilever buys Slim-Fast". CNN Money. 12 April 2000. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- Journal, Nikhil Deogun and Ernest BeckStaff Reporters of The Wall Street (7 June 2000). "Unilever Wins Battle to Buy Bestfoods; U.S. Firm's Board Backs $20.3 Billion Bid". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- Osborn, Andrew (29 September 2000). "Unilever sells Oxo to seal £13bn deal". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- Roundup, A. WSJ com News (28 September 2000). "EU Clears Unilever's Purchase Of Bestfoods, With Conditions". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- "Unilever splits units amid 14% drop in 2Q results". CNN Money. 4 August 2000. Archived from the original on 25 October 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- Witt, Joanna (11 January 2001). "Unilever creates Lever Faberge in UK consolidation". Marketing Magazine. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- "Seven years after delisting, Unilever Pakistan is investing heavily in growth". Profit by Pakistan Today. 10 January 2021. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
- Viveat Susan Pinto (5 March 2015). "40 years ago...And now: How Dalda built, and lost, its monopoly (Dalda was established in an advertising blitzkrieg but later ran into trouble)". Business Standard (newspaper). Retrieved 20 September 2021.
- Dilawar Hussain (5 January 2008). "Dalda grabs Tullo in edible oil business". Dawn (newspaper). Retrieved 20 September 2021.
- "IOI to buy Unilever's oils and fats division". 2 September 2002. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Food giant Unilever to sell 15 North American brands including Mazola cooking oil". newson6.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- "Unilever Bangladesh Limited: Private Company Information". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 29 October 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "Unilever Name change". Unilever Bangladesh. 1 December 2004. Archived from the original on 28 September 2020. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
- "About Unilever". Unilever Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
UBL is a Joint Venture of the Government of Bangladesh and Unilever. Unilever holds 60.4% share in UBL.
- "Unilever cuts down water usage". The Daily Star. 8 October 2015. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- Nicholson, Marcy (25 May 2007). "Unilever to sell environmentally sustainable tea". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Reuters. Archived from the original on 31 July 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- "Unilever to buy Sara Lee's personal care unit for $1.87B". CNN Money. 25 September 2009. Archived from the original on 21 October 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- cosmeticsdesign-europe.com. "Unilever completes acquisition of Sara Lee's body care business". cosmeticsdesign-europe.com. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- Tse, Andrea. "Unilever Buys TINE Danish Dairy Unit". TheStreet. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- "Cargill pays $350.5 million for Unilever's Brazilian tomato biz". Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- Nicholson, Chris V. (27 September 2010). "Unilever Makes a $3.7 Billion Deal to Buy Alberto Culver". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- "Unilever Acquires Greek Ice Cream Brands | FDBusiness.com". Archived from the original on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- "The Maker of Dove Soaps Will Phase Out Exfoliating Plastic Microbeads". Business Insider. 27 December 2012. Archived from the original on 31 December 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- London, Laurie Burkitt in Beijing and Peter Evans in (10 March 2014). "Unilever Invests in China Water-Purification Company". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
- "Unilever Buys Talenti Gelato to Bolster Ice-Cream Business". Bloomberg. 2 December 2014. Archived from the original on 29 August 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Procter & Gamble to Sell Camay and Zest to Unilever". The Wall Street Journal. 22 December 2014. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- Daneshkhu, Scheherazade (2 March 2015). "Unilever to buy REN skincare brand". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 18 July 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- "Unilever buys U.S. skincare brand Kate Somerville". Reuters. 6 May 2015. Archived from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- Landini, Francesca (1 October 2015). "Unilever buys premium Italian ice cream maker GROM". Reuters. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- Chaudhuri, Saabira (19 January 2016). "Unilever Spreads Division's CEO Quits". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- Spary, Sara (4 December 2014). "Unilever to separate spreads business to give brands more 'focus'". Marketing Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- Boyle, Matthew; Jarvis, Paul (4 December 2014). "Unilever Spreads Split Boosts Chance of Exit as Shares Gain". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- "Shaving start-up firm bought by Unilever". BBC News. BBC. 20 July 2016. Archived from the original on 17 November 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "Unilever to buy Blueair air purifiers". Reuters. 16 August 2016. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- Terlep, Sharon; Chaudhuri, Saabira (19 September 2016). "Unilever Buys 'Green' Products Maker Seventh Generation". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- Thomas, Ellen (16 December 2016). "Unilever Buys Living Proof, Jennifer Aniston Out". Women's Wear Daily. Archived from the original on 18 April 2021. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- Anne Steele Chaudhuri saabira (17 February 2017). "Kraft Makes $143 Billion Merger Bid for Unilever". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- Sierra Tishgart (21 April 2017). "That Ketchup That Isn't Heinz Is Worth $140 Million". Grubstreet. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- "Kraft Heinz Abandons Unilever Bid". Morning Star. 21 February 2017. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Strom, Stephanie (20 April 2017). "Unilever Buys Sir Kensington's, Maker of Fancy Ketchup". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- "Unilever to buy Latin American personal care brands from Quala". Reuters. 15 May 2017. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- Collins, Allison (19 June 2017). "Unilever Adds Hourglass to Portfolio". Women's Wear Daily. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- "Pukka tea firm vows to stay ethical as PG Tips owner takes it over". The Guardian. 7 September 2017. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- "Unilever gobbles up iconic Weis brand from founders". Australian Financial Review. 9 August 2017. Archived from the original on 17 March 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- "Unilever buys out Remgro in South African unit". MarketWatch. 22 September 2017. Archived from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- "Unilever to buy Carver Korea for €2.27bn". Financial Times. 25 September 2018. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- "Unilever to buy Brazilian organic food business Mãe Terra". Financial Times. 2 October 2017. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- "Starbucks To Sell Tazo Tea Brand To Unilever For $384 Million". Forbes. 2 November 2017. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- "Unilever packs more acquisitions in the cupboard". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
- "Today's Stock Market News and Analysis from Nasdaq.com". NASDAQ. Archived from the original on 17 February 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- Buckley, Thomas (15 December 2017). "Terms of Service Violation". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- Treanor, Jill (15 December 2017). "Unilever sells household name spreads to KKR for £6bn". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 May 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- "July 2018 – Upfield". upfield.com. 3 July 2018. Archived from the original on 30 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- "Our Brands". upfield.com. Archived from the original on 30 August 2018. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
- "Covid-19: Unilever contributes over €100m". New Straits Times. 27 March 2020. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Unilever To Contribute Eur 100 Mln Through Donations Of Soap, Sanitiser, Bleach And Food". Reuters. 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 10 May 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Unilever establishes Elida Beauty". Happi. 30 April 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
- Williams, Jordan (3 August 2021). "Florida takes action against Ben & Jerry's parent company amid fight over Israel". The Hill. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
- "Unilever offloads black tea business as UK passion for cuppa goes cold". the Guardian. 18 November 2021. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
- "Unilever announces completion of the sale of its Tea business, ekaterra, to CVC Capital Partners Fund VIII". unilever.com. 1 July 2022.
