FTSE 100 Index
The Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index, also called the FTSE 100 Index, FTSE 100, FTSE, or, informally, the "Footsie" //, is a share index of the 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange with the highest market capitalisation. It is seen as a gauge of prosperity for businesses regulated by UK company law. The index is maintained by the FTSE Group, a subsidiary of the London Stock Exchange Group.
FTSE 100 Index performance between 1984 and 2015
|Exchanges||London Stock Exchange|
|Market cap||£1.814 trillion|
(as of May 2020)
The index is maintained by the FTSE Group, a now wholly owned subsidiary of the London Stock Exchange which originated as a joint venture between the Financial Times and the London Stock Exchange. It is calculated in real time and published every second when the market is open.
The FTSE 100 broadly consists of the largest 100 qualifying UK companies by full market value. The total market value of a company is calculated by multiplying the share price of the company by the total number of shares they have issued. Many of these are internationally focused companies, however, so the index's movements are a fairly weak indicator of how the UK economy is faring and are significantly affected by the exchange rates of the Pound. A better indication of the UK economy is the FTSE 250 Index, as it contains a smaller proportion of international companies.
FTSE 100 companies represent about 81% of the entire market capitalisation of the London Stock Exchange. Even though the FTSE All-Share Index is more comprehensive, the FTSE 100 is by far the most widely used UK stock market indicator. Other related indices are the FTSE 250 Index (which includes the next largest 250 companies after the FTSE 100), the FTSE 350 Index (which is the aggregation of the FTSE 100 and 250), FTSE SmallCap Index and the FTSE Fledgling Index. The FTSE All-Share aggregates the FTSE 100, FTSE 250 and FTSE SmallCap.
Component companies must meet a number of requirements set out by the FTSE Group, including having a full listing on the London Stock Exchange with a Sterling or Euro denominated price on the Stock Exchange Electronic Trading Service, and meeting certain tests on nationality, free float, and liquidity.
Continuous trading on the London Stock Exchange starts at 08:00 and ends at 16:30 (when the closing auction starts), and closing values are taken at 16:35.
In the FTSE indices, share prices are weighted by free-float capitalisation, so that the larger companies, with more of their stock "floating", make more of a difference to the index than smaller companies. The basic formula for these indices is:
The free float adjustment factor represents the percentage of all issued shares that are readily available for trading, rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5%. The free-float capitalisation of a company is its market capitalisation multiplied by its free float adjustment factor. It therefore does not include restricted stocks, such as those held by company insiders.
The index reached the following record values:
|Closing||7,877.45||22 May 2018|
|Intraday||7,903.50||22 May 2018|
The index began on 3 January 1984 at the base level of 1000. The highest closing value of 7,877.45 was reached on 22 May 2018. The highest intra-day value of 7,903.50 was reached on 22 May 2018.
|Year||Closing level||Change in Index
|Change in Index|
Constituents in September 2020Edit
The following table lists the FTSE 100 companies after the changes on 18 September 2020.
|Company||EPIC||FTSE Industry Classification Benchmark sector|
|Admiral Group||ADM||Nonlife Insurance|
|Anglo American plc||AAL||Mining|
|Ashtead Group||AHT||Support Services|
|Associated British Foods||ABF||Food Producers|
|AstraZeneca||AZN||Pharmaceuticals & Biotechnology|
|Auto Trader Group||AUTO||Media|
|Avast||AVST||Software and Computer Services|
|Aveva||AVV||Software & Computer Services|
|BAE Systems||BA.||Aerospace & Defence|
|Barratt Developments||BDEV||Household Goods & Home Construction|
|Berkeley Group Holdings||BKG||Household Goods & Home Construction|
|BP||BP.||Oil & Gas Producers|
|British American Tobacco||BATS||Tobacco|
|British Land||BLND||Real Estate Investment Trusts|
|BT Group||BT-A||Fixed Line Telecommunications|
|Compass Group||CPG||Support Services|
|CRH plc||CRH||Construction & Materials|
|DCC plc||DCC||Support Services|
|Evraz||EVR||Industrial Metals & Mining|
|Ferguson plc||FERG||Support Services|
|Flutter Entertainment||FLTR||Travel & Leisure|
|GlaxoSmithKline||GSK||Pharmaceuticals & Biotechnology|
|GVC Holdings||GVC||Travel and Leisure|
