A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food. The signs and symptoms may range from mild to severe. They may include itchiness, swelling of the tongue, vomiting, diarrhea, hives, trouble breathing, or low blood pressure. This typically occurs within minutes to several hours of exposure. When the symptoms are severe, it is known as anaphylaxis. Food intolerance and food poisoning are separate conditions.
|Hives on the back are a common allergy symptom.|
|Symptoms||Itchiness, swelling of the tongue, vomiting, diarrhea, hives, trouble breathing, low blood pressure|
|Usual onset||Minutes to several hours of exposure|
|Duration||Long term, some may resolve|
|Causes||Immune response to food|
|Risk factors||Family history, vitamin D deficiency, obesity, high levels of cleanliness|
|Diagnostic method||Based on a medical history, elimination diet, skin prick test, oral food challenge|
|Similar conditions||Food intolerance, food poisoning|
|Prevention||Early exposure to potential allergens|
|Treatment||Avoiding the food in question, having a plan if exposure occurs, medical alert jewelry|
|Frequency||~6% (developed world)|
Common foods involved include cow's milk, peanuts, eggs, shellfish, fish, tree nuts, soy, wheat, rice, and fruit. The common allergies vary depending on the country. Risk factors include a family history of allergies, vitamin D deficiency, obesity, and high levels of cleanliness. Allergies occur when immunoglobulin E (IgE), part of the body's immune system, binds to food molecules. A protein in the food is usually the problem. This triggers the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine. Diagnosis is usually based on a medical history, elimination diet, skin prick test, blood tests for food-specific IgE antibodies, or oral food challenge.
Early exposure to potential allergens may be protective. Management primarily involves avoiding the food in question and having a plan if exposure occurs. This plan may include giving adrenaline (epinephrine) and wearing medical alert jewelry. The benefits of allergen immunotherapy for food allergies is unclear, thus is not recommended as of 2015. Some types of food allergies among children resolve with age, including that to milk, eggs, and soy; while others such as to nuts and shellfish typically do not.
In the developed world, about 4% to 8% of people have at least one food allergy. They are more common in children than adults and appear to be increasing in frequency. Male children appear to be more commonly affected than females. Some allergies more commonly develop early in life, while others typically develop in later life. In developed countries, a large proportion of people believe they have food allergies when they actually do not have them.
Signs and symptomsEdit
Food allergies usually have a fast onset (from seconds to one hour) and may include:
- Itching of mouth, lips, tongue, throat, eyes, skin, or other areas
- Swelling (angioedema) of lips, tongue, eyelids, or the whole face
- Difficulty swallowing
- Runny or congested nose
- Hoarse voice
- Wheezing and/or shortness of breath
- Diarrhea, abdominal pain, and/or stomach cramps
In some cases, however, onset of symptoms may be delayed for hours.
Symptoms of allergies vary from person to person. The amount of food needed to trigger a reaction also varies from person to person.
Serious danger regarding allergies can begin when the respiratory tract or blood circulation is affected. The former can be indicated through wheezing and cyanosis. Poor blood circulation leads to a weak pulse, pale skin and fainting.
A severe case of an allergic reaction, caused by symptoms affecting the respiratory tract and blood circulation, is called anaphylaxis. When symptoms are related to a drop in blood pressure, the person is said to be in anaphylactic shock. Anaphylaxis occurs when IgE antibodies are involved, and areas of the body that are not in direct contact with the food become affected and show symptoms. Those with asthma or an allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, or seafood are at greater risk for anaphylaxis.
Although sensitivity levels vary by country, the most common food allergies are allergies to milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, seafood, shellfish, soy, and wheat. These are often referred to as "the big eight". Allergies to seeds — especially sesame — seem to be increasing in many countries. An example an allergy more common to a particular region is that to rice in East Asia where it forms a large part of the diet.
One of the most common food allergies is a sensitivity to peanuts, a member of the bean family. Peanut allergies may be severe, but children with peanut allergies sometimes outgrow them. Tree nuts, including cashews, Brazil nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pistachios, pine nuts, coconuts, and walnuts, are also common allergens. Sufferers may be sensitive to one particular tree nut or to many different ones. Also, seeds, including sesame seeds and poppy seeds, contain oils where protein is present, which may elicit an allergic reaction.