- "Governance of Unilever – 1 January 2012" (PDF). Unilever. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- "Unilever, Britain's third-biggest company, moves headquarters to Rotterdam after 100 years in London". The Independent. 15 March 2018. Archived from the original on 10 December 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- "Unilever CEO expects shareholder support for UK HQ move". Reuters. 8 September 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
- Abboud, Leila (5 October 2018). "Unilever backs down on plan to move headquarters from UK". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
- "Ben & Jerry's owner picks Netherlands for HQ in snub to London". CNN Money. 15 March 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- Geller, Martinne (11 September 2018). "Unilever details plans for December listing of new Dutch entity". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
- "Unilever drops plan to leave London". MarketWatch. 5 October 2018. Archived from the original on 5 October 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Unilever closes acquisition of 75% stake in Equilibra". Unilever global company website. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- "Unilever to acquire 75% of Italian personal care business Equilibra". Unilever global company website. Archived from the original on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- Segran, Elizabeth (29 January 2019). "Exclusive: The Laundress founders come clean about why they sold to Unilever". Fast Company. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Taylor, Chloe (22 October 2018). "Apple named best private sector employer in the UK". CNBC. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
- "Top-Rated Workplaces: Best in the Private Sector – Indeed Blog". Indeed Blog. 22 October 2018. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
- "Unilever opts for single HQ in London". Relocate Magazine. Archived from the original on 19 November 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
- "30 Nov 2020 00:14 | Shares Magazine". sharesmagazine.co.uk. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
- Nilsson, Patricia. "Unilever wins Dutch backing for London move". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- Nilsson, Patricia. "Unilever's London-base move approved by shareholders". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 25 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- "Unification of Unilever's Corporate Structure – Court Approval" (PDF). Unilever. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- "Unilever's Dutch and British arms merge after 90 years ahead of Brexit". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 28 November 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- "'An important day': Unilever announces completion of unification plans". Evening Standard. 30 November 2020. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- Key, Alys (29 November 2018). "Unilever boss Paul Polman steps down after 10 years". Irish Independent. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- Malviya, Sagar (21 October 2017). "Sales growth still behind historic levels: Unilever CFO Graeme Pitkethly". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
- "Alan Jope". Unilever global company website. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- "In Surprise Move, Unilever Names Polman CEO". Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
- "Unilever appoints Nils Andersen as chairman, replacing Dekkers". Reuters. 13 November 2019. Archived from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
- "Unilever names former Heinz exec Schumacher as CEO". CNBC. 30 January 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
- "Unilever Dividende | KGV | Bilanz | Umsatz | Gewinn". boerse.de (in German). Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
- "Annual Report 2021" (PDF). Retrieved 27 July 2022.
- Sterling, Toby (4 September 2008). "Unilever: Nestle executive to take CEO job". USA Today. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- Airey, David (1 December 2011). "Unilever icons explained". Logo Design Love. Logodesignlove.com. Archived from the original on 11 February 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Unilever case study". Wolff Olins. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Our Vision". mydove.com.au. Archived from the original on 28 February 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "'Real women' ad sets new trend". 29 July 2004. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "WIMN – Dove's "Real Beauty" Backlash". wimnonline.org. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Claire Cozens. "Lynx marketing campaign". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "'Offensive' Lynx adverts banned by advertising watchdog". BBC News. 23 November 2011. Archived from the original on 19 March 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Rodionova, Zlata (23 June 2016). "Unilever, the owner of Magnum and Lynx, vows to end gender stereotyping in its adverts". The Independent. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- "ASA Ruling on Unilever UK Ltd". Advertising Standards Authority. 23 November 2011. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Patel, Sahil (17 December 2020). "Unilever Says It Will Resume Advertising on Facebook in U.S." The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 24 December 2020. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
- "Stop Hate for Profit". Stop Hate for Profit. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
- Fung, Brian (26 June 2020). "Facebook and Twitter stocks dive as Unilever halts advertising". CNN. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
- Tate. "The Unilever Series | Tate Modern". Tate. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
- Eade, Deborah; Sayer, John (2006). Development and the Private Sector: Consuming Interests. Kumarian Press. ISBN 978-1-56549-218-9. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
- "Final Report of the GOI Committee". Government of India. 9 November 2011. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "After 15 years Unilever settles with Indian factory workers over mercury poisoning". The Washington Post. 19 March 2016. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Unilever admits toxic dumping: will clean up but not come clean". Greenpeace. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Ape protest at Unilever factory". BBC. Archived from the original on 24 April 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- "Palm Oil: Cooking the Climate". Greenpeace. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "EDGAR – GHG (CO2, CH4, N2O, F-gases) emission time series 1990–2012 per region/country". European Commission. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- "How Unilever Palm Oil Suppliers are Burning Up Borneo" (PDF). Greenpeace International. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- "Unilever commits to certified sustainable palm oil | Unilever Global". Unilever.com. 29 August 2012. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- "Unilever's Position on Palm Oil Sourcing" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
- "Manifesto for the Conservation of the Tanoé Swamps Forest". Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2008.
