The Michelin Guides (French: Guide Michelin French pronunciation: [ɡid miʃ.lɛ̃]) are a series of guide books published by the French tyre company Michelin for more than a century. The Guide awards up to three Michelin stars for excellence to a select few establishments. The acquisition or loss of a star can have dramatic effects on the success of a restaurant. Michelin also publishes a series of general guides to cities, regions, and countries, the Green Guides.
In 1900, there were fewer than 3,000 cars on the roads of France. To increase the demand for cars and, accordingly, car tyres, car tyre manufacturers and brothers Édouard and André Michelin published a guide for French motorists, the Michelin Guide. Nearly 35,000 copies of this first, free edition of the guide were distributed; it provided useful information to motorists, such as maps, tyre repair and replacement instructions, car mechanics listings, hotels, and petrol stations throughout France.
Four years later, in 1904, the brothers published a guide for Belgium similar to the Michelin Guide.
Michelin subsequently introduced guides for Algeria and Tunisia (1907); the Alps and the Rhine (northern Italy, Switzerland, Bavaria, and the Netherlands) (1908); Germany, Spain, and Portugal (1910); the British Isles (1911); and "The Countries of the Sun" (Les Pays du Soleil) (Northern Africa, Southern Italy and Corsica) (1911). In 1909, an English-language version of the guide to France was published.
During World War I, publication of the guide was suspended. After the war, revised editions of the guide continued to be given away until 1920. It is said that André Michelin, whilst visiting a tyre merchant, noticed copies of the guide being used to prop up a workbench. Based on the principle that "man only truly respects what he pays for", Michelin decided to charge a price for the guide, which was about 750 francs or $2.15 in 1922. They also made several changes, notably listing restaurants by specific categories, adding hotel listings (initially only for Paris), and removing advertisements in the guide. Recognizing the growing popularity of the restaurant section of the guide, the brothers recruited a team of inspectors to visit and review restaurants, who were always anonymous.
Following the usage of the Murray's and Baedeker guides, the guide began to award stars for fine dining establishments in 1926. Initially, there was only a single star awarded. Then, in 1931, the hierarchy of zero, one, two, and three stars was introduced. Finally, in 1936, the criteria for the starred rankings were published:
- : "A very good restaurant in its category" (Une très bonne table dans sa catégorie)
- : "Excellent cooking, worth a detour" (Table excellente, mérite un détour)
- : "Exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey" (Une des meilleures tables, vaut le voyage).
In 1931 the cover of the guide was changed from blue to red, and has remained so in all subsequent editions. During World War II, publication was again suspended, but in 1944, at the request of the Allied Forces, the 1939 guide to France was specially reprinted for military use; its maps were judged the best and most up-to-date available. Publication of the annual guide resumed on 16 May 1945, a week after VE Day.
In the early post-war years the lingering effects of wartime shortages led Michelin to impose an upper limit of two stars; by 1950 the French edition listed 38 establishments judged to meet this standard. The first Michelin Guide to Italy was published in 1956. It awarded no stars in the first edition. In 1974, the first guide to Britain since 1931 was published. Twenty-five stars were awarded.
In 2005, Michelin published its first American guide, covering 500 restaurants in the five boroughs of New York City and 50 hotels in Manhattan. In 2007, a Tokyo Michelin Guide was launched. In the same year, the guide introduced a magazine, Étoile. In 2008, a Hong Kong and Macau volume was added. As of 2013, the guide is published in 14 editions covering 23 countries.
In 2008, the German restaurateur Juliane Caspar was appointed editor-in-chief of the French edition of the guide. She had previously been responsible for the Michelin guides to Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. She became the first woman and first non-French national to occupy the French position. The German newspaper Die Welt commented on the appointment, "In view of the fact German cuisine is regarded as a lethal weapon in most parts of France, this decision is like Mercedes announcing that its new director of product development is a Martian."