Milk from cows, goats, or sheep is another common food allergen, and many sufferers are also unable to tolerate dairy products such as cheese. A small portion of children with a milk allergy, roughly 10%, have a reaction to beef. Beef contains a small amount of protein that is also present in cow's milk.
An Institute of Medicine report says that food proteins contained in vaccines, such as gelatin, milk, or egg can cause sensitization (development of allergy) in vaccine recipients, to those food items.
Food allergies develop more easily in people with the atopic syndrome, a very common combination of diseases: allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, eczema, and asthma. The syndrome has a strong inherited component; a family history of allergic diseases can be indicative of the atopic syndrome.[medical citation needed]
Some children who are allergic to cow's milk protein also show a cross-sensitivity to soy-based products. Some infant formulas have their milk and soy proteins hydrolyzed, so when taken by infants, their immune systems do not recognize the allergen and they can safely consume the product. Hypoallergenic infant formulas can be based on proteins partially predigested to a less antigenic form. Other formulas, based on free amino acids, are the least antigenic and provide complete nutritional support in severe forms of milk allergy.
People with latex allergy often also develop allergies to bananas, kiwifruit, avocados, and some other foods.
Conditions caused by food allergies are classified into three groups according to the mechanism of the allergic response:
- IgE-mediated (classic) – the most common type, occurs shortly after eating and may involve anaphylaxis.
- Non-IgE mediated – characterized by an immune response not involving immunoglobulin E; may occur some hours after eating, complicating diagnosis
- IgE and/or non-IgE-mediated – a hybrid of the above two types
Allergic reactions are hyperactive responses of the immune system to generally innocuous substances. When immune cells encounter the allergenic protein, IgE antibodies are produced; this is similar to the immune system's reaction to foreign pathogens. The IgE antibodies identify the allergenic proteins as harmful and initiate the allergic reaction. The harmful proteins are those that do not break down due to the strong bonds of the protein. IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. Why some proteins do not denature and subsequently trigger allergic reactions and hypersensitivity while others do is not entirely clear.
Hypersensitivities are categorized according to the parts of the immune system that are attacked and the amount of time it takes for the response to occur. The four types of hypersensitivity reaction are: type 1, immediate IgE-mediated; type 2, cytotoxic; type 3, immune complex-mediated; and type 4, delayed cell-mediated. The pathophysiology of allergic responses can be divided into two phases. The first is an acute response that occurs immediately after exposure to an allergen. This phase can either subside or progress into a "late-phase reaction" which can substantially prolong the symptoms of a response, and result in tissue damage.
Many food allergies are caused by hypersensitivities to particular proteins in different foods. Proteins have unique properties that allow them to become allergens, such as stabilizing forces in their tertiary and quaternary structures which prevent degradation during digestion. Many theoretically allergenic proteins cannot survive the destructive environment of the digestive tract, thus do not trigger hypersensitive reactions.
In the early stages of allergy, a type I hypersensitivity reaction against an allergen, encountered for the first time, causes a response in a type of immune cell called a TH2 lymphocyte, which belongs to a subset of T cells that produce a cytokine called interleukin-4 (IL-4). These TH2 cells interact with other lymphocytes called B cells, whose role is the production of antibodies. Coupled with signals provided by IL-4, this interaction stimulates the B cell to begin production of a large amount of a particular type of antibody known as IgE. Secreted IgE circulates in the blood and binds to an IgE-specific receptor (a kind of Fc receptor called FcεRI) on the surface of other kinds of immune cells called mast cells and basophils, which are both involved in the acute inflammatory response. The IgE-coated cells, at this stage, are sensitized to the allergen.
If later exposure to the same allergen occurs, the allergen can bind to the IgE molecules held on the surface of the mast cells or basophils. Cross-linking of the IgE and Fc receptors occurs when more than one IgE-receptor complex interacts with the same allergenic molecule, and activates the sensitized cell. Activated mast cells and basophils undergo a process called degranulation, during which they release histamine and other inflammatory chemical mediators (cytokines, interleukins, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins) from their granules into the surrounding tissue causing several systemic effects, such as vasodilation, mucous secretion, nerve stimulation, and smooth-muscle contraction. This results in rhinorrhea, itchiness, dyspnea, and anaphylaxis. Depending on the individual, the allergen, and the mode of introduction, the symptoms can be system-wide (classical anaphylaxis), or localized to particular body systems; asthma is localized to the respiratory system and eczema is localized to the dermis.
