Nattō (納豆) is a traditional Japanese food made from soybeans that have been fermented with Bacillus subtilis var. natto.[1] It is often served as a breakfast food.[2] It is served with karashi mustard, soy or tare sauce, and sometimes Japanese bunching onion. Nattō is often considered an acquired taste because of its powerful smell, strong flavor, and sticky, slimy texture.[3][4][5][6][7] Within Japan, nattō is most popular in the eastern regions, including Kantō, Tōhoku, and Hokkaido,[8] and a 2009 survey revealed that 70.2% of Japanese people find the taste pleasant, and others who may not find the taste of the food pleasant still eat it for health benefits.

Nattō
Natto on rice.jpg
Nattō on rice
CourseBreakfast
Place of originJapan
Region or stateEast Asia
Main ingredientsFermented soybeans
Nattō topped with karashi mustard and long onion

HistoryEdit

Sources differ about the earliest origin of nattō. One theory is that nattō was codeveloped in multiple locations in the distant past, since it is simple to make with ingredients and tools commonly available in Japan since ancient times.[9] However, the many different sources seem to agree on one thing: nattō is believed to be made from the encounter of boiled beans and straw.

Minamoto no Yoshiie

There is the story about Minamoto no Yoshiie, who was on a campaign in northeastern Japan between 1086 AD and 1088 AD, when one day, they were attacked while boiling soybeans for their horses. They hurriedly packed up the beans, and did not open the straw bags until a few days later, by which time the beans had fermented. The soldiers ate it anyway, and liked the taste, so they offered some to Yoshiie, who also liked the taste.[10][11]

Prince Shotoku

Another saying about the origin of nattō was based on Prince Shotoku, who wrapped the oddments of boiling soybeans in straw bags for his horse. As people happened to eat these fermented beans and found them delicious, this type of fermented stringy beans soon gained popularity in Japan because of its unique taste and strong flavor.[12]

China

Before nattō, there was a similar dish of fermented black soybeans food in China called (chǐ). (chǐ) refers to salted, fermented-and-aged whole soybean seasonings or condiments invented in China and had been spread throughout East Asia as a merchandise. This type of food is usually made from fermented soybeans and with an ample amount of salt; however, the ingredients and producing method differ in Japan. Chinese use both black and yellow soybeans to produce (chǐ) whereas Japanese nattō only uses yellow soybeans. The amount of salt used also makes difference between (chǐ) and nattō on their taste and appearance.[13][14]

The cultivation method of soybeans and rice was imported from China to Japan during the Yayoi period, and later on, the circulation of salt began to flourish in Japan. This provided an opportunity for the production of (chǐ) to become popular in Japan. Salt was expensive and valuable at the time, thereupon it is inferred that nattō was invented by accident during the production of (chǐ). [10] [12]

There was also a wooden slip excavated in Heijō-kyō, which had the Chinese character(chǐ) written on it.[12][13] The excavation of the slip is considered an evidence to support the hypothesis that the invention of nattō was based on the Chinese product (chǐ) imported to Japan.

The Chinese character (chǐ) entered Japan in the 8th century. It was pronounced "kuki" until the eleventh century, when nattō became a new name for fermented soybeans.[14]

The commercialization of nattō – Edo period

A change in the production of nattō occurred in the Taishō period (1912–1926), when researchers discovered a way to produce a nattō starter culture containing Bacillus subtilis without the need for straw, thereby simplifying the commercial production of nattō and enabling more consistent results.[15]

Appearance and consumptionEdit

Opening and stirring a container of nattō

Nattō has a distinctive odor, somewhat akin to a pungent aged cheese. Stirring nattō produces many sticky strings.[1]

Nattō is occasionally used in other foods, such as nattō sushi, nattō toast, in miso soup, tamagoyaki, salad, as an ingredient in okonomiyaki, or even with spaghetti. Sometimes soybeans are crushed and fermented. This is called hikiwari nattō.

Many find the taste unpleasant and smelly while others relish it as a delicacy. Nattō is more popular in some areas of Japan than in others. Nattō is known to be popular in the eastern Kantō region, but less popular in Kansai. A 2009 Internet survey in Japan indicated 70.2% of respondents like nattō and 29.8% do not, but out of the 29.8% who dislike nattō, about half of them eat nattō for its health benefits.[16]

Production processEdit

 
Soybeans in a plantation

Nattō is made from soybeans, typically nattō soybeans. Smaller beans are preferred, as the fermentation process will be able to reach the center of the bean more easily. The beans are washed and soaked in water for 12 to 20 hours to increase their size. Next, the soybeans are steamed for six hours, although a pressure cooker may be used to reduce the time. The beans are mixed with the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, known as nattō-kin in Japanese. From this point on, care must be taken to keep the ingredients away from impurities and other bacteria. The mixture is fermented at 40 °C (104 °F) for up to 24 hours. Afterward, the nattō is cooled, then aged in a refrigerator for up to one week to allow the development of stringiness.

In nattō-making facilities, these processing steps have to be done while avoiding incidents in which soybeans are touched by workers. Even though workers use B. subtilis natto as the starting culture, which can suppress some undesired bacterial growth, workers pay extra-close attention not to introduce skin flora on to soy beans.[17]

To make nattō at home, a bacterial culture of B. subtilis is needed. B. subtilis natto is weak in lactic acid, so it is important to prevent lactic acid bacteria from breeding. Some B. subtilis natto varieties that are closer to odorless are usually less active, raising the possibility that minor germs will breed. Bacteriophages are dangerous to B. subtilis.

Historically, nattō was made by storing the steamed soybeans in rice straw, which naturally contains B. subtilis natto. The soybeans were packed in straw and left to ferment.

End product and nutritionEdit

 
Nattō is sold in small containers with small packets of soy sauce and mustard.

Mass-produced nattō is sold in small polystyrene containers. A typical package contains two, three, or occasionally four containers, each 40 to 50 g. One container typically complements a small bowl of rice.

Nattō has a different nutritional makeup from raw soybeans, with lower calorie content and enriched in branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), a prebiotic made by Bacillus subtilis.[18] By mass, nattō is 55% water, 18% protein, 11% fats, 5% fiber, and 5% sugars.[19] Nattō is a source of calcium, magnesium, protein, potassium, vitamins B6, B2, and E.[20] A serving of nattō (100 g) provides 29% of the Daily value (DV) of vitamin K, 22% of the DV for vitamin C, 76% of the DV for manganese, 48% of the DV for iron, and 22% of the DV for dietary fiber.[21] Nattō has softer dietary fiber without the high sodium content present in many other soy products, such as miso.

Nattō is an extremely rich source of the MK7 variant of vitamin K2, with one study finding mean concentrations of 998μg MK7 per 100g of natto, over 500 times greater concentration than any other food tested. [22]

Nattō odor comes from diacetyl and pyrazines, but if it is allowed to ferment too long, then ammonia is released.[23]

Close relativesEdit

 
Natto-kinema-thuanao triangle

Many countries produce similar traditional soybean foods fermented with Bacillus subtilis, such as shuǐdòuchǐ (水豆豉) of China, cheonggukjang (청국장) of Korea, thuanao (ถั่วเน่า) of Thailand, kinema of Nepal and the Himalayan regions of West Bengal and Sikkim, tungrymbai of Meghalaya, hawaijaar of Manipur, bekang um of Mizoram, akhuni of Nagaland, and piak of Arunachal Pradesh, India.[8][24]

In addition, certain West African bean products are fermented with the bacillus, including dawadawa, sumbala, and iru, made from néré seeds or soybeans, and ogiri, made from sesame or melon seeds.

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Hosking, Richard (1995). A Dictionary of Japanese Food - Ingredients and Culture. Tuttle. p. 106. ISBN 0-8048-2042-2.
  2. ^ McCloud, Tina (7 December 1992). "Natto: A Breakfast Dish That's An Acquired Taste". Daily Press. Retrieved 25 December 2012. It is a traditional soybean breakfast food from northern Japan and it's called natto. [...] As a breakfast food, natto is usually served over steamed rice and mixed with mustard and soy sauce.
  3. ^ Katz, Sandor Ellix (2012). The Art of Fermentation: An In-Depth Exploration of Essential Concepts and Processes from Around the World. Chelsea Green Publish. pp. 328–329. ISBN 978-1603582865. Natto is a Japanese soy ferment that produces a slimy, mucilaginous coating on the beans, something like okra. [...] The flavor of natto carries notes of ammonia (like some cheeses or overripe tempeh), which gets stronger as it ferments longer.
  4. ^ A., M. (30 March 2010). "Not the natto!". Asian Food. The Economist. Retrieved 25 December 2012. ... natto, a food that has achieved infamy among Japan's foreign residents.
  5. ^ Buerk, Roland (11 March 2010). "Japan opens 98th national airport in Ibaraki". BBC News. Retrieved 25 December 2012. ... natto, a fermented soy bean dish that many consider an acquired taste.
  6. ^ "Natto Fermented Soy Bean Recipe Ideas". Japan Centre. Retrieved 25 December 2012. Natto are one of those classic dishes that people either love or hate. Like Marmite or blue cheese, natto has a very strong smell and intense flavour that can definitely be an acquired taste.
  7. ^ "Preparing Nattou". Massahiro. Retrieved 28 March 2013. Preparing Nattou step by step, without using rice straw.
  8. ^ a b Shurtleff, W.; Aoyagi, A (2012). History of Natto and Its Relatives (1405–2012). Lafayette, California: Soyinfo Center.
  9. ^ Deutsch, Jonathan; Murakhver, Natalya (2012). They Eat That?: A Cultural Encyclopedia of Weird and Exotic Food from Around the World. ABC-CLIO. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-313-38058-7. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  10. ^ a b "納豆 金のつぶ 納豆まめ知識|ミツカングループ商品・メニューサイト". webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 2019-11-07.
  11. ^ William Shurtleff; Akiko Aoyagi (2012). History of Natto and Its Relatives (1405–2012). Soyinfo Center. ISBN 978-1-928914-42-6.
  12. ^ a b c "起源は?発祥は?知られざる納豆の歴史 | ピントル". 納豆専門ページ | ピントル (in Japanese). Retrieved 2019-11-07.
  13. ^ a b "History of Natto and Its Relatives (1405-2012) - SoyInfo Center". www.soyinfocenter.com. Retrieved 2019-11-16.
  14. ^ a b "History of Soy Nuggets (Shih or Chi, Douchi, Hamanatto) - Page 1". www.soyinfocenter.com. Retrieved 2019-12-14.
  15. ^ Kubo, Y; Rooney, A. P; Tsukakoshi, Y; Nakagawa, R; Hasegawa, H; Kimura, K (2011). "Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Strains Applicable to Natto (Fermented Soybean) Production". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77 (18): 6463–6469. doi:10.1128/AEM.00448-11. PMC 3187134. PMID 21764950.
  16. ^ NTT navispace 「納豆は好きですか?Do you like Natto?」 Archived 2012-11-21 at the Wayback Machine (in JA) reviewed 2012-12-8
  17. ^ "納豆が出来るまで。納豆の製造工程". Natto.in. 2004. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  18. ^ Wang DH, Yang Y, Wang Z, Lawrence P, Worobo RW, Brenna JT. High levels of branched chain fatty acids in nātto and other Asian fermented foods. Food Chem. 2019;286:428‐433. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.02.018
  19. ^ United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27 Basic Report: 16113, Natto
  20. ^ "Natto – Nutritional Information". eLook.org. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  21. ^ Natto nutritional values
  22. ^ Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Determination of phylloquinone and menaquinones in food. Effect of food matrix on circulating vitamin K concentrations. Haemostasis. 2000;30(6):298-307. doi:10.1159/000054147
  23. ^ Kada S, Yabusaki MY, Kaga T, Ashida H, Yoshida KI (2008). "Identification of Two Major Ammonia-Releasing Reactions Involved in Secondary Natto Fermentation" (PDF). Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 72 (7): 1869–1876. doi:10.1271/bbb.80129. PMID 18603778. S2CID 30111356.
  24. ^ Arora, Dilip K.; Mukerji, K. G.; Marth, Elmer H., eds. (1991). Handbook of Applied Mycology Volume 3: Foods and Feeds. CRC Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-8247-8491-1.