Modern humans evolved in Africa around 300,000 years ago and initially lived as hunter-gatherers. They migrated out of Africa during the Last Glacial Period (Ice Age) and had populated most of the Earth by the time the Ice Age ended 12,000 years ago.

Soon afterward, the Agricultural Revolution began in the fertile river valleys of West Asia: humans began the systematic husbandry of plants and animals, and many humans transitioned from a nomadic life to a sedentary existence as farmers in permanent settlements. The growing complexity of human societies necessitated systems of accounting and writing.

During the late Bronze Age, Hinduism developed in the Indian subcontinent, while the Axial Age witnessed the growth and institutionalization of religions such as Buddhism, Confucianism, Jainism, Judaism, Taoism, and Zoroastrianism. As civilizations flourished, ancient history saw the rise and fall of empires. Subsequent post-classical history, the "Middle Ages" from about 500 to 1500 CE, witnessed the rise of Christianity and Islam.

The early modern period, from about 1500 to 1800 CE, saw the Age of Discovery and the Age of Enlightenment. By the 18th century, the accumulation of knowledge and technology had reached a critical mass that brought about the Industrial Revolution and began the late modern period, which started around 1800 CE and continues.

The foregoing historical periodization (prehistory followed by the ancient, post-classical, early modern, and late modern periods) applies best to the history of Europe. Elsewhere, including China and India, historical timelines unfolded differently up to the 18th century. By then, however, due to extensive international trade and colonization, the histories of most civilizations had become substantially intertwined. Over the last quarter-millennium, the rates of growth of human populations, agriculture, industry, commerce, scientific knowledge, technology, communications, weapons destructiveness, and environmental degradation[a] have greatly accelerated.

Prehistory (c. 3.3 million years ago – c. 3000 BCE)

Human evolution

"Lucy", the first Australopithecus afarensis skeleton found. Lucy was only 1.06 m (3 ft 6 in) tall.[2]

Humans evolved in Africa.[3] Genetic measurements indicate that the ape lineage which would lead to Homo sapiens diverged from the lineage that would lead to chimpanzees and bonobos, the closest living relatives of modern humans, between 7 million and 5 million years ago.[4] The term hominin denotes human ancestors that lived after the split with chimpanzees and bonobos,[5] including many species and at least two distinct genera: Australopithecus and Homo.[6] Other fossil specimens such as Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus, and Orrorin may represent additional genera, but paleontologists debate their taxonomic status.[6] The early hominins such as Australopithecus had the same brain size as apes but were distinguished from apes by walking on two legs, an adaptation perhaps associated with a shift from forest to savanna habitats.[7] Hominins began to use rudimentary stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago,[b] marking the advent of the Paleolithic era.[11][12]

The genus Homo evolved from Australopithecus.[13] The earliest record of Homo is the 2.8 million-year-old specimen LD 350-1 from Ethiopia,[14] and the earliest named species is Homo habilis which evolved by 2.3 million years ago.[15] The most important difference between Homo habilis and Australopithecus was an increase in brain size.[16] H. erectus (the African variant is sometimes called H. ergaster) evolved by 2 million years ago[17][c] and was the first hominin species to leave Africa and disperse across Eurasia.[19] Perhaps as early as 1.5 million years ago, but certainly by 250,000 years ago, hominins began to use fire for heat and cooking.[20][21]

Cave paintings, Lascaux, France, c. 17,000 BCE

Beginning about 500,000 years ago, Homo diversified into many new species of archaic humans such as the Neanderthals in Europe, the Denisovans in Siberia, and the diminutive H. floresiensis in Indonesia.[22][23] Human evolution was not a simple linear or branched progression but involved interbreeding between related species.[24][25] Genomic research has shown that hybridization between substantially diverged lineages was common in human evolution.[26] DNA evidence suggests that several genes of Neanderthal origin are present among all non-sub-Saharan African populations, and Neanderthals and other hominins, such as Denisovans, may have contributed up to 6% of their genome to present-day non-sub-Saharan African humans.[27][28]

Early humans

Venus figurine, Germany, c. 37,500 BCE

Homo sapiens emerged in Africa around 300,000 years ago from a species commonly designated as either H. heidelbergensis or H. rhodesiensis.[29] Humans continued to develop over the succeeding millennia, and by 100,000 years ago, were already using jewellery and ocher to adorn the body.[30] By 50,000 years ago, they exhibited many characteristic behaviors such as burial of the dead, use of projectile weapons, and seafaring.[31] One of the most important changes (the date of which is unknown) was the development of syntactic language, which dramatically improved humans' ability to communicate.[32] Signs of early artistic expression can be found in the form of cave paintings and sculptures made from ivory, stone, and bone, implying a form of spirituality generally interpreted as animism[33] or shamanism.[34] Paleolithic humans lived as hunter-gatherers and were generally nomadic.[35]

Map of peopling of the world (Southern Dispersal paradigm), in thousands of years ago.

The migration of anatomically modern humans out of Africa took place in multiple waves beginning 194,000–177,000 years ago.[36][d] The dominant view among scholars (Southern Dispersal) is that the early waves of migration died out and all modern non-Africans are descended from a single group that left Africa 70,000–50,000 years ago.[40][41][42] H. sapiens proceeded to colonize all the continents and larger islands, arriving in Australia 65,000 years ago,[43] Europe 45,000 years ago,[40] and the Americas 21,000 years ago.[44] These migrations occurred during the most recent Ice Age, when temperate regions of today were extremely inhospitable.[45] Nevertheless, by the end of the Ice Age some 12,000 years ago, humans had colonized nearly all ice-free parts of the globe.[46] Human expansion coincided with both the Quaternary extinction event and Neanderthal extinction.[47] These extinctions were probably caused by climate change, human activity, or a combination of the two.[48][49]

Rise of agriculture

Beginning around 10,000 BCE, the Neolithic Revolution marked the development of agriculture, which fundamentally changed the human lifestyle.[50] Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe,[51] and included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centers of origin.[52] Cereal crop cultivation and animal domestication had occurred in Mesopotamia by at least 8500 BCE in the form of wheat, barley, sheep, and goats.[53] The Yangtze River Valley in China domesticated rice around 8000 BCE; the Yellow River Valley may have cultivated millet by 7000 BCE.[54] Pigs were the most important domesticated animal in early China.[55] People in Africa's Sahara cultivated sorghum and several other crops between 8000 and 5000 BCE,[e] while other agricultural centers arose in the Ethiopian Highlands and the West African rainforests.[57] In the Indus River Valley, crops were cultivated by 7000 BCE and cattle were domesticated by 6500 BCE.[58] In the Americas, squash was cultivated by at least 8500 BCE in South America, and domesticated arrowroot appeared in Central America by 7800 BCE.[59] Potatoes were first cultivated in the Andes of South America, where the llama was also domesticated.[60][61] It is likely that women played a central role in plant domestication throughout these developments.[62][63]

A pillar at Göbekli Tepe

There is no scholarly consensus on why the Neolithic Revolution occurred.[64] For example, according to some theories, agriculture was the result of an increase in population which led people to seek out new food sources, while in others agriculture was the cause of population growth as the food supply improved.[65] Other proposed factors include climate change, resource scarcity, and ideology.[66] The effects of the transition to agriculture are better understood: it created food surpluses that could support people not directly engaged in food production,[67] permitting far denser populations and the creation of the first cities and states.[50]

Cities were centers of trade, manufacturing, and political power.[68] Cities established a symbiosis with their surrounding countrysides, absorbing agricultural products and providing, in return, manufactured goods and varying degrees of political control.[69][70] Early proto-cities appeared at Jericho and Çatalhöyük around 6000 BCE.[71] Pastoral societies based on nomadic animal herding also developed, mostly in dry areas unsuited for plant cultivation such as the Eurasian Steppe or the African Sahel.[72] Conflict between nomadic herders and sedentary agriculturalists occurred frequently and became a recurring theme in world history.[73]

Metalworking was first used in the creation of copper tools and ornaments around 6400 BCE.[57] Gold and silver soon followed, primarily for use in ornaments.[57] The need for metal ores stimulated trade, as many areas of early human settlement lacked the necessary ores.[74] The first signs of bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, date to around 4500 BCE,[75] but the alloy did not become widely used until the third millennium BCE.[76]

Neolithic societies usually worshiped ancestors, sacred places, or anthropomorphic deities.[77] The vast complex of Göbekli Tepe in Turkey, dated 9500–8000 BCE,[78] is a spectacular example of a Neolithic religious or civic site.[79] It may have been built by hunter-gatherers rather than a sedentary population.[79] Elaborate mortuary practices developed in the Levant during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, in which certain high-status individuals were buried under the floors of houses and the graves were later re-opened for the skulls to be removed.[80] Some of the skulls were then covered in plaster, painted, and displayed in public.[81][82]

Ancient history (c. 3000 BCE – c. 500 CE)

Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt

Cradles of civilization

The Bronze Age saw the development of cities and civilizations.[83][84] Early civilizations arose close to rivers, first in Mesopotamia (3000 BCE) with the Tigris and Euphrates,[85][86] followed by the Egyptian civilization along the Nile River (3000 BCE),[87][88] the Indus Valley civilization in Pakistan and northwestern India (2500 BCE),[89][90][91] and the Chinese civilization along the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers (2200 BCE).[f][92]

These societies developed a number of unifying characteristics, including a central government, a complex economy and social structure, systems for keeping records, and distinct cultures and religions.[95] These cultures variously invented the wheel,[96] mathematics,[97] bronze-working,[98] sailing boats,[99] the potter's wheel,[98] woven cloth,[100] construction of monumental buildings,[100] and writing.[101] Polytheistic religions developed, centered on temples where priests and priestesses performed sacrificial rites.[102]

Writing facilitated the administration of cities, the expression of ideas, and the preservation of information.[103] Writing may have independently developed in at least four ancient civilizations: Mesopotamia (3300 BCE),[104] Egypt (around 3250 BCE),[105][106] China (1200 BCE),[107] and lowland Mesoamerica (by 650 BCE).[108] Among the earliest surviving written religious scriptures are the Egyptian Pyramid Texts, the oldest of which date to between 2400 and 2300 BCE.[109]

Cuneiform inscription, Sumer, Mesopotamia, 26th century BCE

Sumer, located in Mesopotamia, is the first known complex civilization, having developed the first city-states in the 4th millennium BCE.[110] It was these cities that produced the earliest known form of writing, cuneiform script.[111] Cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs, whose pictorial representations eventually became simplified and more abstract.[111] Cuneiform texts were written by using a blunt reed as a stylus to draw symbols upon clay tablets.[112]

Transport was facilitated by waterways—by rivers and seas.[113] The Mediterranean Sea, at the juncture of three continents, fostered the projection of military power and the exchange of goods, ideas, and inventions.[114] This era also saw new land technologies, such as horse-based cavalry and chariots, that allowed armies to move faster.[98] Trade became increasingly important as urban societies exchanged manufactured goods for raw materials from distant lands, creating vast commercial networks and the beginnings of archaic globalization.[115] Bronze production, for example, required the import of tin to Southwest Asia from as far away as England,[116] and Indus Valley seals and gems have been found in Mesopotamia.[117]

The growth of cities was often followed by the establishment of states and empires.[118] In Mesopotamia, there prevailed a pattern of independent warring city-states and of a loose hegemony shifting from one city to another.[119] In Egypt, by contrast, the initial division into Upper and Lower Egypt was followed by the unification of all the valley around 3100 BCE.[120] Around 2600 BCE, the Indus Valley civilization built major cities at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro and developed a writing system of over 400 symbols, which remains undeciphered.[121][122] China entered the Bronze Age by 2900 BCE.[123] The Shang dynasty (1766–1045 BCE) was the first to use writing, inscribing the results of divination ceremonies on oracle bones – ox shoulder blades and turtle shells.[124][125] In the 25th–21st centuries BCE, the empires of Akkad and the Neo-Sumerians arose in Mesopotamia.[126] In Crete, the Minoan civilization emerged by 2000 BCE and is regarded as the first civilization in Europe.[127]

Over the following millennia, civilizations developed across the world.[128] By 1600 BCE, Mycenaean Greece began to develop.[129] It flourished until the Late Bronze Age collapse that affected many Mediterranean civilizations between 1300 and 1000 BCE.[130] In India, this era was the Vedic period (1750–600 BCE), which laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society, and ended in the 6th century BCE.[131] The Vedas contain the earliest references to India's caste system, which divided society into four hereditary classes: priests, warriors, farmers and traders, and laborers.[132] From around 550 BCE, many independent kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the subcontinent.[133]

Olmec colossal head, now at the Museo de Antropología de Xalapa

Speakers of the Bantu languages began expanding across Central and Southern Africa as early as 3000 BCE.[134] Their expansion and encounters with other groups resulted in the spread of mixed farming and ironworking throughout sub-Saharan Africa, and produced societies such as the Nok culture in modern Nigeria by 500 BCE.[135] The Lapita culture emerged in the Bismarck Archipelago near New Guinea around 1500 BCE and colonized many uninhabited islands of Remote Oceania, reaching as far as Samoa by 700 BCE.[136]

In the Americas, the Norte Chico culture emerged in coastal Peru around 3100 BCE.[137] The Norte Chico built public monumental architecture at the city of Caral, dated 2627–1977 BCE.[138][139] The later Chavín polity is sometimes described as the first Andean state.[140] It centered on the religious site at Chavín de Huantar, a place of pilgrimage and consumption of psychoactive substances.[141] Other important Andean cultures include the Moche, whose ceramics depict many aspects of daily life, and the Nazca, who created animal-shaped designs in the desert called Nazca lines.[142] The Olmecs of Mesoamerica developed by about 1200 BCE[143] and are known for the colossal stone heads that they carved from basalt.[144] They also devised the Mesoamerican calendar that was used by later cultures such as the Maya and Teotihuacan.[145] Societies in North America were primarily egalitarian hunter-gatherers, supplementing their diet with the plants of the Eastern Agricultural Complex.[146] They came together, seemingly voluntarily, to build earthworks such as Watson Brake (4000 BCE) and Poverty Point (3600 BCE), both in Louisiana.[147]

Axial Age

Standing Buddha from Gandhara, 2nd century CE

From 800 to 200 BCE,[148] the "Axial Age" saw the development of a set of transformative philosophical and religious ideas, mostly independently, in many different places.[149] Chinese Confucianism,[150] Indian Buddhism and Jainism,[151] and Jewish monotheism all developed during this period.[152] Persian Zoroastrianism began earlier, perhaps around 1000 BCE, but was institutionalized by the Achaemenid Empire during the Axial Age.[153] New philosophies took hold in Greece during the 5th century BCE, epitomized by thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle.[154] The first Olympic Games were held in 776 BCE, ushering in a period known as "classical antiquity".[155] In 508 BCE, the world's first democratic system of government was instituted in Athens.[156]

Axial Age ideas were tremendously important for subsequent intellectual and religious history. Confucianism was one of the three schools of thought that came to dominate Chinese thinking, along with Taoism and Legalism.[157] The Confucian tradition, which would become particularly influential, looked for political morality not to the force of law but to the power and example of tradition.[158] Confucianism would later spread to Korea and Japan.[159] Buddhism reached China during the Han dynasty and spread widely, with 30,000 Buddhist temples in northern China alone by the 7th century CE.[160] Buddhism became the main religion in much of South, Southeast, and East Asia.[161] The Greek philosophical tradition[162] diffused throughout the Mediterranean world and as far as India, starting in the 4th century BCE after the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon.[163] Both Christianity and Islam developed from the beliefs of Judaism.[164]

Regional empires

The millennium from 500 BCE to 500 CE saw a series of empires of unprecedented size develop. Well-trained professional armies, unifying ideologies, and advanced bureaucracies created the possibility for emperors to rule over large domains whose populations could attain numbers upwards of tens of millions of subjects.[165] International trade also expanded, most notably the massive trade routes in the Mediterranean Sea, the maritime trade web in the Indian Ocean, and the Silk Road.[166]

Persepolis, Achaemenid Empire, 6th century BCE

There were a number of regional empires during this period. The kingdom of the Medes helped to destroy the Assyrian Empire in tandem with the nomadic Scythians and the Babylonians.[167] Nineveh, the capital of Assyria, was sacked by the Medes in 612 BCE.[168] The Median Empire gave way to successive Iranian states, including the Achaemenid (550–330 BCE),[169] Parthian (247 BCE–224 CE),[170][171] and Sasanian Empires (224–651 CE).[171]

Several empires began in modern-day Greece. In the late 5th century BCE, several Greek city states checked the Achaemenid Persian advance in Europe through the Greco-Persian Wars, considered a pivotal moment in world history, as the 50 years of peace that followed are known as Golden Age of Athens, the seminal period of ancient Greece that laid many of the foundations of Western civilization.[172] The wars led to the creation of the Delian League, founded in 477 BCE,[173] and eventually the Athenian Empire (454–404 BCE), which was defeated by a Spartan-led coalition during the Peloponesian War.[174] Philip of Macedon unified the Greek city-states into the Hellenic League and his son Alexander the Great (356–323 BCE) founded an empire extending from present-day Greece to India.[175][176] The empire divided into several successor states shortly after his death, and resulted in the founding of many cities and the spread of Greek culture throughout conquered regions, a process referred to as Hellenization.[177] The Hellenistic period lasted from the death of Alexander in 323 BCE to 31 BCE when Ptolemaic Egypt fell to Rome.[178]

In South Asia, Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya Empire (320–185 BCE), which flourished under Ashoka the Great.[179][180] From the 4th to 6th centuries CE, the Gupta Empire oversaw the period referred to as ancient India's golden age.[181] The ensuing stability contributed to heralding in an efflorescence of Hindu and Buddhist culture in the 4th and 5th centuries, as well as major advances in science and mathematics.[182] In South India, three prominent Dravidian kingdoms emerged: the Cheras, Cholas, and Pandyas.[183]

Pillar erected by India's Maurya Emperor Ashoka

In Europe, the Roman Republic was founded in the 6th century BCE[184] and began expanding its territory in the 3rd century BCE.[185] The Republic became an empire and by the time of Augustus (63 BCE–14 CE), it had established dominion over most of the Mediterranean Sea.[186] The empire would continue to grow, controlling much of the land from England to Mesopotamia, reaching its greatest extent under Trajan (died 117 CE).[187] The two centuries that followed are known as the Pax Romana, a period of unprecedented peace, prosperity and political stability in most of Europe.[188] Christianity was legalised by Constantine I in 313 CE after three centuries of imperial persecution. Christianity became the sole official religion of the empire in 380 CE and in 391–392 CE, the emperor Theodosius outlawed pagan religions.[189] In the 4th century CE, the empire split into western and eastern regions, with (usually) separate emperors.[190] The Western Roman Empire would fall, in 476 CE, to German influence under Odoacer.[190]

In China, the Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE), the first imperial dynasty of China, was followed by the Han dynasty (202 BCE–220 CE).[191] The Han dynasty was comparable in power and influence to the Roman Empire that lay at the other end of the Silk Road.[192] As economic prosperity fueled their military expansion, the Han conquered parts of Mongolia, Central Asia, Manchuria, Korea, and northern Vietnam.[193] As with other empires during the classical period, Han China advanced significantly in the areas of government, education, science, and technology.[194][195] The Han invented cast iron, and created finely wrought bronze figurines.[196]

Obelisk of Axum, Ethiopia

In Africa, the Kingdom of Aksum, centered in present-day Ethiopia, established itself by the 1st century CE as a major trading empire, dominating its neighbors in South Arabia and Kush and controlling the Red Sea trade.[197] It minted its own currency and carved enormous monolithic stelae to mark its emperors' graves.[198]

Successful regional empires were also established in the Americas, arising from cultures established as early as 2500 BCE.[199] In Mesoamerica, vast pre-Columbian societies were built, the most notable being the Zapotec civilization (700 BCE–1521 CE),[200][201] and the Maya civilization, which reached its highest state of development during the Mesoamerican classic period (c. 250–900 CE),[202] but continued throughout the post-classic period.[203] The great Maya city-states slowly rose in number and prominence, and Maya culture spread throughout the Yucatán and surrounding areas.[204] The Maya developed a writing system and were the first to use the concept of zero in their mathematics.[205] West of the Maya area, in central Mexico, the city of Teotihuacan prospered due to its control of the obsidian trade.[206] Its power peaked around 450 CE, when its 125,000–150,000 inhabitants made it one of the world's largest cities.[207]

Maya observatory, Chichen Itza, Mexico

Technology developed sporadically in the ancient world.[208] There were periods of rapid technological progress, such as the Greco-Roman era in the Mediterranean region.[209] Greek science, technology, and mathematics are generally considered to have reached their peak during the Hellenistic period, typified by devices such as the Antikythera mechanism.[210] There were also periods of technological decay, as during the Roman Empire's decline and fall and the ensuing early medieval period.[211] Two of the most important innovations were paper (China, 1st and 2nd centuries CE)[212] and the stirrup (India, 2nd century BCE and Central Asia, 1st century CE),[213] both of which diffused widely throughout the world. The Chinese also learned to make silk and built massive engineering projects such as the Great Wall of China and the Grand Canal.[214] The Romans were also accomplished builders, inventing concrete and perfecting the use of arches in construction.[215]

Most ancient societies had slaves.[216] Slavery was particularly prevalent in Athens and Rome, where slaves made up a large proportion of the population and were foundational to the economy.[217] Most societies were also patriarchal, with men controlling more political and economic power than women.[218]

Declines, falls, and resurgence

The ancient empires faced common problems associated with maintaining huge armies and supporting a central bureaucracy.[219] In Rome and Han China, the state began to decline, and barbarian pressure on the frontiers hastened internal dissolution.[219] The Han dynasty fell into civil war in 220 CE, beginning the Three Kingdoms period, while its Roman counterpart became increasingly decentralized and divided about the same time in what is known as the Crisis of the Third Century.[220] From the Eurasian Steppe, horse-based nomads dominated a large part of the continent.[221] The development of the stirrup and the use of horse archers made the nomads a constant threat to sedentary civilizations.[222]

The Pantheon, originally a Roman temple, now a Catholic church

The gradual breakup of the Roman Empire coincided with the spread of Christianity outward from West Asia.[223] The Western Roman Empire fell under the domination of Germanic tribes in the 5th century,[224] and these polities gradually developed into a number of warring states, all associated in one way or another with the Catholic Church.[225] The fall of the Western Roman Empire is often considered to mark the end of classical antiquity. The Eastern Roman Empire, now known as the Byzantine Empire, with its capital at Constantinople, would continue for another thousand years until the city was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453.[226] During most of its existence, the Byzantine Empire was one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military forces in Europe,[227][228] and Constantinople is generally considered to be the center of "Eastern Orthodox civilization".[229][230][231] Centuries later, a limited unity would be restored to Western Europe through the establishment in 962 of a revived "Roman Empire",[232] later called the Holy Roman Empire,[233] comprising a number of states in what is now Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Czechia, Belgium, Italy, and parts of France.[234][235]

In China, dynasties would rise and fall, but, in sharp contrast to the Mediterranean-European world, dynastic unity would be restored.[236] After the fall of the Eastern Han dynasty and the demise of the Three Kingdoms, nomadic tribes from the north began to invade, causing many Chinese people to flee southward.[237] The Sui dynasty successfully reunified China in 589,[238] and laid the foundations for a golden age under the Tang dynasty (618–907).[239][240]

Post-classical history (c. 500 CE – c. 1500 CE)

The term "post-classical era", though derived from the name of the era of "classical antiquity", takes in a broader geographic sweep.[241] The era is commonly dated from the 5th-century fall of the Western Roman Empire.[242]

From the 10th to 13th centuries, the Medieval Warm Period in the northern hemisphere aided agriculture and led to population growth in parts of Europe and Asia.[243] It was followed by the Little Ice Age, which, along with the plagues of the 14th century, put downward pressure on the population of Eurasia.[243] Some of the major inventions of the period were gunpowder, printing, and the compass, all of which originated in China.[244]

Hagia Sophia, Istanbul – a symbol of Byzantine civilization

The post-classical period encompasses the early Muslim conquests, the subsequent Islamic Golden Age, and the commencement and expansion of the Arab slave trade, followed by the Mongol invasions and the founding of the Ottoman Empire.[245] South Asia saw a series of middle kingdoms of India, followed by the establishment of Islamic empires in India.[246]

In West Africa, the Mali and Songhai Empires rose.[247] On the southeast coast of Africa, Arabic ports were established where gold, spices, and other commodities were traded. This allowed Africa to join the Southeast Asia trading system, bringing it contact with Asia; this resulted in the Swahili culture.[248]

China experienced the successive Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, and early Ming dynasties.[249] Middle Eastern trade routes along the Indian Ocean, and the Silk Road through the Gobi Desert, provided limited economic and cultural contact between Asian and European civilizations.[208] During the same period, civilizations in the Americas, such as the Mississippians,[250] Aztecs,[251] Maya,[252] and Inca reached their zenith.[253]

Greater Middle East

Ajloun Castle, Jordan

Prior to the advent of Islam in the 7th century, the Middle East was dominated by the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires, which frequently fought each other for control of several disputed regions.[254] This was also a cultural battle, with Byzantine Christian culture competing against Persian Zoroastrian traditions.[255] The birth of Islam created a new contender that quickly surpassed both of these empires.[256] The new religion greatly affected the history of the Old World, especially the Middle East.[257]

From their center in the Arabian Peninsula, Muslims began their expansion during the 7th century.[258] By 750 CE, they came to conquer most of the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Europe,[259] ushering in an era of learning, science, and invention known as the Islamic Golden Age.[260] The knowledge and skills of ancient Greece and Persia were preserved in the post-classical era by Muslims,[260] who also added new and important innovations from outside, such as the manufacture of paper from China[261] and decimal positional numbering from India.[262] Islamic civilization expanded both by conquest and on the basis of its merchant economy.[263] Merchants brought goods and their Islamic faith to China, India, Southeast Asia, and Africa.[264]

The crusading movement was a religiously motivated European effort to roll back Muslim territory and regain control of the Holy Land.[265] It was ultimately unsuccessful and served more to weaken the Byzantine Empire, especially with the sack of Constantinople in 1204.[266] Arab domination of the region ended in the mid-11th century with the arrival of the Seljuk Turks, migrating south from the Turkic homelands.[267] In the early 13th century, a new wave of invaders, the Mongols, swept through the region but were eventually eclipsed by the Turks and the founding of the Ottoman Empire in modern-day Turkey around 1280.[245]

Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia, founded 670 CE

North Africa saw the rise of polities established by the Berbers, such as Marinid Morocco, Zayyanid Algeria, and Hafsid Tunisia. [268] The coastal region was known to Europeans as the Barbary Coast. Pirates based in North African ports conducted operations that included capturing merchant ships and raiding coastal settlements.[269] Thousands of European captives were sold in North African markets that were part of the Barbary slave trade.[269]

The Caucasus was fought over in a series of wars between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires. However, the two opposing powers became exhausted due to continuous conflict. Hence, the Rashidun Caliphate was able to freely expand into the region during the early Muslim conquests.[270] The Seljuk Turks later subjugated Armenia and Georgia in the 11th century. The Mongols subsequently invaded the Caucasus in the 13th century.[271]

Central Asia faced incursions from both the Arabs and the Chinese. China expanded into Central Asia during the Sui dynasty (581–618).[272] They were confronted by Turkic nomads, who were becoming the most dominant ethnic group in Central Asia.[273][274] Originally the relationship was largely cooperative but in 630, the Tang dynasty began an offensive against the Turks by capturing areas of the Ordos Desert.[275] In the 8th century, Islam began to penetrate the region and soon became the sole faith of most of the population, though Buddhism remained strong in the east.[276] The desert nomads of Arabia could militarily match the nomads of the steppe, and the Umayyad Caliphate gained control over parts of Central Asia.[273] The Hephthalites were the most powerful of the nomad groups in the 5th and 6th centuries, and controlled much of the region.[277] From the 9th to 13th centuries, the region was divided among several powerful states, including the Samanid,[278] Seljuk,[279] and Khwarazmian Empires. In 1370, Timur, a Turkic leader in the Mongol military tradition, conquered most of the region and founded the Timurid Empire.[280] Timur's large empire collapsed soon after his death,[281] but his descendants retained control of a core area in Central Asia and Iran.[282] They oversaw the Timurid Renaissance of art and architecture.[283]


St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City

Since at least the 4th century, Christianity, primarily Catholicism,[284] and later Protestantism,[285][286] has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.[287][288] Europe during the Early Middle Ages was characterized by depopulation, deurbanization, and barbarian invasions, all of which had begun in late antiquity.[289] The barbarian invaders formed their own new kingdoms in the remains of the Western Roman Empire.[290] Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, most of the new kingdoms incorporated existing Roman institutions.[291] Christianity expanded in Western Europe, and monasteries were founded.[292] In the 7th and 8th centuries, the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty established an empire covering much of Western Europe;[293] it lasted until the 9th century, when it succumbed to pressure from new invaders—the Vikings, Magyars, and Arabs.[294] Kievan Rus' expanded from its capital in Kiev to become the largest state in Europe by the 10th century. In 988, Vladimir the Great adopted Orthodox Christianity as the state religion.[295][296]

During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and crop yields to increase.[297] Manorialism, the organization of peasants into villages that owed rents and labor service to nobles, and vassalage, a political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rents from lands and manors, were two of the ways of organizing medieval society that developed during the Middle Ages.[298] Kingdoms became more centralized after the decentralizing effects of the breakup of the Carolingian Empire.[299] In 1054, the Great Schism between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches led to the prominent cultural differences between Western and Eastern Europe.[300] The Crusades were a series of religious wars waged by Christians to wrest control of the Holy Land from the Muslims and succeeded for long enough to establish some Crusader states in the Levant.[301] Italian merchants imported slaves to work in households or in sugar processing.[302] Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism and the founding of universities, while the building of Gothic cathedrals and churches was one of the outstanding artistic achievements of the age.[303]

Notre-Dame de Paris, France

The Mongols reached Europe in 1236 and conquered Kievan Rus', along with briefly invading Poland and Hungary.[304] Lithuania cooperated with the Mongols but remained independent and in the late 14th century formed a personal union with Poland.[305] The Late Middle Ages were marked by difficulties and calamities.[306] Famine, plague, and war devastated the population of Western Europe.[307] The Black Death alone killed approximately 75 to 200 million people between 1347 and 1350.[308][309] It was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history. Starting in Asia, the disease reached the Mediterranean and Western Europe during the late 1340s,[310] and killed tens of millions of Europeans in six years; between a quarter and a third of the population perished.[311]

The Middle Ages witnessed the first sustained urbanization of Northern and Western Europe and lasted until the beginning of the early modern period in the 16th century,[312] marked by the rise of nation states,[313] the birth of humanism in the Renaissance,[314] the division of Western Christianity in the Reformation,[315] and the beginnings of European colonial expansion.[316]

Sub-Saharan Africa

A Benin Bronze head from Nigeria

Medieval sub-Saharan Africa was home to many different civilizations. In the Horn of Africa, the Kingdom of Aksum declined in the 7th century.[317] The Zagwe dynasty that later emerged was famed for its rock cut architecture at Lalibela.[318] The Zagwe would then fall to the Solomonic dynasty who claimed descent from the Aksumite emperors[319] and would rule the country well into the 20th century.[320]

In the West African Sahel region, many Islamic empires rose, such as the Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Kanem–Bornu Empires.[321] They controlled the trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, and slaves.[322] West Africa became the world's largest gold exporter by the 14th century.[323]

South of the Sahel, civilizations rose in the coastal forests. These include the Yoruba city of Ifẹ, noted for its art,[324] and the Oyo Empire,[325] the Edo Kingdom of Benin centered in Benin City,[326] the Igbo Kingdom of Nri that produced advanced bronze art at Igbo-Ukwu,[327] and the Akan who are noted for their intricate architecture.[328]

Central Africa saw the formation of several states, including the Kingdom of Kongo.[329] In what is now modern Southern Africa, native Africans created various kingdoms such as the Kingdom of Mutapa (Monomotapa).[330] They flourished through trade with the Swahili on the East African coast.[331] They built large defensive stone structures without mortar such as Great Zimbabwe, capital of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe,[332] and Khami, capital of the Kingdom of Butua.[333] The Swahili themselves were the inhabitants of the East African coast from Kenya to Mozambique who traded extensively with Arabs, who introduced them to Islam.[334] They built many port cities such as Mombasa, Mogadishu, and Kilwa, which were known to Islamic geographers.[334]

Seafarers from Southeast Asia colonized Madagascar sometime between the 4th and 9th centuries,[335] creating what geographer Jared Diamond called "the single most astonishing fact of human geography".[336] To reach Madagascar, the settlers crossed 6,000 miles of ocean in sailing canoes,[337] probably without maps or compasses.[336] A wave of Bantu-speaking migrants from southeastern Africa also arrived in Madagascar around 1000 CE.[338]

South Asia

Chennakesava Temple, Belur, India

After the fall (550 CE) of the Gupta Empire, North India was divided into a complex and fluid network of smaller kingly states.[339] Early Muslim incursions began in the northwest in 711 CE, when the Arab Umayyad Caliphate conquered much of present-day Pakistan.[259] The Arab military advance was largely halted at that point, but Islam still spread in India, largely due to the influence of Arab merchants along the western coast.[248] The 9th century saw a Tripartite Struggle for control of North India, among the Pratihara, Pala, and Rashtrakuta Empires.[340]

Post-classical dynasties in South India included those of the Chalukyas, Hoysalas, and Cholas.[341] Literature, architecture, sculpture, and painting flourished under the patronage of these kings.[342] Some of the other important states that emerged in South India during this time included the Bahmani Sultanate and Vijayanagara Empire.[343]

Northeast Asia

After a period of relative disunity, China was reunified by the Sui dynasty in 589[238] and under the succeeding Tang dynasty (618–907) China entered a golden age.[344] The Sui and Tang instituted the long-lasting imperial examination system, under which administrative positions were open only to those who passed an arduous test on Confucian thought and the Chinese classics.[345][346] China competed with Tibet (618–842) for control of areas in Inner Asia.[347] However, the Tang dynasty eventually splintered. After half a century of turmoil, the Song dynasty reunified much of China.[348] Pressure from nomadic empires to the north became increasingly urgent.[349] By 1127, northern China had been lost to the Jurchens in the Jin–Song Wars, and the Mongols conquered all of China in 1279.[350] After about a century of Mongol Yuan dynasty rule, the ethnic Chinese reasserted control with the founding of the Ming dynasty in 1368.[349]

Battle during 1281 Mongol invasion of Japan

In Japan, the imperial lineage was established during the 3rd century CE, and a centralized state developed during the Yamato period (c. 300–710).[351] Buddhism was introduced, and there was an emphasis on the adoption of elements of Chinese culture and Confucianism.[352] The Nara period (710–794) was characterized by the appearance of a nascent literary culture, as well as the development of Buddhist-inspired artwork and architecture.[353][354] The Heian period (794–1185) saw the peak of imperial power, followed by the rise of militarized clans and the samurai.[355] It was during the Heian period that Murasaki Shikibu penned The Tale of Genji, sometimes considered the world's first novel.[356] From 1185 to 1868, Japan was dominated by powerful regional lords (daimyos) and the military rule of warlords (shoguns) such as the Ashikaga and Tokugawa shogunates.[357][358] The emperor remained, but mostly as a figurehead,[359] and the power of merchants grew.[360]

Postclassical Korea saw the end of the Three Kingdoms era, the three kingdoms being Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla.[361] Silla conquered Baekje in 660, and Goguryeo in 668,[362] marking the beginning of the Northern and Southern States period, with Unified Silla in the south and Balhae, a successor state to Goguryeo, in the north.[363] In 892 CE, this arrangement reverted to the Later Three Kingdoms, with Goguryeo (then called Taebong and eventually named Goryeo) emerging as dominant, unifying the entire peninsula by 936.[364] The founding Goryeo dynasty ruled until 1392, succeeded by the Joseon dynasty,[365] which ruled for approximately 500 years.[366]

In Mongolia, Genghis Khan united the various tribes under one banner in 1026.[311] The Mongol Empire expanded to comprise all of China and Central Asia, as well as large parts of Russia and the Middle East, to become the largest contiguous empire in history.[367] After Möngke Khan died in 1259,[368] the Mongol Empire was divided into four successor states.[271]

Southeast Asia

Angkor Wat temple complex, Cambodia, early 12th century

The Southeast Asian polity of Funan, which originated in the 2nd century CE, went into decline in the 6th century as Chinese trade routes shifted away from its ports.[369] It was replaced by the Khmer Empire in 802 CE.[370] The Khmers' capital city, Angkor, was the most extensive city in the world prior to the industrial age and contained Angkor Wat, the world's largest religious monument.[371][372] The Sukhothai (mid-13th century CE) and Ayutthaya Kingdoms (1351 CE) were major powers of the Thais, who were influenced by the Khmers.[373]

Starting in the 9th century, the Pagan Kingdom rose to prominence in modern Myanmar.[374] Its collapse brought about political fragmentation that ended with the rise of the Toungoo Empire in the 16th century.[375] Other notable kingdoms of the period include Srivijaya[376] and Lavo (both coming into prominence in the 7th century), Champa[377] and Hariphunchai (both about 750),[378] Đại Việt (968),[379] Lan Na (13th century),[380] Majapahit (1293),[381] Lan Xang (1353),[382] and Ava (1365).[383] This period saw the spread of Islam to present-day Indonesia (beginning in the 13th century)[384] and the emergence of the Malay states, including Brunei and Malacca.[385] In the Philippines, several polities were formed such as Tondo, Cebu, and Butuan.[386]


Moai, Rapa Nui (Easter Island)

The Polynesians, descendants of the Lapita peoples, colonized vast reaches of Remote Oceania beginning around 1000 CE.[387] They traveled the open ocean in double-hulled canoes up to 37 meters (121 ft) long, each canoe carrying as many as 50 people and their livestock.[388] Their voyages resulted in the colonization of hundreds of islands including the Marquesas, Hawaii, Rapa Nui (Easter Island), and New Zealand.[389]

The Tuʻi Tonga Empire was founded in the 10th century CE and expanded between 1250 and 1500.[390] Tongan culture, language, and hegemony spread widely throughout eastern Melanesia, Micronesia, and central Polynesia during this period,[391] influencing east 'Uvea, Rotuma, Futuna, Samoa, and Niue, as well as specific islands and parts of Micronesia (Kiribati, Pohnpei, and miscellaneous outliers), Vanuatu, and New Caledonia (specifically, the Loyalty Islands, with the main island being predominantly populated by the Melanesian Kanaks and their cultures).[392] In Northern Australia, there is evidence that Aboriginal Australians regularly traded with Makassan trepangers from Indonesia before the arrival of Europeans.[393]

The question of pre-Columbian contact between Polynesians and Indigenous Americans has long been controversial.[394] In 2020, a genome-wide DNA analysis of Polynesians and Indigenous South Americans shed new light on the debate by reporting evidence of intermingling between Polynesians and pre-Columbian Zenú around 1200 CE.[394] Whether this happened due to Indigenous Americans reaching eastern Polynesia or because the northern coast of South America was visited by Polynesians is not clear.[395]

On Rapa Nui, the islanders carved hundreds of moai, huge stone monuments that could weigh up to 80 tons.[396] The moai are thought to represent high-ranking ancestors.[397] All were pulled down during the chaotic period following European contact.[398] Rapa Nui is also the only Polynesian island to have a writing system, the rongorongo script, although the script remains undeciphered and it may be proto-writing rather than true writing.[399]


Machu Picchu, Inca Empire, Peru

In North America, this period saw the rise of the Mississippian culture in the modern-day United States c. 950 CE,[400] marked by the extensive 11th-century urban complex at Cahokia.[401] The Ancestral Puebloans and their predecessors (9th–13th centuries) built extensive permanent settlements, including stone structures that would remain the largest buildings in North America until the 19th century.[402]

In Mesoamerica, the Teotihuacan civilization fell and the classic Maya collapse occurred.[403] The Aztec Empire came to dominate much of Mesoamerica in the 14th and 15th centuries.[404]

In South America, the 15th century saw the rise of the Inca.[253] The Inca Empire or Tawantinsuyu, with its capital at Cusco, spanned the entire Andes, making it the most extensive pre-Columbian civilization.[405] The Inca were prosperous and advanced, known for an excellent road system and elegant stonework.[406]

Early modern period (c. 1500 CE – c. 1800 CE)

The early modern period was the period between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution—roughly 1500 to 1800.[312] The period was characterized by proto-globalization[407] and the rise of centralized bureaucratic states.[408] European powers came to dominate much of the world by founding maritime empires: first the Portuguese and Spanish Empires, then the French, English, and Dutch Empires.[409][410] Historians still debate the causes of Europe's rise, which is known as the Great Divergence.[411]

Japanese depiction of a Portuguese carrack. European maritime innovations led to proto-globalization.

Capitalist economies began their rise, initially in the northern Italian republics and some Asian port cities.[412] The early modern period saw the rise and dominance of mercantilist economic theory, and the decline and eventual disappearance, in much of the European sphere, of serfdom and the power of the Catholic Church.[413] Shortly before the turn of the 16th century, the Portuguese started establishing factories ranging from Africa to Asia and Brazil, for trade in local commodities such as slaves, gold, spices, and sugar.[414] In the 17th century, private chartered companies were established, such as the English East India Company (founded 1600) – often described as the first multinational corporation – and the Dutch East India Company (founded 1602).[415]

The Age of Discovery was the first period in which Eurasia and Africa engaged in substantial cultural, material, and biologic exchange with the New World. It began in the late 15th century, when the two kingdoms of the Iberian PeninsulaPortugal and Castile – sent the first exploratory voyages around the Cape of Good Hope and to the Americas, the latter reached in 1492 by Christopher Columbus.[416] Global integration continued as European colonization of the Americas initiated the Columbian exchange: the exchange of plants, animals, foods, human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and culture between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.[417] It was one of history's most important global events, involving ecology and agriculture.[418] New crops brought from the Americas by 16th-century European seafarers substantially contributed to world population growth.[419]

Greater Middle East

After conquering Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman Empire quickly came to dominate the Middle East.[420] Persia came under the rule of the Safavids in 1501,[421] succeeded by the Afshars in 1736, the Zands in 1751, and the Qajars in 1794.[422] The Safavids established Shia Islam as Persia's official religion, thus giving Persia a separate identity from its Sunni neighbors.[423] Along with the Mughals in India, the Ottomans and Safavids are known as the gunpowder empires because of their early adoption of firearms.[424] In North Africa, the Berbers remained in control of independent states until the 16th century.[425] At the end of the 18th century, the Russian Empire began its conquest of the Caucasus.[426] The Uzbeks replaced the Timurids as the preeminent power in Central Asia.[427]


Florence, birthplace of the Italian Renaissance

Europe's Renaissance – the "rebirth" of classical culture, beginning in Italy in the 14th century and extending into the 16th[g] – comprised the rediscovery of the classical world's cultural, scientific, and technological achievements, and the economic and social rise of Europe.[429] The Renaissance engendered a culture of inquisitiveness which ultimately led to humanism[430] and the Scientific Revolution.[431] This period is also celebrated for its artistic and literary attainments.[432] Petrarch's poetry, Giovanni Boccaccio's Decameron, and the paintings and sculptures of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo are some of the great works of the era.[432] Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type printing in 1453,[h] which helped spread the ideas of the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution, and the Reformation.[433] The Reformation was an anti-clerical theological and social movement that resulted in the creation of Protestant Christianity.[434] In the aftermath of the Reformation, Protestantism became the majority faith throughout Northwestern Europe and in England and English-speaking America.[435]

Wittenberg, birthplace of Protestantism

In Russia, Ivan the Terrible was crowned in 1547 as the first tsar of Russia, and by annexing the Turkic khanates in the east, transformed Russia into a regional power, eventually replacing the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as a major power in Eastern Europe.[436][437] The countries of Western Europe, while expanding prodigiously through technological advances and colonial conquest, competed with each other economically and militarily in a state of almost constant war.[438] Often the wars had a religious dimension, either Catholic versus Protestant (primarily in Western Europe)[439] or Christian versus Muslim (primarily in Eastern Europe), though religious tolerance was encouraged in countries like the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which legally guaranteed it with the Warsaw Confederation (1573).[437] Wars of particular note included the Thirty Years' War, the War of the Spanish Succession, the Seven Years' War, and the French Revolutionary Wars.[440] Napoleon Bonaparte became First Consul of France in 1799, concluding the French Revolution. Bonaparte's rise to power foreshadowed the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century.[441]

Sub-Saharan Africa

In Africa, this period saw a decline in many civilizations and an advancement in others. Between 1515 and 1800, Africa lost eight million people to the Atlantic slave trade, and two million to the Arab slave trade.[442] The Atlantic trade was the transport of enslaved Africans to the Americas, while the Arab trade consisted of the trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean slave trades.[442] The Swahili Coast was influenced by trade with the Portuguese and later the Omanis.[443] In West Africa, the Songhai Empire fell after an invasion by the Moroccans.[444] Bonoman gave birth to numerous Akan states such as Akwamu, Akyem, Fante, and Adansi, among others.[445] The Kingdom of Zimbabwe gave way to smaller kingdoms such as Mutapa,[446] Butua,[447] and Rozvi.[448]

In the Horn of Africa, the Ajuran Sultanate declined in the 18th century, and was succeeded by the Geledi Sultanate.[449] The Ethiopian Empire suffered from the 1531 invasion by the neighboring Muslim Adal Sultanate,[450] and in 1769 entered the Zemene Mesafint (Age of Princes) during which the Emperor became a figurehead and the country was ruled by warlords, though the royal line later would recover under Emperor Tewodros II.[451] Other civilizations in Africa advanced during this period. The Oyo Empire experienced its golden age, as did the Kingdom of Benin.[452] The Ashanti Empire rose to power in modern-day Ghana in the late 17th century.[453] The Kingdom of Kongo also thrived during this period.[454]

South Asia

Taj Mahal, Mughal Empire, India

In the Indian subcontinent, the Mughal Empire began under Babur in 1526 and lasted for two centuries.[455] Starting in the northwest, the Mughal Empire would come to rule the entire subcontinent by the late 17th century,[456] except for the southernmost Indian provinces, which would remain independent.[457]

Against the Muslim Mughal Empire, the Hindu Maratha Empire was founded by Shivaji on the western coast in 1674.[458] The Marathas gradually gained territory from the Mughals over several decades, particularly in the Mughal–Maratha Wars (1680–1707).[459] The Maratha Empire would fall under the control of the British East India Company in 1818, with all former Maratha and Mughal authority devolving to the British Raj in 1858.[460]

During the same period, Sikhism developed from the spiritual teachings of ten gurus.[461] In 1799, Ranjit Singh established the Sikh Empire in the Punjab.[462] The British East India Company annexed the Sikh Empire after the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849.[463]

Northeast Asia

Ming dynasty section, Great Wall of China

In 1644, the Ming was supplanted by the Qing,[464] the last Chinese imperial dynasty, which would rule until 1912.[465] Japan experienced its Azuchi–Momoyama period (1568–1600), followed by the Edo period (1600–1868).[466] The Korean Joseon dynasty (1392–1910) ruled throughout this period, repelling invasions from Japan and China in the 16th and 17th centuries.[467] Expanded maritime trade with Europe significantly affected China and Japan during this period, particularly through the Portuguese in Macau and the Dutch in Nagasaki.[468] However, China and Japan would later pursue isolationist policies designed to eliminate foreign influences, known as haijin in China and sakoku in Japan.[469]

Southeast Asia

In 1511, the Portuguese overthrew the Malacca Sultanate in present-day Malaysia and Indonesian Sumatra.[470] The Portuguese held this important trading territory (and the valuable associated navigational strait) until overthrown by the Dutch in 1641.[415] The Johor Sultanate, centered on the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, became the dominant trading power in the region.[471]

European colonization expanded with the Dutch in Indonesia, the Portuguese in Timor, and the Spanish in the Philippines.[472] Into the 19th century, European expansion would affect the whole of Southeast Asia, with the British in Burma, Malaya, and North Borneo, and the French in Indochina.[473] Only Thailand would successfully resist colonization.[473]


The Pacific Islands of Oceania would also be affected by European contact, starting with the circumnavigational voyage of Ferdinand Magellan (1519–1522),[i] who landed in the Marianas and other islands.[474] Abel Tasman (1642–1644) sailed to present-day Australia, New Zealand, and nearby islands.[475] James Cook (1768–1779) made the first recorded European contact with Hawaii.[476] In 1788, Britain founded its first Australian colony.[477]


Several European powers colonized the Americas, largely displacing the native populations and conquering the advanced civilizations of the Aztecs and Inca.[478] Diseases introduced by Europeans devastated American societies, killing 60–90 million people by 1600 and reducing the population by 90–95%.[479] Spain, Portugal, Britain, and France all made extensive territorial claims, and undertook large-scale settlement, including the importation of large numbers of African slaves.[480] Portugal claimed Brazil.[481] Spain claimed the rest of South America, Mesoamerica, and southern North America.[481] The Spanish mined and exported prodigious amounts of silver from the Americas.[482] This American silver boom, along with an increase in Japanese silver mining, caused a surge in inflation known as the Price Revolution in the 16th and 17th centuries.[483]

In North America, Britain colonized the east coast while France settled the central region. Russia made incursions into the northwest coast of North America, with its first colony in present-day Alaska in 1784,[484] and the outpost of Fort Ross in present-day California in 1812.[485] France lost its North American territory to England and Spain after the Seven Years' War (1756–1763).[486] Britain's Thirteen Colonies declared independence as the United States in 1776, ratified by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, ending the American Revolutionary War.[487] In 1791, African slaves launched a successful rebellion in the French colony of Saint-Domingue. France won back its continental claims from Spain in 1800, but sold them to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.[488]

Late modern period (c. 1800 CE – present)

James Watt's steam engine powered the Industrial Revolution.

The 19th century saw the global spread of the Industrial Revolution, the greatest transformation of the world economy since the Neolithic Revolution.[489] The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain around 1770 and used new modes of production—the factory, mass production, and mechanization—to manufacture a wide array of goods faster while using less labor than previously required.[490] Industrialization raised the global standard of living but caused upheaval as factory owners and workers clashed over wages and working conditions.[491] Along with industrialization came modern globalization, the increasing interconnection of world regions in the economic, political, and cultural spheres.[492][493] Globalization began in the early 19th century and was enabled by improved transportation technologies such as railroads and steamships.[494]

Empires of the world in 1898[j]

European empires lost territory in Latin America, which won independence by the 1820s through military campaigns,[495] but expanded elsewhere as their industrial economies gave them an advantage over the rest of the world.[496] Britain gained control of the Indian subcontinent, Burma, Malaya, North Borneo, Hong Kong, and Aden; the French took Indochina; and the Dutch cemented their rule over Indonesia.[473] The British also colonized Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa with large numbers of British colonists emigrating to these colonies.[497] Russia colonized large pre-agricultural areas of Siberia.[498] In the late 19th century, the European powers divided the remaining areas of Africa.[499] Only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent.[500]

Within Europe, economic and military challenges created a system of nation states, and ethno-cultural groupings began to identify themselves as distinctive nations with aspirations for cultural and political autonomy.[501] This nationalism would become important to peoples across the world in the 20th century.[502] The first wave of democratization also took place between 1828 and 1926 and saw democratic institutions take root in 33 countries around the world.[503] In a remarkable instance of moral progress, most of the world abolished slavery in the 19th century.[504]

First airplane, the Wright Flyer, flew on 17 December 1903.

In response to the encroachment of European powers, several countries undertook programs of industrialization and political reform along Western lines.[505] The Meiji Restoration in Japan was successful and led to the establishment of a colonial empire, while the tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire did little to slow Ottoman decline.[506] China achieved some success with its Self-Strengthening Movement, but was devastated by the Taiping Rebellion, history's bloodiest civil war, which killed 20–30 million people between 1850 and 1864.[507][508]

The United States developed to become the world's largest economy by the end of the century.[509] During the Second Industrial Revolution, a new set of technological advances including electric power, the internal combustion engine, and assembly line manufacturing increased productivity once again.[510] Meanwhile, industrial pollution and environmental damage, present since the discovery of fire and the beginning of civilization, accelerated drastically.[511]

The 20th century opened with Europe at an apex of wealth and power,[512] and with much of the world under its direct colonial control or its indirect domination.[513] Much of the rest of the world was influenced by heavily Europeanized nations: the United States and Japan.[513] As the century unfolded, however, the global system dominated by rival powers was subjected to severe strains, and ultimately yielded to a more fluid structure of independent nation states.[514]

Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I

This transformation was catalyzed by wars of unparalleled scope and devastation. World War I led to the collapse of four empires – the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman, and Russian Empires[515] – and showed that industrial technology had made traditional military tactics obsolete.[516] The Armenian, Assyrian, and Greek genocides saw the systematic destruction, mass murder, and expulsion of those populations in the Ottoman Empire.[517][518] From 1918 to 1920, the Spanish flu caused the deaths of at least 25 million people.[519]

In the war's aftermath, powerful ideologies rose to prominence. The Russian Revolution of 1917 created the first communist state,[520] while the 1920s and 1930s saw fascist political parties gain control in Italy and Germany.[521][k] The women's suffrage movement won women the right to vote in numerous countries during the late modern period, ranging from New Zealand (1893) to Portugal (1976).[523] Women fought to expand their civil rights,[524] and began to enjoy greater access to education and the workforce.[525]

Atomic bombing of Nagasaki, 1945

Ongoing national rivalries, exacerbated by the economic turmoil of the Great Depression, helped precipitate World War II.[526] In that war, the vast majority of the world's countries, including all the great powers, fought as part of two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. The leading Axis powers were Germany, Japan, and Italy;[527] while the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Republic of China were the "Big Four" Allied powers.[528]

The militaristic governments of Germany and Japan pursued an ultimately doomed course of imperialist expansionism. In the course of doing so, Germany orchestrated the genocide of six million Jews and millions of non-Jews across German-occupied Europe in the Holocaust,[529] while Japan murdered millions of Chinese.[530] Estimates of the war's total casualties range from 55 to 80 million dead.[531] When World War II ended in 1945, the United Nations was founded in the hope of preventing future wars,[532] as the League of Nations had been formed following World War I.[533] Likewise, several European countries began to form a political and economic community, the European Union, which eventually grew to include 27 member states.[534] World War II opened the way for the advance of communism into Eastern and Central Europe, China, North Korea, North Vietnam, and Cuba.[535] To contain the advance, the United States established a global network of alliances.[536] The largest of them, NATO, eventually grew to include 32 member states.

Contemporary history (c. 1945 CE – present)

World War II had left two countries, the United States and the Soviet Union, with principal power to influence international affairs.[537] Each was suspicious of the other and feared a global spread of the other's, respectively capitalist and communist, political-economic model.[538] This led to the Cold War, a 45-year stand-off and arms race between the United States and its allies, on one hand, and the Soviet Union and its allies on the other.[539]

Fall of the Berlin Wall, 1989

With the development of nuclear weapons during World War II and their subsequent proliferation, all of humanity was put at risk of nuclear war between the two superpowers, as demonstrated by many incidents, most prominently the October 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.[540] Such war being viewed as impractical, the superpowers instead waged proxy wars in non-nuclear-armed Third World countries.[541][542] The Cold War ended peacefully in 1991 after the Soviet Union collapsed,[543] partly due to its inability to compete economically with the United States and Western Europe.[544]

Cold War preparations to deter or to fight a third world war accelerated advances in technologies that, though conceptualized before World War II, had been implemented for that war's exigencies, such as jet aircraft,[545] rocketry,[546] and computers.[547] In the decades after World War II, these advances led to jet travel;[545] artificial satellites with innumerable applications,[548] including GPS; [549] and the Internet,[548] which in the 1990s began to gain traction as a form of communication.[550] These inventions have revolutionized the movement of people, ideas, and information.[551]

Last Moon landing: Apollo 17 (1972)

The second half of the 20th century also saw groundbreaking scientific and technological developments such as the discovery of the structure of DNA[552] and DNA sequencing,[553] the worldwide eradication of smallpox,[554] the Green Revolution in agriculture,[555] the discovery of plate tectonics,[556] the moon landings,[557] crewed and uncrewed exploration of space,[558] solar-power and wind-power technologies,[559] and foundational discoveries in physics phenomena ranging from the smallest entities (particle physics) to the greatest entity (physical cosmology).[556]

These technical innovations had far-reaching effects.[560] The world's population quadrupled to six billion during the 20th century, while world economic output increased by a factor of 20.[561] In 1820, 75% of humanity lived on less than one dollar a day, while in 2001 only about 20% did.[562] At the same time, economic inequality increased both within individual countries and between rich and poor countries.[563]

In China, the Maoist government implemented industrialization and collectivization policies as part of the Great Leap Forward (1958–1962), leading to the starvation deaths (1959–1961) of 30–40 million people.[564] After these policies were rescinded, China entered a period of economic liberalization and rapid growth, with the economy expanding by 6.6% per year from 1978 to 2003.[565] In the postwar decades, the African, Asian, and Oceanian colonies of the Belgian, British, Dutch, French, and other European empires won their formal independence, a process known as decolonization.[566] Postcolonial states in Africa struggled to grow their economies, facing structural barriers such as reliance on the export of commodities rather than manufactured goods.[567] Sub-Saharan Africa was the world region hit hardest by the HIV/AIDS pandemic of the late 20th century.[568] Moreover, Africa experienced high levels of violence, exemplified by the Second Congo War (1998–2003), the deadliest conflict since World War II.[569] Latin America also faced economic problems and an over-reliance on commodity exports.[570] Development efforts in Latin America were hindered by political instability, some of which was caused by the United States as it repeatedly intervened in the region.[571]

Shanghai. China urbanized rapidly in the 21st century.

The early 21st century was marked by growing economic globalization and integration,[572] which brought benefits but also risk to interlinked economies, as exemplified by the Great Recession of the late 2000s and early 2010s.[573] Communications expanded, with smartphones and social media becoming ubiquitous worldwide by the mid-2010s. By the early 2020s, artificial intelligence systems improved to the point of outperforming humans at many circumscribed tasks.[574][575] In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic substantially disrupted global trading, caused recessions in the global economy, and spurred cultural paradigm shifts.[576][577] Concerns grew as existential threats from environmental degradation and global warming became increasingly evident,[578][579][580] while mitigation efforts, including a shift to sustainable energy, made gradual progress.[581][582][583]


Explanatory notes

  1. ^ Christopher de Bellaigue writes: "Like the Maya and the Akkadians we have learned that a broken environment aggravates political and economic dysfunction and that the inverse is also true. Like the Qing we rue the deterioration of our soils. But the lesson is never learned. [...] Denialism [...] is one of the most fundamental of human traits and helps explain our current inability to come up with a response commensurate with the perils we face."[1]
  2. ^ This date comes from the 2015 discovery of stone tools at the Lomekwi site in Kenya.[8] Some palaeontologists propose an earlier date of 3.39 million years ago based on bones found with butchery marks on them in Dikika, Ethiopia,[9] while others dispute both the Dikika and Lomekwi findings.[10]
  3. ^ Or perhaps earlier; the 2018 discovery of stone tools from 2.1 million years ago in Shangchen, China predates the earliest known H. erectus fossils.[18]
  4. ^ These dates come from a 2018 study of an upper jawbone from Misliya Cave, Israel.[37] Researchers studying a fossil skull from Apidima Cave, Greece in 2019 proposed an earlier date of 210,000 years ago.[38] The Apidima Cave study has been challenged by other scholars.[39]
  5. ^ This occurred during the African humid period, when the Sahara was much wetter than it is today.[56]
  6. ^ This is the traditional date for the founding of the Xia dynasty, and has not been confirmed by archaeology.[92] Chinese civilization had its origins in the earlier Yangshao and Longshan cultures (4000–2000 BCE),[93] but the Shang is the first dynasty that can be archeologically verified (1750 BCE).[94]
  7. ^ Some scholars date the period later, to the 15th and 16th centuries.[428]
  8. ^ The Chinese invented movable type centuries earlier, but it was better suited to the alphabetical writing systems of European languages.[433]
  9. ^ Magellan died in 1521. The voyage was completed by Spanish navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano in 1522.[474]
  10. ^
      Ottoman Empire
      Qing Empire
      United States
      Independent states
  11. ^ Some historians also classify Francoist Spain as a fascist regime.[522]


  1. ^ Christopher de Bellaigue, "A World Off the Hinges" (review of Peter Frankopan, The Earth Transformed: An Untold History, Knopf, 2023, 695 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXX, no. 18 (23 November 2023), pp. 40–42. (p. 41.)
  2. ^ Jungers, William L. (June 1988). "Lucy's length: Stature reconstruction in Australopithecus afarensis (A.L.288-1) with implications for other small-bodied hominids". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 76 (2): 227–231. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330760211. PMID 3137822.
  3. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 1. "Human beings evolved over several million years from primates in Africa."
  4. ^ Christian 2011, p. 150. "But it turned out that humans and chimps differed from each other only by about 10 percent as much as the differences between major groups of mammals, which suggested that they had diverged from each other approximately 5 to 7 million years ago."
  5. ^ Dunbar 2016, p. 8. "Conventionally, taxonomists now refer to the great ape family (including humans) as hominids, while all members of the lineage leading to modern humans that arose after the split with the [Homo-Pan] LCA are referred to as hominins. The older literature used the terms hominoids and hominids respectively."
  6. ^ a b Cela-Conde, Camilo; Ayala, Francisco (2003). "Genera of the human lineage". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (13): 7684–7689. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.7684C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0832372100. PMC 164648. PMID 12794185. Only two or three hominid genera, Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and Homo, had been previously accepted, with Paranthropus considered a subgenus of Australopithecus by some authors.
  7. ^ Dunbar 2016, pp. 8, 10. "What has come to define our lineage – bipedalism – was adopted early on after we parted company with the chimpanzees, presumably in order to facilitate travel on the ground in more open habitats where large forest trees were less common....The australopithecines did not differ from the modern chimpanzees in terms of brain size."
  8. ^ Harmand, Sonia; et al. (2015). "3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya". Nature. 521 (7552): 310–315. Bibcode:2015Natur.521..310H. doi:10.1038/nature14464. PMID 25993961. S2CID 1207285.
  9. ^ McPherron, Shannon P.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Marean, Curtis W.; Wynn, Jonathan G.; Reed, Denné; Geraads, Denis; Bobe, René; Béarat, Hamdallah A. (August 2010). "Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia". Nature. 466 (7308): 857–860. Bibcode:2010Natur.466..857M. doi:10.1038/nature09248. PMID 20703305. S2CID 4356816.
  10. ^ Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Alcalá, Luis (2016). "3.3-Million-Year-Old Stone Tools and Butchery Traces? More Evidence Needed" (PDF). PaleoAnthropology: 46–53.
  11. ^ de la Torre, Ignacio (2019). "Searching for the emergence of stone tool making in eastern Africa". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (24): 11567–11569. Bibcode:2019PNAS..11611567D. doi:10.1073/pnas.1906926116. PMC 6575166. PMID 31164417.
  12. ^ Stutz, Aaron Jonas (2018). "Paleolithic". In Trevathan, Wenda; Cartmill, Matt; Dufour, Darna; Larsen, Clark (eds.). The International Encyclopedia of Biological Anthropology. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 1–9. doi:10.1002/9781118584538.ieba0363. ISBN 978-1-118-58442-2. S2CID 240083827. The Paleolithic era encompasses the bulk of the human archaeological record. Its onset is defined by the oldest known stone tools, now dated to 3.3 Ma, found at the Lomekwi site in Kenya.
  13. ^ Strait, David (2010). "The Evolutionary History of the Australopiths". Evolution: Education and Outreach. 3 (3): 341. doi:10.1007/s12052-010-0249-6. ISSN 1936-6434. S2CID 31979188. However, Homo is almost certainly descended from an australopith ancestor, so at least one or some australopiths belong directly to the human lineage.
  14. ^ Villmoare, Brian; Kimbel, William; Seyoum, Chalachew; Campisano, Christopher; DiMaggio, Erin; Rowan, John; et al. (March 2015). "Paleoanthropology. Early Homo at 2.8 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia". Science. 347 (6228): 1352–1355. Bibcode:2015Sci...347.1352V. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1343. PMID 25739410.
  15. ^ Spoor, Fred; Gunz, Philipp; Neubauer, Simon; Stelzer, Stefanie; Scott, Nadia; Kwekason, Amandus; Dean, M. Christopher (2015). "Reconstructed Homo habilis type OH 7 suggests deep-rooted species diversity in early Homo". Nature. 519 (7541): 83–86. Bibcode:2015Natur.519...83S. doi:10.1038/nature14224. PMID 25739632. S2CID 4470282. The latter is morphologically more derived than OH 7 but 500,000 years older, suggesting that the H. habilis lineage originated before 2.3 million years ago, thus marking deep-rooted species diversity in the genus Homo.
  16. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 5. "What most distinguished Homo habilis from the australopithecines was a brain that was nearly 50 percent larger."
  17. ^ Herries AI, Martin JM, Leece AB, Adams JW, Boschian G, Joannes-Boyau R, et al. (April 2020). "Contemporaneity of Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and early Homo erectus in South Africa". Science. 368 (6486): 7293. doi:10.1126/science.aaw7293. PMID 32241925.
  18. ^ Zhu Z, Dennell R, Huang W, Wu Y, Qiu S, Yang S, et al. (July 2018). "Hominin occupation of the Chinese Loess Plateau since about 2.1 million years ago". Nature. 559 (7715): 608–612. Bibcode:2018Natur.559..608Z. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0299-4. PMID 29995848. S2CID 49670311. Fourth, and most importantly, the oldest artefact age of approximately 2.12 Ma at Shangchen implies that hominins had left Africa before the date suggested by the earliest evidence from Dmanisi (about 1.85 Ma). This makes it necessary to reconsider the timing of initial dispersal of early hominins in the Old World.
  19. ^ Dunbar 2016, p. 10.
  20. ^ Gowlett, J. A. J. (23 May 2016). "The discovery of fire by humans: a long and convoluted process". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 371 (1696): 20150164. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0164. PMC 4874402. PMID 27216521. We know that burning evidence occurs on numbers of archaeological sites from about 1.5 Ma onwards (there is evidence of actual hearths from around 0.7 to 0.4 Ma); that more elaborate technologies existed from around half a million years ago, and that these came to employ adhesives that require preparation by fire.
  21. ^ Christian 2015, p. 11.
  22. ^ Christian 2015, p. 400n.
  23. ^ Dunbar 2016, p. 11.
  24. ^ Hammer MF (May 2013). "Human Hybrids" (PDF). Scientific American. 308 (5): 66–71. Bibcode:2013SciAm.308e..66H. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0513-66. PMID 23627222. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2018.
  25. ^ Yong E (July 2011). "Mosaic humans, the hybrid species". New Scientist. 211 (2823): 34–38. Bibcode:2011NewSc.211...34Y. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(11)61839-3.
  26. ^ Ackermann RR, Mackay A, Arnold ML (October 2015). "The Hybrid Origin of "Modern" Humans". Evolutionary Biology. 43 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1007/s11692-015-9348-1. S2CID 14329491.
  27. ^ Reich D, Green RE, Kircher M, Krause J, Patterson N, Durand EY, et al. (December 2010). "Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia". Nature. 468 (7327): 1053–1060. Bibcode:2010Natur.468.1053R. doi:10.1038/nature09710. hdl:10230/25596. PMC 4306417. PMID 21179161.
  28. ^ Abi-Rached L, Jobin MJ, Kulkarni S, McWhinnie A, Dalva K, Gragert L, et al. (October 2011). "The shaping of modern human immune systems by multiregional admixture with archaic humans". Science. 334 (6052): 89–94. Bibcode:2011Sci...334...89A. doi:10.1126/science.1209202. PMC 3677943. PMID 21868630.
  29. ^ Hublin JJ, Ben-Ncer A, Bailey SE, Freidline SE, Neubauer S, Skinner MM, et al. (June 2017). "New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens" (PDF). Nature. 546 (7657): 289–292. Bibcode:2017Natur.546..289H. doi:10.1038/nature22336. PMID 28593953. S2CID 256771372.
  30. ^ Christian 2015, p. 319.
  31. ^ Christian 2015, pp. 319–320, 330, 354.
  32. ^ Christian 2015, pp. 344–346.
  33. ^ McNeill & McNeill 2003, pp. 17–18.
  34. ^ Christian 2015, pp. 357–358, 409.
  35. ^ Christian 2015, p. 22. "Most Paleolithic communities lived by foraging, nomadizing over familiar territories."
  36. ^ Weber, Gerhard W.; Hershkovitz, Israel; Gunz, Philipp; Neubauer, Simon; Ayalon, Avner; Latimer, Bruce; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Yasur, Gal; Barzilai, Omry; May, Hila (20 June 2020). "Before the massive modern human dispersal into Eurasia: A 55,000-year-old partial cranium from Manot Cave, Israel". Quaternary International. 551: 29–39. Bibcode:2020QuInt.551...29W. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2019.10.009. ISSN 1040-6182. S2CID 210628420. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  37. ^ Herschkovitz, Israel; et al. (26 January 2018). "The earliest modern humans outside Africa". Science. 359 (6374): 456–459. Bibcode:2018Sci...359..456H. doi:10.1126/science.aap8369. hdl:10072/372670. PMID 29371468.
  38. ^ Harvati, Katerina; Röding, Carolin; Bosman, Abel M.; Karakostis, Fotios A.; Grün, Rainer; Stringer, Chris; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Thompson, Nicholas C.; Koutoulidis, Vassilis; Moulopoulos, Lia A.; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G. (10 July 2019). "Apidima Cave fossils provide earliest evidence of Homo sapiens in Eurasia". Nature. 571 (7766): 500–504. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1376-z. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 31292546. S2CID 195873640. Retrieved 10 July 2022.
  39. ^ Rosas, Antionio; Bastir, Markus (1 January 2020). "An assessment of the late Middle Pleistocene occipital from Apidima 1 skull (Greece)". L'Anthropologie. 124 (1): 102745. doi:10.1016/j.anthro.2020.102745. ISSN 0003-5521. S2CID 216223477. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  40. ^ a b Christian 2015, p. 283.
  41. ^ O'Connell, J. F.; Allen, J.; Williams, M. A. J.; Williams, A. N.; Turney, C. S. M.; Spooner, N. A.; Kamminga, J.; Brown, G.; Cooper, A. (2018). "When did Homo sapiens first reach Southeast Asia and Sahul?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115 (34): 8482–8490. Bibcode:2018PNAS..115.8482O. doi:10.1073/pnas.1808385115. PMC 6112744. PMID 30082377.
  42. ^ Posth C, Renaud G, Mittnik A, Drucker DG, Rougier H, Cupillard C, et al. (March 2016). "Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in Europe". Current Biology. 26 (6): 827–833. Bibcode:2016CBio...26..827P. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.01.037. hdl:2440/114930. PMID 26853362. S2CID 140098861.
  43. ^ Clarkson C, Jacobs Z, Marwick B, Fullagar R, Wallis L, Smith M, et al. (July 2017). "Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago". Nature. 547 (7663): 306–310. Bibcode:2017Natur.547..306C. doi:10.1038/nature22968. hdl:2440/107043. PMID 28726833. S2CID 205257212.
  44. ^ Bennett, Matthew; et al. (23 September 2021). "Evidence of humans in North America during the Last Glacial Maximum". Science. 373 (6562): 1528–1531. Bibcode:2021Sci...373.1528B. doi:10.1126/science.abg7586. PMID 34554787. S2CID 237616125. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  45. ^ Christian 2015, p. 316. "Dispersal over an unprecedented swath of the globe...coincided with an Ice Age that...spread ice in the northern hemisphere as far south as the present lower courses of the Missouri and Ohio rivers in North America and deep into what are now the British Isles. Ice covered what is today Scandinavia. Most of the rest of what is now Europe was tundra or taiga. In central Eurasia, tundra reached almost to the present latitudes of the Black Sea. Steppe licked the shores of the Mediterranean. In the New World, tundra and taiga extended to where Virginia is today."
  46. ^ Christian 2015, p. 400. "In any case, by the end of the era of climatic fluctuation, humans occupied almost all the habitats their descendants occupy today, with the exception of relatively remote parts of the Pacific, accessible only by high-seas navigation and unsettled, as far as we know, for many millennia more."
  47. ^ Christian 2015, pp. 321, 406, 440–441.
  48. ^ Koch, Paul L.; Barnosky, Anthony D. (1 January 2006). "Late Quaternary Extinctions: State of the Debate". Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 37 (1): 215–250. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132415. S2CID 16590668.
  49. ^ Christian 2015, p. 406.
  50. ^ a b Lewin, Roger (2009) [1984]. Human Evolution: An Illustrated Introduction (5th ed.). Malden, Massachusetts: John Wiley & Sons. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-4051-5614-1. The date of 12,000 years before present (BP) is usually given as the beginning of what has been called the Agricultural (or Neolithic) Revolution...The tremendous changes wrought during the Neolithic can be seen as a prelude to the emergence of cities and city states and, of course, to a further rise in population.
  51. ^ Stephens, Lucas; Fuller, Dorian; Boivin, Nicole; Rick, Torben; Gauthier, Nicolas; Kay, Andrea; Marwick, Ben; Armstrong, Chelsey Geralda; Barton, C. Michael (30 August 2019). "Archaeological assessment reveals Earth's early transformation through land use". Science. 365 (6456): 897–902. Bibcode:2019Sci...365..897S. doi:10.1126/science.aax1192. hdl:10150/634688. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 31467217. S2CID 201674203.
  52. ^ Larson, G.; Piperno, D. R.; Allaby, R. G.; Purugganan, M. D.; Andersson, L.; Arroyo-Kalin, M.; Barton, L.; Climer Vigueira, C.; Denham, T.; Dobney, K.; Doust, A. N.; Gepts, P.; Gilbert, M. T. P.; Gremillion, K. J.; Lucas, L.; Lukens, L.; Marshall, F. B.; Olsen, K. M.; Pires, J.C.; Richerson, P. J.; Rubio De Casas, R.; Sanjur, O.I.; Thomas, M. G.; Fuller, D.Q. (2014). "Current perspectives and the future of domestication studies". PNAS. 111 (17): 6139–6146. Bibcode:2014PNAS..111.6139L. doi:10.1073/pnas.1323964111. PMC 4035915. PMID 24757054.
  53. ^ McNeill 1999, p. 11.
  54. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, pp. 325, 336. "More recent improvements in archaeobotanical recovery have indicated that rice domestication was underway durin...the Hemudu cultural phase in the lower Yangtze valley...This points to a start of cultivation in this region of c. 10,000–9,000 years ago; in the middle Yangtze valley it could have begun someone earlier but may represent a parallel process to the lower has been suggested on the basis of phytolith and starch residue evidence that broomcorn and foxtail millet were already in use in northern China prior to 7000 BCE. Nonetheless, the most abundant macrofossil evidence of broomcorn and foxtail millet is found in association with the early Neolithic sites post-7000 BCE."
  55. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, p. 323.
  56. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, p. 59.
  57. ^ a b c Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 21.
  58. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, p. 265.
  59. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, p. 518. "Arrowroot was the earliest domesticate [in Panama], dating to 7800 BC at the Cueva de los Vampiros site and 5800 BCE at Aguadulce...Plant domestication began before 8500 BCE in southwest coastal Ecuador. Squash phytoliths were recovered from terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene strata at Vegas sites. Phytoliths recovered from the earliest levels are from wild squash, with domesticated size squash phytoliths directly dated to 9840–8555 BCE."
  60. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, p. 85.
  61. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 202.
  62. ^ Adovasio, J. M.; Soffer, Olga; Page, Jake (2007). The Invisible Sex: Uncovering the True Roles of Women in Prehistory. Pymble, NSW: HarperCollins e-books. pp. 243, 257. ISBN 978-0-06-157177-0. OCLC 191804695.
  63. ^ Graeber & Wengrow 2021, "Seen this way, the 'origins of farming' start to look less like an economic transition and more like a media revolution, which was also a social revolution, encompassing everything from horticulture to architecture, mathematics to thermodynamics, and from religion to the remodelling of gender roles. And while we can't know exactly who was doing what in this brave new world, it's abundantly clear that women's work and knowledge were central to its creation; that the whole process was a fairly leisurely, even playful one, not forced by any environmental catastrophe or demographic tipping point and unmarked by major violent conflict. What's more, it was all carried out in ways that made radical inequality an extremely unlikely outcome".
  64. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, p. 218.
  65. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, p. 95.
  66. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, pp. 216–218.
  67. ^ Roberts & Westad 2013, pp. 34–35.
  68. ^ Yoffee 2015, pp. 313, 391.
  69. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, p. 193.
  70. ^ Yoffee 2015, pp. 313–316.
  71. ^ McNeill 1999, p. 13.
  72. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, pp. 161–162, 172–173.
  73. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 99.
  74. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, p. 574.
  75. ^ Radivojevic, M; Rehren, T; Kuzmanovic-Cvetkovic, J; Jovanovic, M; Northover, JP (2013). "Tainted ores and the rise of tin bronzes in Eurasia, c.6500 years ago". Antiquity. 87 (338): 1030–1045. doi:10.1017/S0003598X0004984X.
  76. ^ Headrick 2009, pp. 30–31.
  77. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 19.
  78. ^ Kinzel, Moritz; Clare, Lee (2020). "Monumental – compared to what? A perspective from Göbekli Tepe". In Gebauer, Anne Birgitte; Sørensen, Lasse; Teather, Anne; Valera, António Carlos (eds.). Monumentalising Life in the Neolithic: Narratives of Change and Continuity. Oxford: Oxbow. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-1-78925-495-2. Retrieved 9 September 2022.
  79. ^ a b Barker & Goucher 2015, p. 224.
  80. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, pp. 135, 253–255.
  81. ^ Barker & Goucher 2015, p. 135.
  82. ^ Croucher, Karina (2012). Death and Dying in the Neolithic Near East. Oxford University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-19-969395-5. Retrieved 12 September 2022.
  83. ^ McClellan, James E.; Dorn, Harold (2006). Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-8018-8360-6.
  84. ^ Roberts & Westad 2013, p. 46.
  85. ^ Stearns & Langer 2001, p. 21.
  86. ^ Roberts & Westad 2013, p. 53.
  87. ^ Bard 2000, p. 63.
  88. ^ Roberts & Westad 2013, p. 70.
  89. ^ Graeber & Wengrow 2021, p. 314.
  90. ^ Chakrabarti, Dilip K. (2004). "Introduction". In Chkrabarti, Dilip K. (ed.). Indus Civilization Sites in India: New Discoveries. Mumbai: Marg Publications. pp. 10–13. ISBN 978-81-85026-63-3.
  91. ^ Allchin, Bridget; Allchin, Raymond (1997). Origins of a Civilization: The Prehistory and Early Archaeology of South Asia. New Delhi: Viking. pp. 153–168. ISBN 978-0-670-87713-3.
  92. ^ a b Ropp 2010, p. 2.
  93. ^ Tignor et al. 2014, p. 71.
  94. ^ Ropp 2010, pp. 2–3.
  95. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 23.
  96. ^ Headrick 2009, p. 32.
  97. ^ Roberts & Westad 2013, p. 59.
  98. ^ a b c Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 35.
  99. ^ Roberts & Westad 2013, p. 91.
  100. ^ a b McNeill 1999, p. 16.
  101. ^ McNeill 1999, p. 18.
  102. ^ Johnston, Sarah Iles, ed. (2004). Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 13, 19. ISBN 978-0-674-01517-3.
  103. ^ Roberts & Westad 2013, pp. 43–46.
  104. ^ Yoffee 2015, p. 118.
  105. ^ Regulski, Ilona (2 May 2016). "The Origins and Early Development of Writing in Egypt". Oxford Handbooks Online. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935413.013.61. ISBN 978-0-19-993541-3. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  106. ^ Wengrow, David (2011). "The Invention of Writing in Egypt". Before the Pyramids: Origin of Egyptian Civilization. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. pp. 99–103.
  107. ^ Boltz, William G. (1996). "Early Chinese Writing". In Bright, Peter; Daniels, William (eds.). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 191. ISBN 0-19-507993-0.
  108. ^ Brian M. Fagan, Charlotte Beck, ed. (1996). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford University Press. p. 762. ISBN 978-0-19-507618-9. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  109. ^ Allen, James P. (2007). Manuelian, Peter D. (ed.). The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Society of Biblical Literature. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-58983-678-5.
  110. ^ Tignor et al. 2014, pp. 49, 52.
  111. ^ a b Roberts & Westad 2013, pp. 53–54.
  112. ^ Headrick 2009, p. 33.
  113. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 89.
  114. ^ Abulafia, David (2011). The Great Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean. London: Allen Lane. p. xvii, passim. ISBN 978-0-7139-9934-1.
  115. ^ Tignor et al. 2014, pp. 48–49.
  116. ^ Headrick 2009, p. 31.
  117. ^ Tignor et al. 2014, p. 62.
  118. ^ Graeber & Wengrow 2021, p. 362. "There is no doubt that, in most of the areas that saw the rise of cities, powerful kingdoms and empires also eventually emerged."
  119. ^ Yoffee 2015, p. 257.
  120. ^ Bard 2000, pp. 57–64.
  121. ^ Yoffee 2015, p. 320.
  122. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 46.
  123. ^ Bai, Yunxiang (2003). "A Discussion on Early Metals and the Origins of Bronze Casting in China" (PDF). Chinese Archaeology. 3 (1): 157–165. doi:10.1515/CHAR.2003.3.1.157. S2CID 164920328.{{citation}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  124. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 80.
  125. ^ Yoffee 2015, p. 136.
  126. ^ McNeill 1999, pp. 36–37.
  127. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 56.
  128. ^ McNeill 1999, pp. 46–47.
  129. ^ Price, Simon; Thonemann, Peter (2010). The Birth of Classical Europe: A History from Troy to Augustine. New York: Penguin Books. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-670-02247-2.
  130. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 331.
  131. ^ Roberts & Westad 2013, pp. 116–122.
  132. ^ Graeber & Wengrow 2021, p. 317.
  133. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Delhi: Pearson Education. pp. 260–264. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0.
  134. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 646–647.
  135. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 648.
  136. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 617.
  137. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 563.
  138. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 562.
  139. ^ Shady Solis, Ruth; Haas, Jonathan; Creamer, Winifred (2001). "Dating Caral, a Preceramic Site in the Supe Valley on the Central Coast of Peru". Science. 292 (5517): 723–726. Bibcode:2001Sci...292..723S. doi:10.1126/science.1059519. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 11326098. S2CID 10172918. Retrieved 13 November 2022.
  140. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 564.
  141. ^ Graeber & Wengrow 2021, p. 389.
  142. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 565.
  143. ^ Nichols, Deborah L.; Pool, Christopher A. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology. Oxford University Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-19-999634-6.
  144. ^ Brown 2007, p. 150.
  145. ^ Brown 2007, pp. 150–153.
  146. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 539–540.
  147. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 540–541.
  148. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 101.
  149. ^ Baumard, Nicolas; Hyafil, Alexandre; Boyer, Pascal (25 September 2015). "What changed during the axial age: Cognitive styles or reward systems?". Communicative & Integrative Biology. 8 (5). United States National Library of Medicine: e1046657. doi:10.1080/19420889.2015.1046657. PMC 4802742. PMID 27066164.
  150. ^ McNeill & McNeill 2003, p. 67.
  151. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 665.
  152. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 115.
  153. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 304.
  154. ^ McNeill & McNeill 2003, pp. 73–74.
  155. ^ Short, John R. (1987). An Introduction to Urban Geography. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7102-0372-4. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
  156. ^ Dunn, John (1994). Democracy: the unfinished journey 508 BCE – 1993 CE. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-827934-1.
  157. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 9.
  158. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 439.
  159. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 314.
  160. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 453, 456.
  161. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 467–475.
  162. ^ Stearns & Langer 2001, p. 63.
  163. ^ Stearns & Langer 2001, pp. 70–71.
  164. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 63.
  165. ^ Burbank, Jane (2010). Empires in World History: Power and the Politics of Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-691-12708-8.
  166. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 229, 233.
  167. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 238, 276–277.
  168. ^ Roberts & Westad 2013, p. 110.
  169. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 279.
  170. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 286.
  171. ^ a b Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 248.
  172. ^ Strauss, Barry (2005). The Battle of Salamis: The Naval Encounter That Saved Greece – and Western Civilization. Simon and Schuster. pp. 1–11. ISBN 978-0-7432-7453-1. Archived from the original on 23 June 2022. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
  173. ^ Martin, Thomas (2000) [1996]. Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenic Times (Revised ed.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-0-300-08493-1.
  174. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 353.
  175. ^ Tignor et al. 2014, p. 203.
  176. ^ Burstein, Stanley M. (2017). The World from 1000 BCE to 300 CE. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-0-19-933613-5.
  177. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 283–284.
  178. ^ Hemingway, Colette; Hemingway, Seán (April 2007). "Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition". Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  179. ^ Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (1990). A History of India. Dorset Press. pp. 61, 71. ISBN 0-88029-577-5. At any rate Chandragupta seems to have usurped the throne of Magadha in 320 BC...the last ruler of the Maurya dynasty, Brihadratha, was assassinated by his general, Pushyamitra Shunga, during a parade of his troops in the year 185 BC.
  180. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 488–489.
  181. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 502–505.
  182. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 503–505.
  183. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 187.
  184. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 337–338.
  185. ^ Kelly, Christopher (2007). The Roman Empire: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 4–6. ISBN 978-0-19-280391-7.
  186. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 149, 152–153.
  187. ^ Beard, Mary (2015). SPQR: A History of Ancient Rome. London: Profile Books. p. 483. ISBN 978-1-84668-380-0.
  188. ^ McEvedy, Colin (1961). The Penguin Atlas of Medieval History. Penguin Books.
  189. ^ Williams, Stephen; Friell, Gerard (2005). Theodosius: The Empire at Bay. Routledge. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-135-78262-7. Archived from the original on 30 May 2022. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
  190. ^ a b Benjamin 2015, p. 14.
  191. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 160.
  192. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 143.
  193. ^ Gernet 1996, pp. 119, 121, 126, 130.
  194. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 165, 169.
  195. ^ Gernet 1996, p. 138.
  196. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 144.
  197. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 651–652.
  198. ^ Iliffe 2007, p. 41.
  199. ^ Fagan 2005, pp. 390, 396.
  200. ^ Flannery, Kent V.; Marcus, Joyce (1996). Zapotec Civilization: How Urban Society Evolved in Mexico's Oaxaca Valley. New York: Thames & Hudson. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-500-05078-1.
  201. ^ Whitecotton, Joseph W. (1977). The Zapotecs: Princes, Priests, and Peasants. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 26, LI.1–3.
  202. ^ Coe, Michael D. (2011). The Maya (8th ed.). New York: Thames & Hudson. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-500-28902-0.
  203. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 560.
  204. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 557–558.
  205. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 208.
  206. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 555.
  207. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 204.
  208. ^ a b Benjamin 2015, p. 122.
  209. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 134. "But the impression that no significant technological advances occurred in ancient civilization is misleading. In fact, between the 8th century BCE and the 5th century CE, the Mediterranean world witnessed a series of innovations that would influence the development of civilization."
  210. ^ Kosso, Cynthia; Scott, Anne (2009). The Nature and Function of Water, Baths, Bathing, and Hygiene from Antiquity Through the Renaissance. Brill. p. 51. ISBN 978-9004173576.
  211. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 133.
  212. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 142–143.
  213. ^ Headrick 2009, p. 59. "Toe stirrups were known in India in the second century BCE, and foot stirrups appeared in northern Afghanistan in the first century CE."
  214. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 145.
  215. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 136.
  216. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 80.
  217. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 79–80.
  218. ^ Kent, Susan Kingsley (2020). Gender: a World History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-19-062197-1. Ancient societies ruled themselves according to a system known as patriarchy, or the rule of the father, in which male heads of households and states claimed nearly absolute power over women.
  219. ^ a b Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 170–172.
  220. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 158, 170.
  221. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 10.
  222. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 248, 264.
  223. ^ Stearns & Langer 2001, pp. 95, 99.
  224. ^ Collins 1999, pp. 80–99.
  225. ^ Collins 1999, pp. 100–115.
  226. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 562, 583.
  227. ^ Laiou, Angeliki E.; Morrisson, Cécile (2007). The Byzantine Economy. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 130–131. ISBN 978-0-521-84978-4.
  228. ^ Pounds, Norman John Greville (1979). An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500–1840. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-521-22379-9.
  229. ^ Parry, Ken (2009). Christianity: Religions of the World. Infobase Publishing. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-4381-0639-7.
  230. ^ Parry, Ken (2010). The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. p. 368. ISBN 978-1-4443-3361-9.
  231. ^ Stearns & Langer 2001, pp. 97, 103.
  232. ^ Collins 1999, p. 404.
  233. ^ Loyn, H. R. (1991). "Empire, Holy Roman". In Loyn, H. R. (ed.). The Middle Ages: A Concise Encyclopedia. London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-0-500-27645-7.
  234. ^ Whaley, Joachim (2012). Germany and the Holy Roman Empire. Vol. 1. pp. 17–20.
  235. ^ Johnson, Lonnie R. (1996). Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-19-510071-6.
  236. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 513.
  237. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 165.
  238. ^ a b Benjamin 2015, p. 426. "After China was reunified in 589 by the Sui dynasty (581–618) and suddenly became a looming regional superpower, Silla began exploring even more active ties with China."
  239. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 298.
  240. ^ Lewis, Mark Edward (2009). China's Cosmopolitan Empire: The Tang Dynasty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-674-03306-1.
  241. ^ Stearns, Peter N. (2017). "Periodization in World History: Challenges and Opportunities". In R. Charles Weller (ed.). 21st-Century Narratives of World History: Global and Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Palgrave. p. 96. ISBN 978-3-319-62077-0.
  242. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 348.
  243. ^ a b Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 334.
  244. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 317.
  245. ^ a b Shaw, Stanford (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume I: Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280–1808. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-521-29163-7.
  246. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 215.
  247. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 379, 393.
  248. ^ a b Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 393.
  249. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 297, 336, 339.
  250. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 214.
  251. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 395.
  252. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 205.
  253. ^ a b Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 397.
  254. ^ Hourani 1991, pp. 5, 11. "In the early seventh century a religious movement appeared on the margins of the great empires, those of the Byzantines and Sasanians, which dominated the western half of the world....The Byzantine and Sasanian empires were engaged in long wars, which lasted with intervals from 540 to 629."
  255. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 249–250.
  256. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 385.
  257. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 386.
  258. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 389.
  259. ^ a b Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 255.
  260. ^ a b Benjamin 2015, p. 295.
  261. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 26.
  262. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 149.
  263. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 156–157, 393.
  264. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 393–394.
  265. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 292–93.
  266. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 162, 579.
  267. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 373–374.
  268. ^ Fage & Tordoff 2002, p. 175.
  269. ^ a b Fage & Tordoff 2002, pp. 183, 185.
  270. ^ Robinson, Chase F., ed. (2010). The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 1, The Formation of the Islamic World, Sixth to Eleventh Centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 236. ISBN 978-1-316-18430-1.
  271. ^ a b Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 535.
  272. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 297–298.
  273. ^ a b Ebrey; Walthall; Palais (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-618-13384-0.
  274. ^ Xue 1992, pp. 149–152, 257–264.
  275. ^ Xue 1992, pp. 226–227.
  276. ^ Pillalamarri, Akhilesh (29 October 2017). "Buddhism and Islam in Asia: A Long and Complicated History". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 23 January 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  277. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 251.
  278. ^ Tor, Deborah (2009). "The Islamization of Central Asia in the Sāmānid Era and the Reshaping of the Muslim World". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 72 (2). Cambridge University Press: 279–299. doi:10.1017/S0041977X09000524. JSTOR 40379005. S2CID 153554938.
  279. ^ Ṭabīb, Rashīd al-Dīn; Faḍlallāh, Rašīd-ad-Dīn; Nishapuri, Zahir al-Din; Nīšāpūrī, Ẓahīr-ad-Dīn (2001). Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (ed.). The History of the Seljuq Turks from the Jāmiʻ Al-tawārīkh: An Ilkhanid Adaptation of the Saljūq-nāma of Ẓahīr Al-Dīn Nīshāpūrī. Translated by Luther, Kenneth Allin. Psychology Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-7007-1342-4.
  280. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 247–248.
  281. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 248.
  282. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 354. "He maintained jurisdiction principally in Central Asia and Iran."
  283. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 355. "Despite the political infighting and progressively unstable political situation, Shah Rukh in Herat and Ulugh Beg in Samarkand fostered a cultural and artistic renaissance in the Timurid domains."
  284. ^ Spielvogel, Jackson J. (2016). Western Civilization: A Brief History, Volume I: To 1715 (Cengage Learning ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-305-63347-6.
  285. ^ McNeill, William H. (2010). History of Western Civilization: A Handbook. University of Chicago Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-226-56162-2.
  286. ^ Faltin, Lucia; Melanie J. Wright (2007). The Religious Roots of Contemporary European Identity. A&C Black. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-8264-9482-5.
  287. ^ Hayas, Caltron J.H. (1953). Christianity and Western Civilization. Stanford University Press. p. 2. that certain distinctive features of our Western civilization—the civilization of western Europe and of America—have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo–Christianity, Catholic and Protestant.