After the chemical mediators of the acute response subside, late-phase responses can often occur due to the migration of other leukocytes such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and macrophages to the initial site. The reaction is usually seen 2–24 hours after the original reaction. Cytokines from mast cells may also play a role in the persistence of long-term effects. Late-phase responses seen in asthma are slightly different from those seen in other allergic responses, although they are still caused by release of mediators from eosinophils, and are still dependent on activity of TH2 cells.
- For skin-prick tests, a tiny board with protruding needles is used. The allergens are placed either on the board or directly on the skin. The board is then placed on the skin, to puncture the skin and for the allergens to enter the body. If a hive appears, the person is considered positive for the allergy. This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick tests.
Skin-prick testing is easy to do and results are available in minutes. Different allergists may use different devices for testing. Some use a "bifurcated needle", which looks like a fork with two prongs. Others use a "multitest", which may look like a small board with several pins sticking out of it. In these tests, a tiny amount of the suspected allergen is put onto the skin or into a testing device, and the device is placed on the skin to prick, or break through, the top layer of skin. This puts a small amount of the allergen under the skin. A hive will form at any spot where the person is allergic. This test generally yields a positive or negative result. It is good for quickly learning if a person is allergic to a particular food or not, because it detects IgE. Skin tests cannot predict if a reaction would occur or what kind of reaction might occur if a person ingests that particular allergen. They can, however, confirm an allergy in light of a patient's history of reactions to a particular food. Non-IgE-mediated allergies cannot be detected by this method.
- Patch testing is used to determine if a specific substance causes allergic inflammation of the skin. It tests for delayed food reactions.
- Blood testing is another way to test for allergies; however, it poses the same disadvantage and only detects IgE allergens and does not work for every possible allergen. Radioallergosorbent testing (RAST) is used to detect IgE antibodies present to a certain allergen. The score taken from the RAST is compared to predictive values, taken from a specific type of RAST. If the score is higher than the predictive values, a great chance the allergy is present in the person exists. One advantage of this test is that it can test many allergens at one time.
A CAP-RAST has greater specificity than RAST; it can show the amount of IgE present to each allergen. Researchers have been able to determine "predictive values" for certain foods, which can be compared to the RAST results. If a person's RAST score is higher than the predictive value for that food, over a 95% chance exists that patients will have an allergic reaction (limited to rash and anaphylaxis reactions) if they ingest that food. Currently, predictive values are available for milk, egg, peanut, fish, soy, and wheat. Blood tests allow for hundreds of allergens to be screened from a single sample, and cover food allergies as well as inhalants. However, non-IgE-mediated allergies cannot be detected by this method. Other widely promoted tests such as the antigen leukocyte cellular antibody test and the food allergy profile are considered unproven methods, the use of which is not advised.
- Food challenges test for allergens other than those caused by IgE allergens. The allergen is given to the person in the form of a pill, so the person can ingest the allergen directly. The person is watched for signs and symptoms. The problem with food challenges is that they must be performed in the hospital under careful watch, due to the possibility of anaphylaxis.
Food challenges, especially double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges, are the gold standard for diagnosis of food allergies, including most non-IgE-mediated reactions. Blind food challenges involve packaging the suspected allergen into a capsule, giving it to the patient, and observing the patient for signs or symptoms of an allergic reaction.
The best method for diagnosing food allergy is to be assessed by an allergist. The allergist will review the patient's history and the symptoms or reactions that have been noted after food ingestion. If the allergist feels the symptoms or reactions are consistent with food allergy, he/she will perform allergy tests. Additional diagnostic tools for evaluation of eosinophilic or non-IgE mediated reactions include endoscopy, colonoscopy, and biopsy.
Important differential diagnoses are:
- Lactose intolerance generally develops later in life, but can present in young patients in severe cases. It is due to an enzyme deficiency (lactase) and not allergy, and occurs in many non-Western people.
- Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten proteins such as gliadin (present in wheat, rye, and barley). It is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy by definition.
- Irritable bowel syndrome
- C1 Esterase inhibitor deficiency (hereditary angioedema), a rare disease, generally causes attacks of angioedema, but can present solely with abdominal pain and occasional diarrhea.
Breastfeeding for more than four months may prevent atopic dermatitis, cow's milk allergy, and wheezing in early childhood. Early exposure to potential allergens may be protective. Specifically, early exposure to eggs and peanuts reduces the risk of allergies to these.
To avoid an allergic reaction, a strict diet can be followed. It is difficult to determine the amount of allergenic food required to elicit a reaction, so complete avoidance should be attempted. In some cases, hypersensitive reactions can be triggered by exposures to allergens through skin contact, inhalation, kissing, participation in sports, blood transfusions, cosmetics, and alcohol.
The mainstay of treatment for food allergy is total avoidance of the foods identified as allergens. An allergen can enter the body by consuming a food containing the allergen, and can also be ingested by touching any surfaces that may have come into contact with the allergen, then touching the eyes or nose. For people who are extremely sensitive, avoidance includes avoiding touching or inhaling the problematic food.
If the food is accidentally ingested and a systemic reaction (anaphylaxis) occurs, then epinephrine should be used. A second dose of epinephrine may be required for severe reactions. The person should then be transported to the emergency room, where additional treatment can be given. Other treatments include antihistamines and steroids.
Epinephrine is another name for the hormone adrenaline, which is produced naturally in the body. An epinephrine injection is the first-line treatment for severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis). If administered in a timely manner, epinephrine can reverse its effects.
Epinephrine relieves airway swelling and obstruction, and improves blood circulation; blood vessels are tightened and heart rate is increased, improving circulation to body organs. Epinephrine is available by prescription in an autoinjector.
Antihistamines can alleviate some of the milder symptoms of an allergic reaction, but do not treat all symptoms of anaphylaxis. Antihistamines block the action of histamine, which causes blood vessels to dilate and become leaky to plasma proteins. Histamine also causes itchiness by acting on sensory nerve terminals. The most common antihistamine given for food allergies is diphenhydramine.
Glucocorticoid steroids are used to calm down the immune system cells that are attacked by the chemicals released during an allergic reaction. This treatment in the form of a nasal spray should not be used to treat anaphylaxis, for it only relieves symptoms in the area in which the steroid is in contact. Another reason steroids should not be used is the delay in reducing inflammation. Steroids can also be taken orally or through injection, by which every part of the body can be reached and treated, but a long time is usually needed for these to take effect.
The most common food allergens account for about 90% of all allergic reactions; in adults they include shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and egg. In children, they include milk, eggs, peanuts, and tree nuts. Six to 8% of children under the age of three have food allergies and nearly 4% of adults have food allergies.
For reasons not entirely understood, the diagnosis of food allergies has apparently become more common in Western nations recently. In the United States, food allergy affects as many as 5% of infants less than three years of age and 3% to 4% of adults. A similar prevalence is found in Canada.
About 75% of children who have allergies to milk protein are able to tolerate baked-in milk products, i.e., muffins, cookies, cake, and hydrolyzed formulas.
About 50% of children with allergies to milk, egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, and wheat will outgrow their allergy by the age of 6. Those who are still allergic by the age of 12 or so have less than an 8% chance of outgrowing the allergy.
Peanut and tree nut allergies are less likely to be outgrown, although evidence now shows that about 20% of those with peanut allergies and 9% of those with tree nut allergies will outgrow them.
Corn allergy may also be prevalent in many populations, although it may be difficult to recognize in areas such as the United States and Canada where corn derivatives are common in the food supply. 
In the United States, an estimated 12 million people have food allergies. Food allergies cause roughly 30,000 emergency room visits and 100 to 200 deaths per year[dubious ] and the prevalence is rising. Food allergy affects as many as 5% of infants less than three years of age and 3% to 4% of adults.
In the United States, for children under age 18, in 2007, about 3 million children (3.9%) were reported to have food allergy and the prevalence is increased about 18% (Barnum and Lukacs, 2008).