Methods and layoutEdit
Red Guides have historically listed many more restaurants than rival guides, relying on an extensive system of symbols to describe each one in as little as two lines. Reviews of starred restaurants also include two to three culinary specialties. Short summaries (2–3 lines) were added in 2002/2003 to enhance descriptions of many establishments. These summaries are written in the language of the country for which the guide is published (though the Spain and Portugal volume is in Spanish only) but the symbols are the same throughout all editions.
Michelin reviewers (commonly called "inspectors") are anonymous; they do not identify themselves, and their meals and expenses are paid for by Michelin, never by a restaurant being reviewed:
Michelin has gone to extraordinary lengths to maintain the anonymity of its inspectors. Many of the company's top executives have never met an inspector; inspectors themselves are advised not to disclose their line of work, even to their parents (who might be tempted to boast about it); and, in all the years that it has been putting out the guide, Michelin has refused to allow its inspectors to speak to journalists. The inspectors write reports that are distilled, in annual "stars meetings" at the guide's various national offices, into the ranking of three stars, two stars, or one star—or no stars. (Establishments that Michelin deems unworthy of a visit are not included in the guide.)
The French chef Paul Bocuse, one of the pioneers of nouvelle cuisine in the 1960s, said, "Michelin is the only guide that counts." In France, when the guide is published each year, it sparks a media frenzy which has been compared to that for annual Academy Awards for films. Media and others debate likely winners, speculation is rife, and TV and newspapers discuss which restaurant might lose, and who might gain a Michelin star.
The Michelin Guide also awards "Rising Stars", an indication that a restaurant has the potential to qualify for a star, or an additional star.
In 2020, the Michelin Guide launched a sustainability emblem to symbolise excellence in sustainable gastronomy. An establishment awarded this green star is given space on the Guide's website for the chef to describe the restaurant's vision.
Since 1955, the guide has also highlighted restaurants offering "exceptionally good food at moderate prices", a feature now called "Bib Gourmand". They must offer menu items priced below a maximum determined by local economic standards. Bib (Bibendum) is the company's nickname for the Michelin Man, its corporate logo for over a century.
In 2016, a new symbol, The Plate, was added to recognise restaurants that "simply serve good food".
Per country/combination of countriesEdit
|CountryRegion||Release date||Total||Bib Gourmand||Establishments|
(€32, €36 in Paris area)
|over 3,222 hotels and guest houses,|
|Belgium and Luxembourg||2021 Edition||2||24||111||137||140 (€35 or less)||over 700 hotels and guest houses,|
(€35 or less)
|over 4,200 hotels and guest houses,|
2,100 restaurants, 4,287 hotels
|Great Britain and Ireland||2021 Edition||7||20||157||184||126
(£28 or €40)
|over 340 hotels, guest houses,|
|Italy||2020 Edition||11||35||328||374||257 (€35)||over 3,700 hotels and guest houses,|
|over 600 hotels and guest houses,|
|Nordic Countries||2019 Edition||3||10||51||64||168
|Spain and Portugal||2020 Edition||11||36||194||241||253
(€35 or less)
|over 1,775 hotels and guest houses,|
1,549 restaurants, 130 tapas bars
(CHF70 or less)
|458 hotels and guest houses,|
Regions and citiesEdit
|City||Release date||Bib Gourmand||Establishments|
|Paris||2012 Edition||10||17||50||70 (€35)||60 hotels, 453 restaurants|
|Chicago||2018 Edition||2||4||19||54 ($40)||400 restaurants|
|Hong Kong and Macau||2019 Edition||10||17||55||80 (HK$350 or MOP$350)||297 restaurants, 61 hotels|
|Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, Nara||2012 Edition||15||61||224||40
|296 restaurants, 48 hotels, 41 ryokans|
|Las Vegas (suspended)||21 October 2008||1||3||13||127 restaurants, 30 hotels (2007)|
|London||2012 Edition||2||7||46||45 (£28)||450 restaurants, 50 hotels|
|Los Angeles||3 June 2019||0||6||18||62|
|Main Cities of Europe||17 March 2010||15||55||271||231||1,715 restaurants, 1,542 hotels|
|New York City||2017 Edition||5||10||61||132 ($40)||857|
|Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo||2018 edition||0||3||15||33 (R$ 90)|
|San Francisco and Bay Area||2017 Edition||6||7||41||75 ($40)||513 restaurants|
|Seoul||2020 Edition||2||7||22||60 (₩35,000 or less)||174 restaurants, 36 hotels|
|Shanghai||2020 Edition||1||8||31||24 (￥200 or less)||TBC|
|Singapore||2017 Edition||1||7||30||38 (S$45)||TBC|
|292 restaurants, 54 hotels and 10 ryokans|
|Washington, DC||2017 Edition||1||2||15||44
|Bangkok, Phuket, Phang-nga||2020 Edition||0||5||24||94
|280 restaurants, 22 hotels|
|Taipei||2019 Edition||1||5||18||36 (NT$1,500 or less)||158 restaurants (2019), 25 hotels (2018)|
|Canton (Guangzhou)||2019 Edition||0||1||10||28 (¥200 or less)|
In 2014, Michelin introduced a separate listing for gastropubs in Ireland. In 2016, the Michelin Guide for Hong Kong and Macau introduced an overview of notable street-food establishments. In the same year, the Singapore guide introduced the first Michelin stars for street-food locations, for Hong Kong Soya Sauce Chicken Rice and Noodle and Hill Street Tai Hwa Pork Noodle.
All listed restaurants, regardless of their star, Bib Gourmand, or Plate status, also receive a "fork and spoon" designation, as a subjective reflection of the overall comfort and quality of the restaurant. Rankings range from one to five: one fork and spoon represents a "comfortable restaurant" and five signifies a "luxurious restaurant". Forks and spoons colored red designate a restaurant that is considered "pleasant" as well.
Restaurants, independently of their other ratings in the guide, can also receive a number of other symbols next to their listing:
- Coins indicate restaurants that serve a menu for a certain price or less, depending on the local monetary standard. In 2010 France, 2011 US and Japan Red Guides, the maximum permitted "coin" prices were €19, $25, and ¥5000, respectively.
- Interesting view or Magnificent view, designated by a black or red symbol, are given to restaurants offering those features.
- Grapes, a sake set, or a cocktail glass indicate restaurants that offer, at minimum, a "somewhat interesting" selection of wines, sake, or cocktails, respectively.
The Michelin Green Guides review and rate attractions other than restaurants. There is a Green Guide for France as a whole, and a more detailed one for each of ten regions within France. Other Green Guides cover many countries, regions, and cities outside France. Many Green Guides are published in several languages. They include background information and an alphabetical section describing points of interest. Like the Red Guides, they use a three-star system for recommending sites, ranging from "worth a trip" to "worth a detour", and "interesting".
Allegations of lax inspection standards and biasEdit
Pascal Rémy, a veteran France-based Michelin inspector, and also a former Gault Millau employee, wrote a tell-all book published in 2004 entitled L'Inspecteur se met à table (literally, "The Inspector Sits Down at the Table"; idiomatically, "The Inspector Spills the Beans", or "The Inspector Lays It All on the Table"). Rémy's employment was terminated in December 2003 when he informed Michelin of his plans to publish his book. He brought a court case for unfair dismissal, which was unsuccessful.
Rémy described the French Michelin inspector's life as lonely, underpaid drudgery, driving around France for weeks on end, dining alone, under intense pressure to file detailed reports on strict deadlines. He maintained that the guide had become lax in its standards. Though Michelin states that its inspectors visited all 4,000 reviewed restaurants in France every 18 months, and all starred restaurants several times a year, Rémy said only about one visit every 3+1⁄2 years was possible because there were only 11 inspectors in France when he was hired, rather than the 50 or more hinted by Michelin. That number, he said, had shrunk to five by the time he was fired in December 2003.
Rémy also accused the guide of favouritism. He alleged that Michelin treated famous and influential chefs, such as Paul Bocuse and Alain Ducasse, as "untouchable" and not subject to the same rigorous standards as lesser-known chefs. Michelin denied Rémy's charges, but refused to say how many inspectors it actually employed in France. In response to Rémy's statement that certain three-star chefs were sacrosanct, Michelin said, "There would be little sense in saying a restaurant was worth three stars if it weren't true, if for no other reason than that the customer would write and tell us."
Allegations of prejudice favouring French cuisineEdit
Some non-French food critics have alleged that the rating system is biased in favour of French cuisine or French dining standards. In the UK The Guardian commented in 1997 that "some people maintain the guide's principal purpose is as a tool of Gallic cultural imperialism". When Michelin published its first New York City Red Guide in 2005 Steven Kurutz of The New York Times noted that Danny Meyer's Union Square Cafe, a restaurant rated highly by The New York Times, Zagat Survey, and other prominent guides, received a no-star rating from Michelin (he did, however, acknowledge that the restaurant received positive mention for its ambiance, and that two other restaurants owned by Meyer received stars). Kurutz also said the guide appeared to favour restaurants that "emphasized formality and presentation" rather than a "casual approach to fine dining". He said over half of the restaurants that received one or two stars "could be considered French". The Michelin Guide New York 2007 included 526 restaurants, compared to 2,014 in Zagat New York 2007; after The Four Seasons Restaurant received no stars in that edition, co-owner Julian Niccolini said Michelin "should stay in France, and they should keep their guide there". The 2007 guide does, however, include menus, recipes, and photographs, and descriptions of the atmosphere of starred restaurants.
Allegations of leniency with stars for Japanese cuisineEdit
In 2007 Tokyo's restaurants were awarded with the most stars and in 2010 other Japanese cities like Kyoto and Osaka also received many stars. At the time this sparked questions from some over whether these high ratings were merited for Japanese restaurants, or whether the Michelin guide was too generous in giving out stars to gain an acceptance with Japanese customers and to enable the tyre-selling parent company to market itself in Japan. But the discrepancy is easily explained by the number of restaurants in total: Tokyo has 160,000 restaurants while Paris, for example, has just 40,000. The Wall Street Journal reported in 2010 that some Japanese chefs were surprised at receiving a star and were reluctant to accept one because the publicity caused an unmanageable jump in booking, affecting their ability to serve their traditional customers without lowering their quality.
Some restaurateurs have asked Michelin to revoke a star, because they felt that it created undesirable customer expectations or pressure to spend more on service and decor. Notable cases include:
- Casa Julio (Fontanars dels Alforins, Spain): After receiving a star for a perfumed cuisine in 2009, the restaurant chef Julio Biosca felt the award was granted to dishes that he did not like and which restricted his creativity. He tried to remove his star, and in December 2013 he discontinued his tasting menu. The removal took place in the 2015 guide.
- Petersham Nurseries Café (London): After receiving a star in 2011, founder and chef Skye Gyngell received complaints from customers expecting formal dining, leading to her attempt to remove the star, and her subsequent retirement from the restaurant. She has now said she regrets her remarks and would welcome a star.
- 't Huis van Lede (Belgium): After receiving a star in 2014, chef Frederick Dhooge said he did not want his Michelin star or his points in the Gault-Millau restaurant guide because some customers were not interested in simple food from a Michelin-starred restaurant.
- Mayyasi, Alex (23 June 2016). "Why Does a Tire Company Publish the Michelin Guide?". Priceonomics. Archived from the original on 16 October 2016.
- "The Michelin Guide: 100 editions and over a century of history". ViaMichelin.co.uk. 2 March 2009. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- "Le guide Michelin en quelques dates". Association des Collectionneurs de Guides et Cartes Michelin (in French). 13 May 2010. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
- Wertenbaker, Charles (5 June 1954). "The Testing of M. Thuilier". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- "Michelin Guide History, restaurant and dining guides". Provence and Beyond. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
- "The Michelin Guide". The Manchester Guardian (32275). 28 March 1950. p. 4. Retrieved 17 March 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- Dawson, Helen (24 March 1974). "British Michelin revived". The Observer (9530). London. p. 40 – via Newspapers.com.
- Paterson, Tony (17 December 2008). "French find German's role hard to swallow". The Independent. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- Paterson, Tony. "French shock at Michelin guide's first foreign chief"[permanent dead link], The Independent, 18 December 2008
- Michelin Guide Great Britain & Ireland (2000), Netherlands (2007), Benelux (2003)
- Colapinta, John. "Lunch with M – Undercover with a Michelin inspector" Archived 19 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine, The New Yorker, 23 November 2009
- Ragavan, Surekha (23 October 2012). "Taste test: Menu by three-star Michelin chef Philippe Marc". Time Out Kuala Lumpur. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013.
- Reddy, Sumathi (4 October 2011). "Michelin Stars Align for Seven NYC Restaurants". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 9 November 2016.
- Fabricant, Florence (4 October 2011). "Off the Menu". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016.
- "Tokyo retains title as Michelin's gourmet capital". Asahi Shimbun. Reuters. 29 November 2011. Archived from the original on 4 December 2011.
- Cheney, Catherine (9 September 2011). "Taking the Pop-Up Restaurant to New Heights". Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on 31 December 2011.
- "MICHELIN Guide 2020: The New Sustainability Emblem". News & Views. Michelin Guide. 17 February 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
- "What The MICHELIN Guide's Symbols Mean". MICHELIN Guide.
- "Accueil | Guides & Cartes | Guides d'Hôtels et de Restaurants | Europe". Michelin. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016.
- "Yannic Alleno's 1947 restaurant (Courchevel) awarded 3 stars in the 2017 Michelin Guide France". Michelin. 9 February 2017. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017.
- Filloon, Whitney (5 January 2017). "Michelin Unveils France's Bib Gourmands for 2017". Eater. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "The MICHELIN Guide presents its 2021 selection of restaurants in Belgium and Luxembourg and awards a third Star to Zilte". MICHELIN Guide. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
- "MICHELIN Guide Germany 2019 Selection". MICHELIN Guide. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
- "All Current UK and Ireland Michelin Star Restaurants". 29 January 2021. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
- "Guida Michelin 2019. Tutti i numeri e le stelle, regione per regione". michelin.com.
- "Acht nieuwe sterrenrestaurants in Nederland" [Eight new starred restaurants in the Netherlands]. NOS (in Dutch). 13 January 2020. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- Bluiminck, Nathalie (11 November 2019). "Prijs Bib Gourmand menu van 37 naar 39 euro". Misset Horeca (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 17 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- "MICHELIN Guide Nordic Countries 2019 Selection". MICHELIN Guide. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
- "Guía Michelin 2018" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- "Lista Bib Gourmand 2018". Archived from the original on 7 December 2017.
- "Guide Michelin: 2 Sterne für Mahler & Eperon | GaultMillau – Channel". Gault Millau (in German). Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- "Michelin Stars Rain Down on Switzerland Archived 4 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine", Michelin, 16 November 2010.
- "Products & Services News – The 2012 Michelin Guide France". michelin.com. 27 February 2012. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012.
- "The Michelin Guide France 2010 Selection". Michelin North America. 1 March 2010. Archived from the original on 31 October 2010.
- "Michelin awards two stars to Smyth; 24 other Chicago restaurants honored". chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
- Vettel, Phil. "Michelin's Bib Gourmand awards go to 54 Chicago restaurants, with 8 newcomers". Chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
- "Michelin Guide Chicago 2015 - Michelin Travel & Lifestyle". michelintravel.com. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Discover Michelin Restaurants in Hong Kong Macau Hong Kong Macau". guide.michelin.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- "https://guide.michelin.com/hk/en/hong-kong-macau/bib-gourmand/restaurants Archived 6 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine", Michelin Hong Kong and Macau, 18 December 2018.
- "Michelin news: all recent news from the Group - Michelin" (PDF). michelin.com.au. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- (in Japanese) "「ミシュランガイド京都・大阪・神戸2011」12 軒のレストランが三つ星 44軒のレストランと2軒の旅館 が二つ星 183軒のレストランと2軒の旅館が一つ星" Archived 6 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Michelin Japan, 19 October 2010.
- Jinae West "Michelin: Bad economy means no 2010 guide in Las Vegas" Archived 14 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Las Vegas Sun, 26 June 2009.
- "Restaurants go for Gold as 2012 Michelin Stars are announced". londonandpartners.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "MICHELIN Guide California 2019 Selection". MICHELIN Guide. Archived from the original on 22 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- "MICHELIN Guide California 2019 Bib Gourmands". MICHELIN Guide. Archived from the original on 13 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- "Michelin Guide Main Cities of Europe 2010 to go on sale on March 17 Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine", Michelin, 16 March 2010. covering Austria (Vienna, Salzburg) – Belgium (Brussels, Antwerp) – Czech Republic (Prague) – Denmark (Copenhagen) – Finland (Helsinki) – France (Paris, Lyons, Strasbourg, Toulouse) – Germany (Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart) – Greece (Athens) – Hungary (Budapest) – Ireland (Dublin) – Italy (Rome, Milan, Turin, Florence) – Luxembourg (Luxembourg) – Netherlands (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague) – Norway (Oslo) – Poland (Warsaw, Cracow) – Portugal (Lisbon) – Spain (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia) – Sweden (Stockholm, Gothenburg) – Switzerland (Bern, Geneva, Zurich) – United Kingdom (London, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Glasgow)
- "Michelin Releases 2017 Edition of Its Famed Guide to New York's Best Restaurants". Archived from the original on 8 January 2017.
- "Michelin Guide to Brazil 2018 – the Full List". Fine Dining Lovers. Archived from the original on 25 August 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
- Flores, Magê (18 May 2017). "8 casas boas e baratas do Rio e de SP ganham menção no Guia Michelin". Folha de S. Paulo. Archived from the original on 2 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- "Michelin Awards Coveted Three Stars to Quince in 2017 Edition of Famed San Francisco Restaurant Guide". Archived from the original on 8 January 2017.
- "Michelin Guide Seoul". Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- "Bib Gourmand Seoul 2017". Archived from the original on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- MICHELIN Guide Shanghai 2020 Selection Archived 23 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine, 18 February 2020.
-  Archived 23 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine, 18 February 2020.
- "Singapore restaurant stalwarts, Australian and Italian cuisine celebrated in the 2017 MICHELIN guide Singapore Archived 16 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine", Michelin Guide Singapore, 29 June 2017.
- "The Results: Bib Gourmand Awards For The 2017 MICHELIN guide Singapore Archived 11 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine", Michelin Guide Singapore, 22 June 2017.
- "Les publications Michelin pour les investisseurs institutionnels" (PDF). michelin.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- (in Japanese) "「ミシュランガイド東京・横浜・鎌倉2011」を発行 三つ星が14軒、二つ星が54軒、一つ星が198軒に" Archived 29 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Michelin Japan, 24 November 2010.
- Judkis, Maura (31 May 2016). "D.C.'s food scene gets a prestigious boost: Michelin inspection (and stars)" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
- "Michelin Accidentally Leaks Its List of 2020 DC Bib Gourmand Awards Early" Archived 7 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Washingtonian, 23 September 2019.
- "Michelin Guide Thailand Archived 10 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine", Michelin Guide Thailand, 12 November 2019
- "Discover Michelin Restaurants in Taipei Taipei". guide.michelin.com. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- "Results: The Inaugural MICHELIN Guide Guangzhou Released". guide.michelin.com. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- "MICHELIN Guide Beijing 2020 Selection". guide.michelin.com. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- "Four Clare pubs listed in 2014 Michelin Guide". Clare Champion. 19 May 2014. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- Callaghan, Adam H. (5 November 2015). "Michelin Recognizes Street Food for the First Time in Its Hong Kong Guide". Eater. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- "Michelin includes street food for first time in Hong Kong guide". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- Kim, Soo (25 July 2016). "Singapore street food stalls get Michelin stars". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 22 September 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- How to Use This Guide Archived 3 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Michelin, accessed 20 May 2013
- Sage, Adam. "J'Accuse: Michelin cooks the books", The Times, 31 May 2004
- Henley, John. "Michelin bean-spiller loses court battle", The Guardian, 15 December 2004
- "Michelin Man Jolts French Food World" Archived 1 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 25 February 2004
- "Pass Notes", The Guardian, 23 January 1997, p. A3
- Kurutz, Steven. "She's a Belle of the City, but the French are Blasé" Archived 27 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 13 November 2005
- Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst (1 February 2008). "Michelin in America". Gastronomica: The Journal of Critical Food Studies. 8 (1): 49–55. doi:10.1525/gfc.2008.8.1.49. ISSN 1529-3262.
- Robinson, Gwen. "Michelin serves up stars and stirs envy in Japan" Archived 13 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The Financial Times, 14 October 2009; and Robinson, Gwen. "Michelin sprinkles stars on Tokyo" Archived 8 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The Financial Times, 19 November 2007
- "Tokyo 'world's best place to eat'". BBC. 17 November 2009. Archived from the original on 13 December 2019. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
- Sanchanta, Mariko, Katy Mclaughlin and Max Colchester. "Michelin Stars Draw Shots" Archived 10 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Wall Street Journal, 25 October 2010
- Gergaud, Olivier; Storchmann, Karl; Verardi, Vincenzo (22 May 2012). "Expert Opinion and Quality Perception of Consumers: Evidence from New York City Restaurants". doi:10.2139/ssrn.2064554. SSRN 2064554. Cite journal requires
- Mount, Ian (11 December 2014). "The curse of the Michelin-star restaurant rating". Fortune. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- "The chef who gave up his Michelin star". El País. 2 December 2014. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- "Skye Gyngell: curse of the Michelin star has driven me out of the kitchen". The Daily Telegraph. 21 February 2012. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- "摘星變詛咒 難耐食客投訴不絕 女廚棄米芝蓮榮耀 - 蘋果日報 - 兩岸國際 - 20120222". Apple Daily 蘋果日報. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- Dixler, Hillary (13 March 2014). "Chef in Belgium Gives Back His Michelin Star". Eater. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- "Workmen's cafe overwhelmed with customers after it is accidentally awarded a Michelin star". The Daily Telegraph. 18 February 2017. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- "Quand un bistrot de quartier reçoit par erreur une étoile au Michelin". Konbini. 17 February 2017. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
Published in the 20th centuryEdit
- Michelin Guide to the British Isles, London: Michelin Tyre Company, 1913, OL 14022740M (+ List of excursions)
- Amiens before and during the war, Clermont-Ferrand: Michelin and Cie, 1919, OCLC 887914, OL 13521961M
- Michelin Guide to the Battlefields of the World War, Milltown, N.J.: Michelin, 1919, OL 24432211M
- Strasbourg (in French), Clermont-Ferrand: Michelin & Cie, 1919, OL 24638163M
- St. Quentin-Cambrai (in French), Clermont-Ferrand: Michelin & cie, 1921, OL 24786012M
Published in the 21st centuryEdit
- Trois étoiles au Michelin: Une histoire de la haute gastronomie française et européenne, by Jean-François Mesplède and Alain Ducasse, 2004. ISBN 2-7000-2468-0. Follows the 60-odd chefs who have been awarded three stars.
- The Perfectionist: Life and Death in Haute Cuisine, by Rudolph Chelminski, 2006. ISBN 978-0-14-102193-5. The story of Bernard Loiseau.
- From behind the wall: Danish Newspaper Berlingske Employee 'Awards'
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guide Michelin.|