|Halma||HLMA||Electronic & Electrical Equipment|
|Hargreaves Lansdown||HL||Financial Services|
|Hikma Pharmaceuticals||HIK||Pharmaceuticals & Biotechnology|
|InterContinental Hotels Group||IHG||Travel & Leisure|
|Intermediate Capital Group||ICP||Investment Services|
|International Airlines Group||IAG||Travel & Leisure|
|JD Sports||JD.||General Retailers|
|Just Eat Takeaway||JET||Software and Computer Services|
|Land Securities||LAND||Real Estate Investment Trusts|
|Legal & General||LGEN||Life Insurance|
|Lloyds Banking Group||LLOY||Banks|
|London Stock Exchange Group||LSE||Financial Services|
|Melrose Industries||MRO||Automobiles & Parts|
|Mondi||MNDI||Forestry & Paper|
|Morrisons||MRW||Food & Drug Retailers|
|National Grid plc||NG.||Gas, Water & Multi-utilities|
|Next plc||NXT||General Retailers|
|Ocado||OCDO||Food & Drug Retailers|
|Persimmon plc||PSN||Household Goods & Home Construction|
|Phoenix Group||PHNX||Life Insurance|
|Polymetal International||POLY||Precious Metals and Mining|
|Prudential plc||PRU||Life Insurance|
|Reckitt Benckiser||RB.||Household Goods & Home Construction|
|Rentokil Initial||RTO||Support Services|
|Rolls-Royce Holdings||RR.||Aerospace & Defence|
|Royal Dutch Shell||RDSA||Oil & Gas Producers|
|RSA Insurance Group||RSA||Nonlife Insurance|
|Sage Group||SGE||Software & Computer Services|
|Sainsbury's||SBRY||Food & Drug Retailers|
|Scottish Mortgage Investment Trust||SMT||Equity Investment Instruments|
|Segro||SGRO||Real Estate Investment Trusts|
|Severn Trent||SVT||Gas, Water & Multi-utilities|
|Smith & Nephew||SN.||Health Care Equipment & Services|
|DS Smith||SMDS||General Industrials|
|Smiths Group||SMIN||General Industrials|
|Smurfit Kappa||SKG||General Industrials|
|Spirax-Sarco Engineering||SPX||Industrial Engineering|
|Standard Life Aberdeen||SLA||Financial Services|
|St. James's Place plc||STJ||Life Insurance|
|Taylor Wimpey||TW.||Household Goods & Home Construction|
|Tesco||TSCO||Food & Drug Retailers|
|United Utilities||UU.||Gas, Water & Multi-utilities|
|Vodafone Group||VOD||Mobile Telecommunications|
All changes are due to market capitalisation unless stated otherwise.
- Abbey Life (became subsidiary of Lloyds TSB in 1996, then sold to Deutsche Bank in 2007)
- Abbey National (acquired by Banco Santander Central Hispano, now part of its Santander UK subsidiary)
- Aberdeen Asset Management
- African Barrick Gold
- Alliance & Leicester (acquired by Banco Santander Central Hispano, now part of its Santander UK subsidiary)
- Alliance Boots (acquired by private equity fund controlled by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts)
- Alliance Trust
- Allied Domecq (acquired by Pernod Ricard)
- Allied Zurich (dual holding company along with Zurich Allied, companies unified in 2000 to form Zurich Financial Services)
- Amersham (acquired by GE, now part of its GE Healthcare division)
- Amstrad (acquired by British Sky Broadcasting)
- Argos (acquired by GUS and now owned by Home Retail Group)
- Argyll Group (renamed Safeway in 1996, then taken over by Morrisons in 2004)
- Arjo Wiggins Appleton (acquired by Worms & Cie)
- ARM Holdings (acquired by SoftBank Group)
- ASDA Group (acquired by Wal-Mart)
- BAA (acquired by Ferrovial)
- Babcock International
- Balfour Beatty
- Baltimore Technologies (acquired by Oryx International Growth Fund)
- Bank of Scotland (merged with Halifax to form HBOS, now part of the Lloyds Banking Group)
- Bass (became Six Continents and then InterContinental Hotels Group)
- Beecham Group (merged with SmithKline and then with Glaxo to become GlaxoSmithKline)
- Berisford (renamed Enodis, subsequently acquired by The Manitowoc Company)
- BET, formerly British Electric Traction (acquired by Rentokil)
- BG Group (acquired by Royal Dutch Shell)
- BICC (renamed Balfour Beatty)
- Blue Arrow (acquired by Corporate Services Group)
- Blue Circle Industries (acquired by Lafarge)
- BOC (acquired by Linde)
- Bowater (renamed Rexam)
- Bookham Technology (renamed Oclaro and now traded on Nasdaq)
- BPB Industries (acquired by Saint-Gobain)
- Bradford & Bingley (branch network acquired by Banco Santander Central Hispano, now part of its Santander UK subsidiary; loans book nationalised)
- Brambles Industries (now only listed on the Australian Securities Exchange)
- British Aerospace (merged with Marconi Electronic Systems to form BAE Systems)
- British Airways (merged with Iberia to form International Airlines Group)
- British Home Stores (acquired by Storehouse and then sold to Philip Green)
- British Steel (merged with Koninklijke Hoogovens to become Corus Group, now Tata Steel Europe)
- British & Commonwealth (collapsed in 1990)