Society and cultureEdit
Children with allergies experience a decreased quality of life compared to their age-peers. In school and social situations they report an increased occurrence of bullying because of their allergy, which may include being touched with foods they are allergic to or having their snacks and meals intentionally contaminated with the food they need to avoid.
Regulation of labellingEdit
In response to the risk that certain foods pose to those with food allergies, some countries have responded by instituting labeling laws that require food products to clearly inform consumers if their products contain major allergens or byproducts of major allergens. Some countries also require companies to warn customers when food has been prepared around certain allergens that have been known to cause severe reactions.
Under the U.S. Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-282), companies are required to disclose on the label whether the product contains a major food allergen in clear, plain language.The eight major allergens are cow's milk, peanuts, eggs, shellfish, fish, tree nuts, soy and wheat. The allergens have to clearly be called out in the ingredient statement. Most companies list allergens in a statement separate from the ingredient statement.
The European Union requires listing for those eight plus molluscs, celery, mustard, lupin, sesame and sulfites. The EU Food Information for Consumers Regulation 1169/2011 – requires food businesses to provide allergy information on food sold unpackaged, for example, in catering outlets, deli counters, bakeries and sandwich bars.
On 4 January 2011, President Barack Obama signed into federal law the Food Safety and Modernization Act of 2010 (S510/HR2751, 111th Congress). Section 112 of this Act establishes voluntary food allergy and anaphylaxis management guidelines for public kindergartens and elementary and secondary schools.
Areas of research include anti-IgE antibody (omalizumab) and specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI, also known as OIT for oral immunotherapy), which have shown some promise for treatment of certain food allergies.
- National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (July 2012). "Food Allergy An Overview" (PDF). Archived from the original (pdf) on 2016-03-05.
- Sicherer, SH.; Sampson, HA. (Feb 2014). "Food allergy: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment.". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 133 (2): 291–307; quiz 308. PMID 24388012. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.11.020.
- Ierodiakonou, D; Garcia-Larsen, V; Logan, A; Groome, A; Cunha, S; Chivinge, J; Robinson, Z; Geoghegan, N; Jarrold, K; Reeves, T; Tagiyeva-Milne, N; Nurmatov, U; Trivella, M; Leonardi-Bee, J; Boyle, RJ (20 September 2016). "Timing of Allergenic Food Introduction to the Infant Diet and Risk of Allergic or Autoimmune Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.". JAMA. 316 (11): 1181–1192. PMID 27654604. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.12623.
- Nowak-Węgrzyn, A; Katz, Y; Mehr, SS; Koletzko, S (May 2015). "Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy.". The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 135 (5): 1114–24. PMID 25956013. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.03.025.
- "Allergen Immunotherapy". April 22, 2015. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- "Making sense of allergies" (PDF). Sense About Science. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Coon, ER.; Quinonez, RA.; Moyer, VA.; Schroeder, AR. (Nov 2014). "Overdiagnosis: how our compulsion for diagnosis may be harming children.". Pediatrics. 134 (5): 1013–23. PMID 25287462. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-1778.
- Ferreira, CT.; Seidman, E. "Food allergy: a practical update from the gastroenterological viewpoint.". J Pediatr (Rio J). 83 (1): 7–20. PMID 17279290. doi:10.2223/JPED.1587.
- MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Food allergy
- van Ree 1
- Sicherer 2006, p. 12
- Food Allergies Archived 2008-09-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Food Allergy Initiative. 2009. Accessed 27 Mar 2010.
- "Food Allergy Facts & Figures". Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. March 28, 2007. Archived from the original on December 7, 2006.
- "Food allergy and intolerance". Allergy & Intolerance. Food Additives and Ingredients Association. Archived from the original on 2011-02-13. Retrieved 2010-06-08.
- "About Food Allergies". Food Allergy Initiative. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-12-12. Retrieved 2008-12-08.
- "Rice Allergy". HealthCentersOnline. 2006. p. 2. Archived from the original on 2006-05-23. Retrieved 2006-10-26.
- Sicherer 2006, p. 62
- Sicherer 2006, p. 63
- Savage JH, Matsui EC, Skripak JM, Wood RA (December 2007). "The natural history of egg allergy". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 120 (6): 1413–7. PMID 18073126. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2007.09.040.
- Sicherer 2006, p. 64
- "Seafood (Fish, Crustaceans and Shellfish) - Priority food allergens". Health Canada, Health Products and Food Branch, Food Directorate, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Food Research Division. 2012. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Gottfried Schmalz; Dorthe Arenholt Bindslev (2008). Biocompatibility of Dental Materials. Springer. Archived from the original on May 18, 2016. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- Thomas P. Habif (2009). Clinical Dermatology. Elsevier Health Sciences. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- Edward T. Bope; Rick D. Kellerman (2013). Conn's Current Therapy 2014: Expert Consult. Elsevier Health Sciences. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- Clayton, Ellen (2012). Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality. Institute of Medicine. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-309-21435-3.
- "Other atopic dermatitis and related conditions". ICD9. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30.
- "Policy Statement: Hypoallergenic Infant Formulas". American Academy of Pediatrics. August 2, 2000. Archived from the original on January 16, 2008.
- "Other Common Allergens". Food Allergy Research & Education. Archived from the original on 2014-06-16.
- "Food allergy". NHS Choices. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
A food allergy is when the body's immune system reacts unusually to specific foods
- Food Reactions. Allergies Archived 2010-04-16 at the Wayback Machine.. Foodreactions.org. Kent, England. 2005. Accessed 27 Apr 2010.
- Nester 2009, p. 414
- Mayo Clinic. Causes of Food Allergies. Archived 2010-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. April 2010.
- Janeway, Charles; Paul Travers; Mark Walport; Mark Shlomchik (2001). Immunobiology; Fifth Edition. New York and London: Garland Science. pp. e–book. ISBN 0-8153-4101-6. Archived from the original on 2009-06-28.
- Grimbaldeston MA, Metz M, Yu M, Tsai M, Galli SJ (2006). "Effector and potential immunoregulatory roles of mast cells in IgE-associated acquired immune responses". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 18 (6): 751–60. PMID 17011762. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2006.09.011.
- Holt PG, Sly PD (2007). "Th2 cytokines in the asthma late-phase response". Lancet. 370 (9596): 1396–8. PMID 17950849. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61587-6.
- Sicherer 2006, p. 185
- "Allergies and EGIDs | American Partnership For Eosinophilic Disorders". Apfed.org. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
- "Patch test in the diagnosis of food allergy". 2014-03-22. Archived from the original on 2014-03-10. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
- Rokaite R, Labanauskas L, Vaideliene L (2014-01-24). "Role of the skin patch test in diagnosing food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis". Medicina (Kaunas). 40: 1081–7. PMID 15547309.
- Sicherer 2006, pp. 187–8
- "What is a RAST test ? What is a CAP-RAST test?". kidswithfoodallergies.org. Archived from the original on 2013-05-11.
- Sampson, HA; Ho DG (October 1997). "Relationship between food-specific IgE concentrations and the risk of positive food challenges in children and adolescents". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 100 (4): 444–51. PMID 9338535. doi:10.1016/S0091-6749(97)70133-7.
- Sampson, HA (May 2001). "Utility of food-specific IgE concentrations in predicting symptomatic food allergy". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 107 (5): 891–6. PMID 11344358. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.114708.
- Garcia-Ara, C; Boyano-Martinez T; Diaz-Pena JM; et al. (January 2001). "Specific IgE levels in the diagnosis of immediate hypersensitivity to cows' milk protein in the infant". Allergy Clin Immunol. 107 (1): 185–90. PMID 11150010. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.111592.
- Wüthrich B (2005). "Unproven techniques in allergy diagnosis". J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 15 (2): 86–90. PMID 16047707.
- Sicherer 2006, p. 189
- Greer, FR.; Sicherer, SH.; Burks, AW. (Jan 2008). "Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas.". Pediatrics. 121 (1): 183–91. PMID 18166574. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-3022.
- Sicherer 2006, pp. 151–8
- "European Food Allergy and Anaphalaxis Public Declaration". the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI). Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Sicherer 2006, p. 133
- Sicherer 2006, p. 131
- Sicherer 2006, p. 134
- Nowak-Węgrzyn A, Sampson HA (March 2011). "Future therapies for food allergies". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 127 (3): 558–73; quiz 574–5. PMC . PMID 21277625. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.12.1098.
- "About Food Allergies -> Allergens". Food Allergy Initiative. Archived from the original on 2013-12-09. Retrieved 11 Dec 2013.
- National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (July 2004). "Food Allergy: An Overview" (PDF). National Institutes of Health. p. 35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-05.
- Kagan RS (February 2003). "Food allergy: an overview". Environ Health Perspect. 111 (2): 223–5. PMC . PMID 12573910. doi:10.1289/ehp.5702.
- Sampson H (2004). "Update on food allergy". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 113 (5): 805–819. PMID 15131561. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2004.03.014.
- Sicherer S, Sampson H (2006). "9. Food allergy". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 117 (2 Suppl Mini–Primer): S470–5. PMID 16455349. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.05.048.
- "Food Allergies and Intolerance". Health Canada. December 6, 2007. Archived from the original on June 14, 2007.
- Lucendo AJ, Arias A, Gonzalez-Cervera J, Mota-Huertas T, Yague-Compadre JL. Tolerance of a cow's milk-based hydrolyzed formula in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis triggered by milk. Allergy; 68:1065–72. Link Archived 2016-11-28 at the Wayback Machine.
- "What Are Food Allergies? Food Allergy Summary". Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. March 28, 2007. Archived from the original on October 27, 2007.
- "Outgrowing food allergies". Children's Memorial Hospital. Archived from the original on 2007-10-20.
- Fleischer DM, Conover-Walker MK, Matsui EC, Wood RA (November 2005). "The natural history of tree nut allergy". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 116 (5): 1087–93. PMID 16275381. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.09.002.
- Urisu A, Ebisawa M, Ito K, Aihara Y, Ito S, Mayumi M, Kohno Y, Kondo N (2014). "Japanese Guideline for Food Allergy 2014". Allergol Int. 63 (3): 399–419. PMID 25178179. doi:10.2332/allergolint.14-RAI-0770.
- Parker, Cherry (February 1980). "Food Allergies". The American Journal of Nursing. Lippincott Williams &. 80 (2): 262–5. JSTOR 3470059. PMID 6898386. doi:10.2307/3470059.
- Oldenburg, Marcus and Petersen, Arnd and Baur, Xaver (2011). "Maize pollen is an important allergen in occupationally exposed workers". JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE AND TOXICOLOGY. 6: 32. doi:10.1186/1745-6673-6-32.
- "Food Allergy Media Q&A" (PDF). Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network. 2010-05-26. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2010-12-30. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- "Food Allergy Facts and Statistics" (PDF). Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network. 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2008-09-10.
- "Food Allergy: Temporal trends and determinants.". Food Allergy: Temporal trends and determinants.
- Fong AT, Katelaris CH, Wainstein B (2017). "Bullying and quality of life in children and adolescents with food allergy". J Paediatr Child Health. 53 (7): 630–635. PMID 28608485. doi:10.1111/jpc.13570.
- Allen KJ, Turner PJ, Pawankar R, Taylor S, Sicherer S, Lack G, Rosario N, Ebisawa M, Wong G, Mills EN, Beyer K, Fiocchi A, Sampson HA (2014). "Precautionary labelling of foods for allergen content: are we ready for a global framework?". World Allergy Organ J. 7 (1): 10. PMC . PMID 24791183. doi:10.1186/1939-4551-7-10.
- "Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004". FDA. August 2, 2004. Archived from the original on 2011-02-02.
- "Food allergen labelling and information requirements under the EU Food Information for Consumers Regulation No. 1169/2011: Technical Guidance" (April 2015).
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-08. Retrieved 2014-12-12.
- Nester, Eugene W.; Anderson, Denise G.; Roberts Jr, C. Evans; Nester, Martha T. (2009). "Immunologic Disorders". Microbiology: A Human Perspective (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 414–428.
- Sicherer, Scott H. (2006). Understanding and Managing Your Child's Food Allergy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Food Allergy, Merck Manual
- "Food Allergies and Intolerances Resource List for Consumers" (PDF). Food and Nutrition Information Center, National Agricultural Library. December 2010. – a collection of resources on the topic of food allergies and intolerances