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A plate of testaroli with pesto, as served at a trattoria in Pontremoli, Italy
A plate of testaroli, an ancient dish, served with pesto at a trattoria in Pontremoli, Italy

This is a list of ancient dishes, foods and beverages that have been recorded as originating during ancient history. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC.[1]

Ancient history can be defined as occurring from the beginning of recorded human history to:

Although the end date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD (the most used),[8][9] the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD,[10] the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD,[11] the birth of Islam in 610 CE[12] or the rise of Charlemagne[13] as the end of ancient and Classical European history. This list does not contain entries that originated after ancient history.


Beginning of recorded history to 476 ADEdit

This section is limited to dishes that originated during the time of ancient history (the beginning of recorded human history) up to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD.

Ruins of a garum factory in Baelo Claudia, Spain
Papadzules may be "one of the most ancient traditional dishes of Yucatán, Mexico.[14]
Various chutneys in Bangalore, India


  • Beer is recorded in the written history of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt and is one of the world's oldest prepared beverages.[69]
  • Kombucha originated in what is now Manchuria around 220 BCE, and is said to have been imported to Japan around 400 CE by the physician Kombu.[70][71]
  • Soy milk has been consumed in China since ancient times.[72]
  • Wine consumption and production has been found through archaeological evidence as early as c. 6000 BC.[73][74]

Dairy productsEdit


Pecorino Romano is one of the world's most ancient cheeses

AD 477–1500Edit

This section includes dishes, foods and beverages that originated during the time of ancient history from 477 AD to 1500 AD (prior to the Postclassical Era).

  • Börek is known from 14th century Persia in a poem by Bushaq-i-Atima, and it may be far older.[99][100]
  • Hummus first mentioned in a cookbook from Cairo, Egypt from the 13th century.
  • Kuluban – an ancient Javanese dish of boiled vegetables served in spices, similar with today urap. Mentioned in The Rukam inscription dated 829 Saka (907 CE) from Mataram kingdom ancient Java, Indonesia.[101]
  • Lalab – vegetable dish called as rumwah-rumwah in ancient Java, Indonesia. Mentioned in The Panggumulan (Kembang Arum) inscription dated 824 Saka (902 CE) from Mataram kingdom.[102]
  • Rawon – meat stew, mentioned as rarawwan in ancient Javanese Taji inscription (901 CE).[103]
  • Rujak – spicy fruit dish, mentioned as rurujak in ancient Javanese Taji inscription (901 CE).[103]
  • Krupuk – traditional cracker made from rice flour, mentioned as kurupuk in ancient Javanese Taji inscription (901 CE).[103]
  • Popcorn – an ancient food used by people of the Inca civilization.[104] The food is still commonly used in both regions.[104]
  • Philippine adobo - a dish and cooking process originating during the Pre-colonial Philippines. [105]
  • Tapuy - rice wine from the Pre-colonial Philippines. [105]
  • Tempeh - high protein fermented soy product from Indonesia. First known as kadêlê mentioned in an old Javanese manuscript Serat Sri Tanjung from the 12th to 13th century CE.

Lacking time frameEdit

A bowl of poi showing a typical consistency

Likely ancient in originEdit

Nattō is typically consumed atop rice.

Nattō is prepared using fermented soybeans, and has been described as likely being an ancient food.[107] Its origins have been described as unknown.[107] Nattō may have been developed independently in different areas that have the same ingredients, such as Japan, China and Korea.[107]

See alsoEdit

Ancient cuisines

List articles


  1. ^ "The origin of sausage goes back to ancient times."[51]
  2. ^ "An ancient food, soup is prepared by cooking meat, fish or vegetables and the like in such fluids as water or milk; it is then consumed as a liquid."[56]
  3. ^ "Smy, or thickened milk, both human and animal, is often mentioned in medical prescriptions."[79]
  4. ^ "Cheese is represented in the tomb art of ancient Egypt and in Greek literature"[81]
  5. ^ "In the Pacific Islands, poi, made from taro root, is an ancient food that is preserved through fermentation."[106]


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