- Britoil (acquired by BP)
- BTR (merged with Siebe to form BTR Siebe, subsequently renamed Invensys)
- Burmah Oil (renamed Burmah Castrol and acquired by BP)
- Burton Group (renamed Arcadia and acquired by Philip Green)
- Cable & Wireless Worldwide
- Cadbury (acquired by Kraft Foods)
- Cairn Energy
- Carlton Communications (merged with Granada to form ITV)
- Carnival Corporation & plc
- Carphone Warehouse
- Celltech (acquired by UCB in 2004)
- CMG (merged with Logica to form LogicaCMG)
- Coats Viyella (acquired by Guinness Peat Group and renamed Coats)
- Colt Group
- Commercial Union Assurance (merged with General Accident to form CGU, itself now part of Aviva)
- Consolidated Gold Fields (acquired by Hanson)
- Cookson Group
- Corus Group (acquired by Tata Steel, now forming its Tata Steel Europe division)
- Courtaulds (demerged into two businesses acquired by Sara Lee and Akzo Nobel)
- Daily Mail and General Trust
- Dalgety (renamed PIC International and then Sygen International and subsequently acquired by Genus)
- De La Rue
- Dimension Data Holdings (market capitalisation fell too low, subsequently acquired by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone)
- Direct Line Group
- Distillers (acquired by Guinness and now part of Diageo)
- Dixons Carphone
- Dixons Group (renamed to DSG International and then Dixons Retail; market capitalisation also fell too low)
- Dowty Group (acquired by TI Group, itself now part of Smiths Group)
- DSG International (renamed Dixons Retail; market capitalisation also fell too low)
- Eagle Star (acquired by BAT Industries and then demerged as part of Zurich Financial Services)
- Eastern Group (acquired by Texas Utilities and then Powergen, now part of E.ON Energy UK)
- ECC Group (acquired by Imetal)
- Edinburgh Investment Trust
- EMAP (acquired by Apax Partners and the Guardian Media Group)
- EMI Group (acquired by Terra Firma Capital Partners, now owned by Citigroup)
- Energis (acquired by Cable and Wireless)
- Enterprise Inns
- Enterprise Oil (acquired by Royal Dutch Shell)
- Essar Energy
- Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation
- Exco International (acquired by British & Commonwealth Holdings)
- Exel (acquired by Deutsche Post)
- Ferranti International (collapsed in 1993)
- Fisons (acquired by Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, now Sanofi-Aventis)
- Foreign & Colonial Investment Trust
- Forte (acquired by Granada, now ITV)
- Freeserve (acquired by France Télécom, now Orange)
- Friends Life (acquired by Aviva)
- Friends Provident (acquired by Friends Life Group)
- Gallaher Group (acquired by Japan Tobacco)
- Gateway Corporation (renamed Somerfield, subsequently acquired by The Co-operative Group)
- GEC, formerly General Electric Company (renamed Marconi and then Telent)
- General Accident (merged with Commercial Union to form CGU, itself now part of Aviva)
- George Wimpey (merged with Taylor Woodrow to form Taylor Wimpey)
- Glaxo Wellcome (merged with SmithKline Beecham to form GlaxoSmithKline)
- Globe Investment Trust (acquired by British Coal Pension Fund)
- Granada Compass (split in 2001 to leave Granada and Compass Group)
- Granada (merged with Carlton Communications to form ITV)
- Greenall's Group (renamed De Vere Group and then acquired by a joint venture of private investors)
- Grand Metropolitan (merged with Guinness to form Diageo)
- Guardian Royal Exchange (acquired by Axa)
- Guinness (merged with Grand Metropolitan to form Diageo)
- GUS (now demerged into Home Retail Group and Experian)
- GVC Holdings
- Habitat Mothercare (merged with British Home Stores to form Storehouse and subsequently renamed Mothercare again)
- Halifax Group (merged with the Bank of Scotland to form HBOS)
- Hambro Life (renamed Allied Dunbar and acquired by BAT Industries and then demerged as part of Zurich Financial Services)
- Hanson (acquired by Heidelberg Cement)
- Harrisons & Crosfield (renamed Elementis)
- Hawker Siddeley (acquired by BTR, now Invensys)
- HBOS Group plc (acquired by Lloyds Banking Group)
- Hillsdown Holdings (acquired by Hicks, Muse, Tate and Furst and then sold on as Premier Foods)
- Home Retail Group
- House of Fraser (acquired by Baugur)
- Imperial Chemical Industries (acquired by Akzo Nobel)
- Imperial Continental Gas Association (broke up into Calor and Contibel)
- Innogy Holdings (renamed Npower and acquired by RWE)
- International Power (acquired by GDF Suez)
- Intu Properties
- Invesco (moved primary listing to NYSE)
- Jaguar (acquired by Ford and then by Tata Motors)
- Kelda Group (acquired by Saltaire Water consortium) a consortium of investment companies including Citigroup and HSBC.