- The great palm oil scandal: Labour abuses behind big brand names Archived 23 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine Amnesty International 30 November 2016
- Segran, Elizabeth (1 November 2019). "Coca-Cola, Nestlé, and PepsiCo are the world's biggest plastic polluters – again". Fast Company. Archived from the original on 8 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
- "Unilever plans to halve its non-recycled plastic packaging by 2025". NPR. 7 October 2019. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
- "Unilever says it wants to halve its use of 'virgin' plastic by 2025". CNBC. 7 October 2019. Archived from the original on 18 February 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
- "Nestle, Unilever Join EU Nations on Voluntary Plastic Recycling". Bloomberg Law. 6 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
- Brock, Joe; Geddie, John (22 June 2022). "Unilever's Plastic Playbook". Reuters. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
- "Unilever sustainable tea Part 1: Leapfrogging to mainstream" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- Ethical Corporation (January 2005). Bean Wars. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
- "TransFair USA | Board Members". 27 June 2009. Archived from the original on 9 January 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "Where have all the cornflakes gone?". ynet. 28 July 2016. Archived from the original on 31 August 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- דברת-מזריץ, עדי (27 July 2016). "מה גרם ליוניליוור לעצור את שיווקן של אלפי אריזות דגני בוקר?". TheMarker. Archived from the original on 22 September 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- "Contamination feared in Israeli cornflakes". Arutz Sheva. 28 July 2016. Archived from the original on 31 July 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- "Salmonella in cornflakes: 'I don't trust Unilever products anymore'". ynetnews. 28 July 2016. Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- דברת-מזריץ, עדי; זרחיה, צבי (1 August 2016). "הזיהום בקורנפלקס: יוניליוור מסרבת לחשוף תאריכי הייצור וכמה אלימים החיידקים". themarker.com. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016 – via TheMarker.
- "Unilever Israel updates on cereal contamination". Globes. Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- "Health minister threatens to revoke Unilever's license after recall". Archived from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- "האם קורנפלקס של יוניליוור בא במגע עם לשלשת יונים או הפרשות עובד?". Globes. 8 August 2016. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
- "Unilever has license suspended for selling Salmonella-tainted cornflakes". The Times of Israel. 8 August 2016. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- "חשד נוסף לסלמונלה: ספק טחינה גדול הודיע על החזרת מוצרים – וואלה! חדשות". 31 August 2016. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- "סלמונלה במפעל יוניליוור? החברה: האריזות לא יצאו לשיווק – גלובס". Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- לוי, זוהר שחר (2 August 2016). "ייצוגית ראשונה בפרשת הקורנפלקס: צרכנים דורשים 1.2 מיליון שקל מיונילוור ישראל". Ynet. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- "עוד ייצוגית נגד יוניליוור: "הסתירה את הסלמונלה במשך יותר מחודש"". Globes. 24 August 2016. Archived from the original on 25 August 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "חשד נוסף לסלמונלה ביוניליוור: ספק טחינה לחברה הודיע על החזרת מוצרים". walla (in Hebrew). 31 August 2016. Archived from the original on 1 September 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- "Unilever and Procter & Gamble in price fixing fine". BBC News. 13 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 May 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "Unilever and Procter & Gamble in price-fixing fine". BBC News. 13 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 May 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "Huge price-fixing fine is upheld". The Connexion. 28 October 2016. Archived from the original on 9 February 2017. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- Legrand, Gaëlle (28 October 2016). "Amende record confirmée pour L'Oréal, Gillette et Colgate-Palmolive". Ouest-France (in French). Archived from the original on 2 November 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Harwell, Drew (10 November 2014). "Big Food's weird war over the meaning of mayonnaise, America's top condiment". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "Hampton Creek Plans To Counter-Sue Unilever Over Mayo Fight". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Hellmann's Maker Sues Competitor Because Free Markets Are Hard". Reason. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Big Food's Weird War Over The Meaning Of Mayonnaise, America's Top Condiment". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Vegan Mayonnaise Maker Sued By Food Giant Unilever". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Giant Corporation Generates Huge Quantities of Free Advertising and Brand Equity For Tiny Rival by Suing It". @mims/Twitter. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Hampton Creek: The History of a Mayo Startup in 5 Controversies". Fortune. Archived from the original on 21 June 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "Unilever Pushed Asian Influencers To Promote Skin Whiteners. They Fought Back". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on 3 November 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
- "Crèmes blanchissantes : Unilever fait virer une journaliste – Par La rédaction | Arrêt sur images". arretsurimages.net. Archived from the original on 5 September 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
- Carlile, Clare (11 September 2020). "Is Unilever still failing to respect its workers rights?". Ethical Consumer. Archived from the original on 6 December 2021. Retrieved 6 December 2021.
- Hage, Mark (5 August 2021). "We got Ben & Jerry's to stop selling in Israeli settlements. Here's how we did it". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- Solon, Olivia (20 July 2021). "Ben & Jerry's withdraws sales from Israeli settlements but clashes with parent company Unilever". NBC News. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- Zilber, Ariel (29 June 2022). "Israel touts victory over 'anti-Semites' as Ben & Jerry's sold to local licensee". New York Post.
- Zilber, Ariel (30 June 2022). "Ben & Jerry's slam Unilever's ice cream sale to Israeli licensee". New York Post.
- Ben & Jerry's [@benandjerrys] (30 June 2022). "We are aware of the Unilever announcement" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 29 June 2022. Retrieved 22 August 2022 – via Twitter.
We are aware of the Unilever announcement. While our parent company has taken this decision, we do not agree with it. Unilever's arrangement means Ben & Jerry's in Israel will be owned and operated by AQP. Our company will no longer profit from Ben & Jerry's in Israel. We continue to believe it is inconsistent with Ben & Jerry's values for our ice cream to be sold in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.
- "Over 1,000 Companies Have Curtailed Operations in Russia—But Some Remain". Yale School of Management. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
- "Unilever refuses to stop selling products in Russia despite championing 'social purpose'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
- "Action with Ukraine". Action With Ukraine. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
- "Unilever doubles profits in Russia, but says it didn't break earlier promises". NL Times. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
- "Украина внесла компанию Unilever в список «спонсоров войны»". Rbc.ru (in Russian). 3 July 2023.
- Butler, Sarah (3 July 2023). "Unilever named 'international sponsor of war' by Ukraine". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
- "Unilever to comply with Russian conscription law if staff called up". The Guardian.
- Boland, Hannah (23 July 2023). "Unilever to allow its 3,000 Russian workers to be conscripted". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 July 2023.
- "Abandon, sell, keep? Unilever's Russia conundrum". Reuters. 25 July 2023.
Further reading edit
- Austin, James and James Quinn. Ben & Jerry's: Preserving Mission and Brand within Unilever (Harvard Business School Publishing, 2005)
- Fieldhouse, D. K. Unilever overseas: The anatomy of a multinational 1895–1965 (Hoover Institution Press, 1979).
- Jones, Geoffrey. Renewing Unilever: Transformation and Tradition (2005) excerpt
- Sitapati, Sudhir. The CEO Factory: Management Lessons from Hindustan Unilever (2019)
- Wubs, Ben. International business and national war interests: Unilever between Reich and empire, 1939–45 (Taylor & Francis, 2008)
- Official website
- Business data for Unilever: