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Food is any substance that can be consumed to help the body grow, usually composed primarily of carbohydrates, fats, minerals, water and/or proteins, that can be eaten or drunk and metabolized by almost all multicellular entities for nutrition or pleasure. Items considered food may be sourced from plants, animals or other categories such as fungus. Ranching, farming, fishing, hunting, foraging, grocery shopping, or eating at restaurants and other methods are ways to obtain food.
Most traditions have a recognizable cuisine, a specific set of cooking traditions, preferences, and practices, the study of which is known as gastronomy. Many cultures have diversified their foods by means of preparation, cooking methods and manufacturing. This also includes a complex food trade which helps the cultures to economically survive by-way-of food, not just by consumption. Global cuisines can be defined as cuisine based upon global, continental, national, state or local regions; essentially as cuisines of the world.
Many cultures study the dietary analysis of food habits. While humans are omnivores, religion and social constructs such as morality often affect which foods they will consume. Food safety is also a concern with foodborne illness claiming many lives each year. In English, the substance food is often used metaphorically or figuratively, as in food for thought.
The cuisine of Madagascar reflects the influences of successive waves of Southeast Asian, African, Indian, Chinese and European migrants that have settled on the island since its initial population by seafarers from Borneo between the first and fifth centuries CE. Rice, the cornerstone of the Malagasy diet, was cultivated alongside tubers and other Southeast Asian staples by these earliest settlers, later complemented by the introduction of beef in the form of zebu by East African migrants around 1,000 CE. Trade with Arab and Indian merchants and European transatlantic traders further enriched the island's culinary traditions by introducing a wealth of new fruits, vegetables and seasonings that combined to produce the cuisine currently enjoyed in Madagascar.
Throughout nearly the entire island, the contemporary cuisine of Madagascar consists of a base of rice (Malagasy: vary, pronounced [ˈvarʲ]) with some form of accompaniment (laoka [ˈlokə̥]). Laoka may be vegetarian or include animal proteins typically cooked in a sauce often flavored with ginger, onion, garlic, vanilla, curry powder or occasionally other spices. In parts of the arid south, pastoral families may replace rice with maize, cassava and curds made from fermented zebu milk. A wide variety of sweet and savory fritters and other street foods are available across the island, as are diverse tropical and temperate-climate fruits. Locally-produced beverages include fruit juices, coffee, herbal and black teas and alcoholic drinks such as rum, wine and beer.
Meals eaten on Madagascar in the 21st century range from the simple preparations of the earliest settlers and the refined dishes prepared for the island's great monarchs to more recent favorites introduced over the past century by Chinese and Indian immigrants to Malagasy shores, reflecting the historic and contemporary diversity of this Indian Ocean island nation.
Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin
B. April 1, 1755, Belley, France – d. February 2, 1826, Paris
"Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you what you are."
Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, a French lawyer and politician, was quite possibly the most famous French epicure and gastronome. He was born in the town of Belley, Ain, where the Rhone River then separated France from Savoy, to a family of eloquent lawyers. He studied law, chemistry and medicine in Dijon in his early years and thereafter practiced law in his hometown. In 1789, at the opening of the French Revolution, he was sent as a deputy to the Estates-General that soon became the National Constituent Assembly, where he acquired some limited fame, particularly for a public speech in defense of capital punishment. He adopted his second surname upon the death of an aunt named Savarin who left him her entire fortune on the condition that he adopt her name.
Oatmeal Stout Brownies
This recipe, created by Joe Stutler, was a national finalist in the 2006 Cooking With Beer Challenge. The malt and oats in the beer enhance the flavor of the chocolate in these delicious brownies. Not overly cake-ey, not overly fudge-ey, the texture is nicely balanced. They're also decadently chocolate, and surprisingly light (thanks to the eggs). Great with a fruity beer, such as a lambic (Framboise, yum!).
(pronounced /ˈtʃɒklət/ (help·info)
or /-ˈələt/) comprises a number of raw and processed foods that are produced from the seed of the tropical cacao
tree. Native to lowland, tropical America
, cacao has been cultivated for at least three millennia in Central America
, with its earliest documented use around 1100 BC. The majority of the Mesoamerican peoples made chocolate beverages, including the Maya
, who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl
, a Nahuatl
word meaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter
taste, and must be fermented
to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted, and the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs. The nibs are then ground and liquified, resulting in pure chocolate in fluid form: chocolate liquor
. The liquor can be further processed into two components: cocoa solids
and cocoa butter
Pure, unsweetened chocolate contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, combining chocolate with sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. "White chocolate" contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk but no cocoa solids (and thus does not qualify to be considered true chocolate). Chocolate contains alkaloids such as theobromine and phenethylamine, which have physiological effects on the body. It has been linked to serotonin levels in the brain. Scientists claim that chocolate, eaten in moderation, can lower blood pressure. Dark chocolate has recently been promoted for its health benefits, including a substantial amount of antioxidants that reduce the formation of free radicals, though the presence of theobromine renders it toxic to some animals, such as dogs and cats.
Chocolate has become one of the most popular flavors in the world. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes have become traditional on certain holidays: chocolate bunnies and eggs are popular on Easter, chocolate coins on Hanukkah, Santa Claus and other holiday symbols on Christmas, and hearts on Valentine's Day. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages, to produce chocolate milk and hot chocolate.
Did you know...
A split and two whole green Hayward variety kiwifruits.
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