- Kingston Communications (renamed KCOM Group and market capitalisation fell too low)
- Kwik Save Group (merged with Somerfield)
- Laporte (major divisions acquired by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts)
- Lasmo (acquired by Eni)
- Lattice Group (merged with National Grid to form National Grid Transco)
- London Electricity (acquired by Électricité de France, now part of its EDF Energy division)
- Lonhro (renamed Lonmin)
- Lucas Industries (merged with Varity to form LucasVarity, then acquired by TRW)
- LucasVarity (acquired by TRW)
- Magnet and Southerns (acquired by Berisford)
- Man Group
- Marks & Spencer
- Maxwell Communications Corporation (collapsed in 1991)
- MB-Caradon (renamed Caradon and then Novar, then acquired by Honeywell)
- Mediclinic International
- MEPC (acquired by Leconport Estates)
- Mercury Asset Management (acquired by Merrill Lynch)
- Merlin Entertainments
- MFI Furniture (renamed Galiform and then Howden Joinery and market capitalisation fell too low)
- Micro Focus International
- Midlands Electricity (acquired by Acquila Sterling, now part of E.ON Energy UK)
- Midland Bank (acquired by HSBC)
- Mitchells & Butlers
- National Westminster Bank (acquired by Royal Bank of Scotland Group)
- NFC (merged with Ocean Group to form Exel, now part of Deutsche Post)
- NMC Health
- Northern Foods (market capitalisation fell too low, before being acquired by Ranjit Boparan)
- Northern Rock (market capitalisation fell too low, before being nationalised)
- Norwich Union (merged with CGU to form CGNU, now Aviva)
- Nycomed Amersham (acquired by GE)
- O2 (renamed Telefónica Europe following acquisition by Telefónica)
- Old Mutual (managed separation of the business)
- Orange (acquired by Mannesmann and then by France Télécom, now Orange)
- PartyGaming (market capitalisation fell too low, before merging with Bwin to become bwin.party digital entertainment)
- P&O (acquired by Dubai Ports World)
- P&O Princess Cruises (merged with Carnival Corporation and re-listed as Carnival Corporation & plc)
- Pilkington (acquired by Nippon Sheet Glass)
- Plessey (acquired by GEC and Siemens)
- Polly Peck (collapsed in 1990)
- PowerGen (acquired by E.ON Energy UK)
- Provident Financial
- Punch Taverns
- Racal Electronics (acquired by Thomson-CSF and then Thales Group)
- Railtrack (collapsed in 2001)
- Randgold Resources (merged with Barrick Gold Corp)
- Rank Hovis McDougall (acquired by Premier Foods)
- Reckitt and Coleman (merged with Benckiser to form Reckitt Benckiser)
- Redland (acquired by Lafarge)
- Reed International (merged with Elsevier to form Reed Elsevier)
- Rentokil Initial
- Resolution Limited (changed its name to Friends Life Group)
- Resolution plc (acquired by Pearl Group)
- Rexam (acquired by Ball Corporation)
- RMC Group (acquired by Cemex)
- Rothmans International (acquired by British American Tobacco)
- J Rothschild (renamed St. James's Place and market capitalisation fell too low)
- Rowntree's (acquired by Nestlé)
- Royal Insurance (merged with Sun Alliance Group to form Royal & SunAlliance)
- Royal Mail
- Saatchi & Saatchi (acquired by Publicis)
- Safeway (acquired by Morrisons)
- SABMiller (acquired by Anheuser-Busch InBev)
- Scottish & Newcastle (acquired by a consortium formed of Heineken & Carlsberg)
- Scottish Hydro Electric (merged with Southern Electric to form Scottish and Southern Energy)
- Scottish Power (acquired by Iberdrola)
- Sears (acquired by January Investments - itself controlled by Philip Green)
- Securicor (merged with Group 4 Falck to form G4S)
- Sedgwick (acquired by Marsh & McLennan)
- Sema Group (acquired by Schlumberger)
- Shell Transport and Trading Company (now re-organised with Royal Dutch Petroleum Company as Royal Dutch Shell)
- Shire (acquired by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company)
- Siebe (merged with BTR to form Invensys)
- Sky (acquired by Comcast)
- SmithKline Beecham (merged with Glaxo Wellcome to form GlaxoSmithKline)
- Smiths Industries (renamed to Smiths Group)
- Southern Electric (merged with Scottish Hydro Electric to form Scottish and Southern Energy)
- Sports Direct
- Stagecoach Group
- Standard Telephones and Cables (renamed STC and acquired by Nortel)
- Storehouse (renamed Mothercare)
- Sun Alliance Group (merged with Royal Insurance to form Royal & Sun Alliance)
- Sun Life Assurance (acquired by Axa)
- Sun Life & Provincial Holdings (acquired by Axa)
- Tarmac (acquired by Anglo American)
- Tate & Lyle
- Taylor Wimpey
- Taylor Woodrow (merged with George Wimpey to form Taylor Wimpey)
- Telewest Communications (merged with NTL to form NTL:Telewest now Virgin Media)
- Thames Water (acquired by RWE and then sold to Macquarie Group)
- The Energy Group (acquired by Texas Utilities and then by E.ON Energy UK)
- Thomas Cook Group
- Thomson Reuters (delisted shares from the London Stock Exchange as it ceased to be a dual-listed company)
- Thorn (acquired by Nomura Group)
- Thorn EMI (renamed EMI Group and then acquired by Terra Firma Capital Partners)
- Thus (market capitalisation fell too low, subsequently acquired by Cable & Wireless Worldwide)
- TI Group (acquired by Smiths Group)
- Tomkins (acquired by Onex Corporation and Canada Pension Plan Investment Board)
- Trafalgar House (acquired by Kværner)
- Travis Perkins
- TSB Group (merged with Lloyds Bank to form Lloyds TSB)
- Trusthouse Forte (acquired by Granada)
- TUI Group
- TUI Travel
- Tullow Oil
- Ultramar (acquired by Lasmo and now part of Eni)
- Unigate (renamed Uniq, then market capitalisation fell too low)
- United Biscuits (acquired by consortium of financial investors)
- United Business Media
- Vedanta Resources
- Warburg SG (acquired by Swiss Bank Corporation, now part of UBS)
- Weir Group
- Wellcome (merged with Glaxo to form Glaxo Wellcome, then with SmithKline Beecham to form GlaxoSmithKline)
- WH Smith
- William Hill
- Williams Holdings (demerged into Kidde and Chubb Fire & Security, both now part of United Technologies)
- Willis Corroon (acquired by Trinity Acquisition on behalf of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and renamed Willis Group)
- Willis Faber (acquired by Trinity Acquisition on behalf of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and renamed Willis Coroon and then Willis Group)
- Wood Group
- Worldpay (acquired by Vantiv)
- Woolwich (acquired by Barclays)
- Yell Group
- Zeneca (merged with Astra to form AstraZeneca)
source: "FTSE: FTSE 100 Constituent Changes" (PDF). (57.9 KB)
The oldest continuous index in the UK is the FT 30, also known as the Financial Times Index or the FT Ordinary Index (FTOI). It was established in 1935 and nowadays is largely obsolete due to its redundancy. It is similar to the Dow Jones Industrial Average, and companies listed are from the industrial and commercial sectors. Financial sector companies and government stocks are excluded.
Of the original constituents, three are currently in the FTSE 100: Tate & Lyle, Imperial Tobacco and Rolls-Royce, although Rolls-Royce has not been continuously listed and Imperial Tobacco was a subsidiary of Hanson for a number of years, and is now renamed as Imperial Brands. Only one of the original FT 30 companies are still in that index: Tate & Lyle (membership is not strictly based on market capitalisation, so this does not mean they are necessarily among the top thirty companies in the FTSE 100). The best performer from the original lineup has been Imperial Tobacco.
- Other lists
- List of largest companies by revenue, worldwide
- List of corporate collapses and scandals, on major bankruptcies historically and worldwide
- List of largest United Kingdom employers, including the public sector
- List of private equity firms
- List of largest companies in the United Kingdom
- List of largest private companies in the United Kingdom
- List of hedge funds
- Stock market lists
- List of stock market indices
- Financial Times Global 500, the BBC Global 30 and the Fortune Global 500, list the world's largest corporations by market capitalisation
- FTSE 250 and FTSE techMARK 100, a longer FT list, and one for the "new economy"
- Dow Jones and the DAX 30, equivalent to the FT 30 in the US and Germany
- S&P 100 and the HDAX, top 100 in the US and top 110 in Germany
- AEX index
- "FTSE 100 Index Factsheet" (PDF). FTSE Group. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
- Ground Rules for the Management of The UK Series of the FTSE Actuaries Share Indices (section 5) Archived 8 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- everydayinvestor (19 April 2019). "What is the FTSE 100 and why does it go up or down?". everyday investor. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- Atkins, Ralph; Elder, Bryce (3 September 2014). "FTSE 100 hits new record high on sterling weakness". businessinsider.co.uk. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- "Which indices best represent the economy?". Hargreaves Lansdown. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "FTSE Closes Higher for the 2nd Day in a Row". techniquant. 22 May 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
- "UK households £900 worse off since Brexit vote says Bank, but FTSE hits new high - as it happened". The Guardian. 22 May 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
- "RND". www.hec.unil.ch. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "FTSE 100 Index (United Kingdom) Yearly Stock Returns". www.1stock1.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "FTSE 100 (^FTSE) Charts, Data & News - Yahoo Finance". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "FTSE UK Index Series: Quarterly Review September 2020". 2 September 2020. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- "FTSE 100 constituents shares prices". London Stock Exchange. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
- Buoyant Lloyds TSB offloads insurer Abbey Life The Guardian, 1 August 2007
- William Kay (6 September 2004). "HBOS fury as EU backs Santander's Abbey bid". The Independent. London.
- "A&L shareholders approve takeover". BBC News. 16 September 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
- "Terra Firma drops Boots bid plan". BBC News. 24 April 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- Pernod Ricard successfully completes acquisition of Allied Domecq Archived 3 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, from the Pernod Ricard website
- Unification of companies Archived 26 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "General Electric buys Amersham". BBC. 10 October 2003. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
- "BSkyB agrees £125m Amstrad deal". BBC News. 31 July 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
- "Argos attacks GUS offer". BBC News. 26 February 1998. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
- Argyll Group plc intends a stock buy back
- Worms & Cie launches tender offer
- "SoftBank finally completes £24bn ARM takeover". Silicon Republic. 5 December 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- "Wal-Mart buys Asda in UK retail shock". Eurofood. 17 June 1999. Retrieved 6 April 2008.
- The Economist, The man who bought trouble. Consulted on 18 July 2007.
- International Trader Archived 21 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Bank of Scotland and Halifax agree merger". BBC News. 4 May 2001. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- Bass to become Six Continents The Guardian, 27 June 2001
- "The Glaxo SmithKline merger". BBC News. 17 January 2000. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- Bryan, Victoria (14 October 2008). "Enodis sees FY profit ahead of its view". Reuters. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
- Rumours of Rentokil bid boost BET The Independent, 15 February 1996
- Jess McHugh. "Shell-BG Group Acquisition Complete, As Energy Giant Focuses on Liquefied Natural Gas". International Business Times. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- "Shake-up will see BICC change to Balfour Beatty". Findarticles.com. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "Tony Berry, former Chairman, Blue Arrow". Managementtoday.co.uk. Retrieved 25 October 2012.[permanent dead link]
- Lafarge bags Blue Circle The Daily Telegraph (London), 7 January 2001
- Statement on Linde homepage Archived 5 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Bowater to change name to Rexam Plasteurope, 31 May 1995
- Avanex and Bookham become Oclaro Archived 1 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine Compound Semiconductor, 28 April 2009
- "BPB accepts bid from French firm". BBC News. 17 November 2005. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "Spanish bank giant to acquire B&B". BBC News. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- Brambles ditches London listing The Telegraph, 30 November 2005
- BAe set to sign A8bn GEC deal with merger The Guardian, 19 January 1999
- "Iberia expects to complete merger with British Airways in January". Daily Nation. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- "BHS sold to M&S raider". BBC News. 27 March 2000. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "India's Tata wins race for Corus". BBC. 31 January 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- Law Lords Department. "Judgments – Soden and Another v. British & Commonwealth Holdings Plc. and Others". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
- Competition Commission Report 1988 Page 10 Archived 18 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Investors back BTR Siebe merger". Findarticles.com. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "BP buys Burmah Castrol". BBC News. 14 March 2000. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "Arcadia's clearance sale". BBC News. 4 April 2001. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "Cadbury agrees Kraft takeover bid". London: BBC News. 19 January 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- "ITV shares on London stock market". BBC News. 2 February 2004. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- HEATHER TIMMONS (19 May 2004). "Belgian drugmaker seeks to buy Celltec". New York Times. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- Richard Wray (9 October 2002). "Jobs cull logical in Logica / CMG deal". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- Weiss exits Guinness Peat but stays on at Coats The Australian, 1 April 2011
- "CGU and Norwich Union merge". BBC News. 21 February 2000. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
- Obituary: Lord Hanson The Times, 3 November 2004
- Akzo Nobel Buys Courtaulds & Columbian Firm Adhesives Age, 1 June 1998
- PIC International Group PLC Changes Name to Sygen International plc[dead link] PR Newswire, 2001
- "NTT buys South Africa's Dimension Data". BBC News. 14 July 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Guinness directors showed 'contempt for truth' BBC, 28 November 1997
- DSG, formerly known as Dixons, is now renamed ... Dixons The Telegraph, 25 June 2010
- British engineering firms merger moves forward New York Times, 1992
- "Eagle Star at Euroarchive". Euroarchiveguide.org. 15 September 1904. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- Texas raises Energy bid to £4.46bn BBC News, 3 March 1998
- Imetal to Buy ECC For $1.2 Billion ICIS, 8 February 1999
- Andrews, Amanda (24 December 2007). "Guardian and Apax snap up a fifth of Emap". The Times. London. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- "Profile: British music giant EMI". BBC News. 15 January 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2008.
- Odell, Mark (15 August 2005). "C&W set to win Energis race". News.ft.com. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "Royal Dutch/Shell Will Buy Enterprise Oil of Britain". nytimes.com. 3 April 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Chairman is appointed at Exco International New York Times, 8 January 1987
- Deutsche Post (14 December 2005). "Deutsche Post DHL Completes Acquisition of Exel". Archived from the original on 22 October 2008. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
- Ferranti Timeline Archived 3 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine – Museum of Science and Industry (Accessed 17 February 2009)
- Door still open for agreed takeover of Fisons The Independent, 22 August 1995
- "Granada buys maximum stake". findarticles.com. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- "BBC NEWS - Business - French rival clinches Freeserve deal". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- "Aviva and Friends Life rise in first day as a merged company". The Telegraph. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "Friends backs Resolution takeover". BBC News. 11 August 2009.
- Gallaher agrees £7.5bn Japan Tobacco takeover The Scotsman
- "Co-op buys Somerfield for £1.57bn". bbc.co.uk. 16 July 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2008.
- Oates, John (25 October 2005). "Ericsson buys Marconi". Theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- "BBC NEWS - Business - Wimpey and Woodrow agree to merge". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Closed-End Funds Open Plays for the Intrepid Investor International Herald Tribune, 21 January 1995
- "Catering & Hospitality News". Archived from the original on 29 December 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- "Group completes De Vere buy-up". Liverpool Daily Post. 6 September 2006.
- Spirits soar at Diageo Food & Drug Packaging, July 2005
- Axa of France to buy Guardian of Britain New York Times, 2 February 1999
- "Breaking News, World News & Multimedia".
- "The Independent - 404". The Independent. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Openwork: History Archived 22 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Richard Blackden, Online City Editor (15 May 2007). "Heidelberg to buy Hanson for £8bn". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- "AIM25 collection description". aim25.ac.uk. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Brush Traction: History Archived 10 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Lloyds TSB Seals Merger with HBOS". BBC News. 17 September 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
- "COMPANY NEWS - HICKS, MUSE BUYING A BRITISH FOOD COMPANY - NYTimes.com". nytimes.com. 15 May 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- "BBC NEWS - Business - House of Fraser agrees Baugur bid". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Armitstead, Louise (5 August 2007). "Dutch poised to clinch £8bn ICI takeover". The Times. London. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
- Gulf Resources & Chemical Corporation
- RWE is set to buy Innogy New York Times, 18 March 2002
- Scott, Mark (16 April 2012). "GDF Suez to Buy Remaining Stake in British Utility for $10 Billion". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- "LSE to replace Invesco in UK's FTSE 100". Reuters. 30 November 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2007.[permanent dead link]
- "The Years 1989 to 1996". Jaguar Cars Ltd. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
- "Kelda Group PLC (UK): Scheme of Arrangement". FTSE Group. 4 February 2008. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
- Larkin, Nicholas (8 February 2008). "Montagu, Partners to Buy Biffa for 1.2 Billion Pounds". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 21 March 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
- Kingston Communications changes name to KCOM Group Archived 27 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine Comms Dealer, 16 August 2007
- "Kwik Save weighs heavily on Somerfield results". FoodAndDrinkEurope.com (Decision News Media SAS). 9 April 2003. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- Rockwood launched Chemical Market Reporter, December 2000
- Eni swoops on Lasmo BBC News, 21 December 2000
- Grid and Lattice form utility supergroup The Telegraph, 22 April 2002
- London Electricity goes to France BBC News, 30 November 1998
- The Investment Case – Lonmin plc Moneyweb, 1 April 2011
- "COMPANY NEWS - TRW IS NEAR DEAL TO BUY LUCAS VARITY - NYTimes.com". nytimes.com. 26 January 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Berisford International PLC acquires Magnet Ltd(Water Meadow Hldg) from Magnet Group PLC Alacrastore, 3 March 1994
- Bankruptcy Explanation By Maxwell New York Times, 18 December 1991
- "Novar plc - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Novar plc". referenceforbusiness.com. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Harrold heralds start of new era at MEPC: Hermes man outlines new business plan for developer Property Week, 24 October 2003
- Merrill cleared to buy British Fund Manager New York Times, 24 December 1997
- MFI sells store chain in £1 deal BBC News, 22 September 2006
- "Aquila Completes Purchase of Ownership Interest in Midlands Electricity". Business Wire. 8 May 2002. Retrieved 5 September 2008.
- "HSBC - Page no longer exists" (PDF). hsbc.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Farrelly, Paul RBS issues ultimatum in £27bn bid for NatWest The Observer, 28 November 1999
- NFC and Ocean forge £3.2bn alliance to exploit e-commerce The Independent, 22 February 2000
- Boparan wins Northern Foods with £341m bid FT.com
- "Northern Rock to be nationalised". BBC News. 17 February 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
- "Telefonica bids £18 billion for U.K.'s O2". BBC News. 31 October 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Old Mutual's African arm lists on the JSE as 'managed separation' continues". Fin 24. 26 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
- "France Télécom to buy Orange for £25.1bn". The Independent. London. 30 May 2000. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
- "Gambling firms Partygaming and Bwin reveal merger plan". BBC News. 29 July 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- P&O agrees bid from Dubai Ports BBC News, 29 November 2005
- EC Clears Carnival and P&O Princess Merge Marinelink, 11 February 2003
- "BBC NEWS - Business - Pilkington in Japanese takeover". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- "Circuit Breakers, Fusegear, Isolators, Fuse Switches – IPD Group Limited". Archived from the original on 29 March 2010.
- Bates, Stephen (26 August 2010). "How Polly Peck went from hero to villain in the City". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- "E.ON to buy Powergen".[permanent dead link]
- Thomson-CSF seals Racal deal BBC News (13 January 2000) Accessed 20 January 2006
- Railtrack goes bankrupt with debts of £3.3bn Independent, 8 October 2001
- Editorial, Reuters. "Canada's Barrick Gold to buy Randgold Resources in $18.3 billion deal". U.S. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
- RHM agrees £1.2bn Premier Foods bid Times-on-line, 4 December 2006
- Reckitt & Coleman announce further delay to Dutch merger The Independent, 7 November 1999.
- Redlands needs White Knights, The Independent, 16 October 1997
- Edward A. Gargan (6 October 1994). "Reed-Elsevier Building Big Presence in the U.S." New York Times. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
- "Our history". friendslifegroup.com. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Odoi, Antoinette (17 November 2007). "Resolution board says yes to £5bn Pearl bid". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 29 April 2008.
- "Ball Corporation (BLL) Gets FTC's Final Nod for Rexam Buy". Finance.yahoo.com. 29 June 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
- Mexican firm buys RMC for £2.3bn
- BAT will buy Rothmans New York Times, 12 January 1999
- St James's Place: Our History Archived 24 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "COMPANY NEWS - Suchard Drops Out - NYTimes.com". nytimes.com. 25 June 1988. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Smooth merger of Sun Alliance and Royal Insurance The Banker, June 1996
- Saatchi falls to Publicis BBC News, 20 June 2000
- Kate Rankine, Deputy City Editor (16 December 2003). "Wm Morrison tables £3bn bid for Safeway". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- "Enlarged AB InBev expected to play tough on barley prices". Financial Times. 10 October 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- "S&N accepts £7.8bn takeover deal". BBC News. 25 January 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- Two electric suppliers in Britain to merge New York Times, 2 September 1998
- Iberdrola to buy Scottish Power for £11.6bn International Herald Tribune, 28 November 2006
- "Sears turns to Green". BBC News. 21 January 1999. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
- Group 4 Falck and Securicor plc announce terms of merger Nordic Business Report, 24 February 2004
- Marsh & McLennan to Buy Big British Insurance Broker New York Times, 26 August 1998
- Relief for Sema shareholders at Schlumberger buy-out The Independent, 12 February 2001
- Shell shareholders agree merger BBC News, 2005
- "Takeda completes Shire acquisition". Pharma Times. 8 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- "Comcast to buy remaining Sky shares after bid gets 95% acceptance". Stock Market Wire. 12 October 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
- Proposed Merger of Smiths Industries plc: "Smiths Industries" and "TI Group" Business Wire, 17 November 2000
- Telecom bid to buy STC New York Times, 9 November 1990
- "Storehouse - market intelligence". ukbusinesspark.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Sun Life Stock soars as Axa ups bid to £24bn for remaining stake Independent, 3 May 2000
- "Tarmac Agrees Takeover". BBC News. 5 November 1999. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
- "NTL seals $6bn takeover". BBC News. 3 October 2005. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- Thames to agree £4.3bn RWE takeover The Independent (London), 25 September 2000
- Thomson Reuters. "Company History". thomsonreuters.com. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Normura will buy Thorn plc The Boston Globe, 1 July 1998
- C&W makes offer for Thus Reuters, 30 June 2008
- "Engineering rivals to merge". BBC News. 18 September 2000. Retrieved 25 September 2006.
- "Tomkins agrees to £2.9bn takeover deal". BBC News. 27 July 2010. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
- Kvaerner Is Close to Bidding for Troubled Group: Lifeline for Trafalgar House? International Herald Tribune, 28 February 1996
- Lloyds Bank to merge with TSB Group New York Times, 12 October 1995
- "Unigate becomes Uniq". Eurofood. 2000. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
- "Blackstone and PAI complete purchase of UB" (Press release). United Biscuits. 15 December 2006. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
- Swiss Bank in deal to buy S.G. Warburg New York Times, 11 May 1995
- Williams plunges 14% as margins shrink Independent, 19 July 2000
- "Our History".
- "Vantiv officially completes Worldpay acquisition". Mobile Payments Today. 16 January 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- Barclays buys rival Woolwich BBC News, 11 August 2000
- "The Lowdown: McKillop gives his opponents the treatment". The Independent. London. 21 September 2003. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
- The History Channel - Financial Times Index Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 8 August 2008
- "FT30 - the UK's oldest surviving stock market index - FT.com". ft.com. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Remaining companies in the FT30
- Eckett, Stephen (ed.) (2004), The UK Stock Market Almanac 2005, Petersfield, Harriman House. ISBN 1-897597-46-0