  288. ^ Woods, Thomas E.; Canizares, Antonio (2012). How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization (Reprint ed.). Washington, D.C.: Regnery History. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-59698-328-1. Retrieved 8 December 2014. Western civilization owes far more to Catholic Church than most people—Catholic included—often realize. The Church in fact built Western civilization.
  289. ^ Brown 2007, pp. 128, 136.
  290. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 384–385.
  291. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 158.
  292. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 282, 285.
  293. ^ Deanesly, Margaret (2019). "The Carolingian Conquests". A History of Early Medieval Europe. Taylor & Francis. pp. 339–355. doi:10.4324/9780429061530-18. ISBN 978-0-429-06153-0. S2CID 198789183. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  294. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 159.
  295. ^ Bulliet et al. 2011, p. 250.
  296. ^ Brown, Anatolios & Palmer 2009, p. 66.
  297. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 289.
  298. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 280–281.
  299. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 496–497.
  300. ^ Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (1998). A history of eastern Europe: crisis and change. Routledge. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-415-16112-1.
  301. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 293.
  302. ^ Phillips, William (20 December 2017). Critical Readings on Global Slavery. Brill Publishers. pp. 665–698. ISBN 978-90-04-34661-1.
  303. ^ McNeill & McNeill 2003, p. 146.
  304. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 324.
  305. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 335.
  306. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 246–248.
  307. ^ Aberth, John (1 January 2001). "From the Brink of the Apocalypse: Confronting Famine, War, Plague, and Death in the Later Middle Ages". Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  308. ^ Dunham, Will (29 January 2008). "Black death 'discriminated' between victims". ABC Science. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  309. ^ "De-coding the Black Death". BBC. 3 October 2001. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  310. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 60. "Then, in the 1340s, Mongol armies attacked the Black Sea port of Caffa in the Crimean region, and from that point on the infection spread into the Mediterranean, and then north into Europe, reaching Scandinavia within two years, and east and south into the Muslim societies of the eastern Mediterranean and North Africa."
  311. ^ a b McNeill & McNeill 2003, p. 120.
  312. ^ a b Bentley, Jerry H.; Ziegler, Herbert F. (2008). Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past: Volume II From 1500 to the Present (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 595. ISBN 978-0-07-333063-1.
  313. ^ Stearns & Langer 2001, p. 280.
  314. ^ McNeill 1999, pp. 267–268.
  315. ^ McNeill 1999, pp. 319–323.
  316. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 254.
  317. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 658.
  318. ^ Uhlig et al. 2017, p. 108.
  319. ^ Heldman, Marylin; Haile, Getatchew (1987). "WHO IS WHO IN ETHIOPIA'S PAST, PART III: Founders of Ethiopia's Solomonic Dynasty". Northeast African Studies. 9 (1). Michigan State University Press: 1–11. JSTOR 43661131.
  320. ^ Uhlig et al. 2017, p. 111.
  321. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 258, 379, 382, 393.
  322. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 586.
  323. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 245. "By the 14th century, and probably earlier, West Africa was producing and exporting more gold than anywhere else in the world."
  324. ^ Blier, Suzanne Preston (2012). "Art in Ancient Ife, Birthplace of the Yoruba" (PDF). African Arts. 45 (4): 70–85. doi:10.1162/afar_a_00029. S2CID 18837520.
  325. ^ Fage & Tordoff 2002, p. 102.
  326. ^ Fage & Tordoff 2002, pp. 99–100.
  327. ^ "Igbo-Ukwu Bronze Statuette". Valparaiso University. Archived from the original on 17 September 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  328. ^ "Architecture of Akan Societies". Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  329. ^ Iliffe 2007, p. 82.
  330. ^ Fage & Tordoff 2002, p. 132.
  331. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 258.
  332. ^ Fage & Tordoff 2002, pp. 130–131.
  333. ^ Iliffe 2007, pp. 104–105.
  334. ^ a b Fage & Tordoff 2002, pp. 123–125.
  335. ^ Diamond 1997, p. 50.
  336. ^ a b Diamond 1997, p. 397.
  337. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 234.
  338. ^ Pierron, Denis; Heiske, Margit; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Rakoto, Ignace; Rabetokotany, Nelly; Ravololomanga, Bodo; Rakotozafy, Lucien M.-A.; Rakotomalala, Mireille Mialy; Razafiarivony, Michel; Rasoarifetra, Bako; Raharijesy, Miakabola Andriamampianina (8 August 2017). "Genomic landscape of human diversity across Madagascar". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (32): E6498–E6506. Bibcode:2017PNAS..114E6498P. doi:10.1073/pnas.1704906114. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5559028. PMID 28716916.
  339. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 189–90.
  340. ^ Keay 2000, p. 192.
  341. ^ Keay 2000, pp. 168, 214–15, 251.
  342. ^ Keay 2000, pp. 169, 213, 215.
  343. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 169.
  344. ^ Lewis 2009, p. 1.
  345. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 453.
  346. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 118.
  347. ^ Whitfield, Susan (2004). The Silk Road: Trade, Travel, War, and Faith. Serendia Publications, Inc. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-932476-13-2.
  348. ^ Lorge, Peter (2015). The Reunification of China: Peace through War under the Song Dynasty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-1-107-08475-9.
  349. ^ a b Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 532.
  350. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 528, 534.
  351. ^ Henshall 1999, pp. 11–12.
  352. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 426, 428–430, 454–5.
  353. ^ Totman, Conrad (2002). A History of Japan. Blackwell. pp. 64–79. ISBN 978-1-4051-2359-4.
  354. ^ Henshall, Kenneth (2012). A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower (3rd ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 24–52. ISBN 978-0-230-36918-4.
  355. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 316–317.
  356. ^ Huffman, James (2010). Japan in World History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 29, 35. ISBN 978-0-19-536808-6.
  357. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 346–347.
  358. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 485.
  359. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 720. "In Japan the emperor was revered but had no power."
  360. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 222.
  361. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 517–518.
  362. ^ Ackerman, Marsha E.; et al., eds. (2008). "Three Kingdoms, Korea". Encyclopedia of world history. New York: Facts on File. p. 464. ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4.
  363. ^ 남북국시대 [North-South States Period]. Encyclopedia (in Korean). Naver. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  364. ^ The Association of Korean History Teachers (2005). Korea through the ages; Volume One: Ancient. Seongnam-si: The Center for Information on Korean Culture, The Academy of Korean Studies. p. 113. ISBN 978-89-7105-545-8.
  365. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, p. 345.
  366. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 550.
  367. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 534–5.
  368. ^ Stearns & Langer 2001, p. 153.
  369. ^ Lieberman 2003, pp. 216–217.
  370. ^ Lieberman 2003, pp. 216–17.
  371. ^ Evans, Damian; et al. (2007). "A comprehensive archaeological map of the world's largest pre-industrial settlement complex at Angkor, Cambodia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (36): 14279. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10414277E. doi:10.1073/pnas.0702525104. PMC 1964867. PMID 17717084. The 'boundary' of the urban complex of Angkor, as it can be loosely defined from the infrastructural network, encloses ~900–1,000 km2 compared with the ~100–150 km2 of Tikal, the next largest preindustrial low-density city for which we have an overall survey. Mirador, a Pre-Classic Maya urban complex, and Calakmul, a Classic site near Tikal, may be more extensive, but as yet we do not have comprehensive overall surveys for these sites; it is nonetheless clear that no site in the Maya world approaches Angkor in terms of extent.
  372. ^ Lieberman 2003, p. 219.
  373. ^ Lieberman 2003, pp. 244–245.
  374. ^ Lieberman 2003, p. 91.
  375. ^ Lieberman 2003, pp. 149–150.
  376. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 240.
  377. ^ Lieberman 2003, p. 350.
  378. ^ Lieberman 2003, p. 235.
  379. ^ Taylor, Keith (1976). "The Rise of Đại Việt and the Establishment of Thăng-long". In Hall, Kenneth R.; Whitmore, John K. (eds.). Explorations in Early Southeast Asian History: The Origins of Southeast Asian Statecraft. University of Michigan Press. p. 159. doi:10.3998/mpub.19404. ISBN 978-0-89148-011-2. JSTOR 10.3998/mpub.19404. S2CID 237194486. Archived from the original on 21 February 2023. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  380. ^ Lieberman 2003, p. 243.
  381. ^ Anthony, Reid (2015). A History of Southeast Asia: Critical Crossroads. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-631-17961-0.
  382. ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans. Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. p. 225. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1. However that may be, various texts agree that the solemn coronation of Fa Ngum, which marks the founding of the kingdom of Lan Chang, took place in 1353; this date has most probably been transmitted correctly.
  383. ^ Lieberman 2003, p. 125. "In the heart of the dry zone, near the juncture of the Irrawaddy with the famed granary of Kyaukse, Ava was founded in 1365."
  384. ^ Ricklefs, M. C. (2001). A history of modern Indonesia since c. 1200. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-8047-4479-9. The first evidence of Indonesian Muslims concerns the northern part of Sumatra. In the graveyard of Lamreh is found the gravestone of Sultan Suleiman bin Abdullah bin al-Basir, who died in AH 608/AD 1211. This is the first evidence of the existence of an Islamic kingdom in Indonesia.
  385. ^ Andaya, Barbara Watson; Andaya, Leonard (2015). A History of Early Modern Southeast Asia, 1400–1830. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 100, 109. ISBN 978-0-521-88992-6.
  386. ^ Abinales, Patricio N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2017). State and Society in the Philippines. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-5381-0395-1.
  387. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 621–22.
  388. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 406–07.
  389. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 622.
  390. ^ Burley, David V. (1998). "Tongan Archaeology and the Tongan Past, 2850–150 B.P.". Journal of World Prehistory. 12 (3): 368–9, 375. doi:10.1023/A:1022322303769. ISSN 1573-7802. JSTOR 25801130. S2CID 160340278.
  391. ^ Kirch, Patrick Vinton; Green, Roger C. (2001). Hawaiki, ancestral Polynesia: an essay in historical anthropology. Cambridge University press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-521-78879-3.
  392. ^ Geraghty, Paul (1994). "Linguistic evidence for the Tongan empire". In Dutton, Tom (ed.). Language contact and change in the Austronesian world. Trends in linguistics: Studies and monographs. Vol. 77. Berlin: Gruyter. pp. 236–239. ISBN 978-3-11-012786-7.
  393. ^ MacKnight, C. C. (1986). "Macassans and the Aboriginal past". Archaeology in Oceania. 21: 69–75. doi:10.1002/j.1834-4453.1986.tb00126.x.
  394. ^ a b Ioannidis, Alexander G.; Blanco-Portillo, Javier; Sandoval, Karla; Hagelberg, Erika; Miquel-Poblete, Juan Francisco; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Juan Esteban; Quinto-Cortés, Consuelo D.; Auckland, Kathryn; Parks, Tom; Robson, Kathryn (8 July 2020). "Native American gene flow into Polynesia predating Easter Island settlement". Nature. 583 (7817): 572–577. Bibcode:2020Natur.583..572I. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2487-2. ISSN 0028-0836. PMC 8939867. PMID 32641827. S2CID 220420232.
  395. ^ Wade, Lizzie (8 July 2020). "Polynesians steering by the stars met Native Americans long before Europeans arrived". Science. Archived from the original on 17 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  396. ^ Benjamin 2015, p. 625.
  397. ^ Flenley & Bahn 2003, p. 109. "From the islanders' testimony and other Polynesian ethnography it is virtually certain that the statues represented high-ranking ancestors, often served as their funerary monument, and kept their memory alive–like the simple upright slabs in front of platforms in the Society Islands, which represented clan ancestors, or the statues dominating the terraces of sanctuaries in the Marquesas, which were famous old chiefs or priests."
  398. ^ Flenley & Bahn 2003, p. 150.
  399. ^ Flenley & Bahn 2003, pp. 187–8.
  400. ^ Benjamin 2015, pp. 546–547.
  401. ^ Yoffee 2015, p. 437.
  402. ^ Fagan 2005, p. 35.
  403. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 205, 208.
  404. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 622.
  405. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 638.
  406. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, pp. 644, 658.
  407. ^ de Vries, Jan (14 September 2009). "The limits of globalization in the early modern world". The Economic History Review. 63 (3): 710–733. CiteSeerX doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.2009.00497.x. JSTOR 40929823. S2CID 219969360. SSRN 1635517.
  408. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 449.
  409. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 436.
  410. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 455.
  411. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 16.
  412. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 192. "The Italian city-states developed business procedures that have been described as early capitalism, although this was already business as usual in Asian port-cities such as Cambay, Calicut and Zayton."
  413. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, pp. 448, 460, 501.
  414. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015b, pp. 276–277.
  415. ^ a b Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 194.
  416. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015b, p. 103.
  417. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015b, pp. 103, 126–127.
  418. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 38.
  419. ^ Christian 2011, p. 383. "Because such crops flourished where more familiar staples grew less well, American crops effectively increased the area under cultivation and thereby made possible population growth in many parts of Afro-Eurasia from the 16th century onward."
  420. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 417.
  421. ^ Axworthy 2008, p. 121.
  422. ^ Axworthy 2008, p. 171.
  423. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 469. "Having determined to build a distinctive Iranian, Shi'a identity for their empire, the Safavids forced the conversion of all Muslims in their territory to Shi'ism."
  424. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 456. "In the Middle East, Central Asia and India, the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires adopted firearms so enthusiastically that they are often referred to as 'gunpowder empires.'"
  425. ^ Fage & Tordoff 2002, pp. 176–177.
  426. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 626. "In the region of the Caucasus Mountains, the third area of southward expansion, Russia first took over Christian Georgia (1786), Muslim Azerbaijan (1801), and Christian Armenia (1813) before gobbling up the many small principalities in the heart of the mountains."
  427. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 358. "Political and military instability, succession disputes and conflicts with the Türkmen and Uzbeks vitiated these remarkable economic achievements, weakening the Timurids and making them vulnerable to the previously nomadic Uzbeks, who became the dominant force in Central Asia from the sixteenth to the early nineteenth century."
  428. ^ Carter, Tim; Butt, John, eds. (2005). The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Music: Volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-79273-8. Historians of different kinds will often make some choice between a long Renaissance (say, 1300–1600), a short one (1453–1527), or somewhere in between (the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, as is commonly adopted in music histories).
  429. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 363, 368.
  430. ^ Tignor et al. 2014, pp. 426–427.
  431. ^ Roberts & Westad 2013, pp. 683–685.
  432. ^ a b Bulliet et al. 2015a, pp. 365–8.
  433. ^ a b Headrick 2009, p. 85.
  434. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015b, pp. 338–339, 345.
  435. ^ Clarke, Peter B.; Beyer, Peter (2009). The World's Religions: Continuities and Transformations. Taylor & Francis. p. 510. ISBN 978-1-135-21100-4.
  436. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 165.
  437. ^ a b Davies, Norman (2005). God's Playground: A History of Poland. Vol. 1: The Origins to 1795. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 313, 386. ISBN 978-0-19-925339-5.
  438. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 455. "As a result, the major European nations were nearly always at war somewhere."
  439. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 454. "From 1500 to 1650, European wars mainly pitted kingdoms – usually of different religions (Protestant or Catholic), but not always – against each other for control of territory or naval domination."
  440. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015b, pp. 41, 44, 47, 343.
  441. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 529. "The French Revolution ended in the rule of Napoleon in 1799, and his attempts to conquer Europe began in 1803."
  442. ^ a b Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 512.
  443. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 537.
  444. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 323.
  445. ^ Meyerowitz, Eva L. R. (1975). The Early History of the Akan States of Ghana. Red Candle Press. ISBN 978-0-608-39035-2.
  446. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 260.
  447. ^ Fage & Tordoff 2002, p. 133.
  448. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 261.
  449. ^ Njoku, Raphael Chijioke (2013). The History of Somalia. Santa Barbara: Greenwood. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-313-37857-7.
  450. ^ Trimmingham, John Spencer (1952). Islam in Ethiopia. London: Frank Cass and Company. pp. 87, 89–90. ISBN 0-7146-1731-8.
  451. ^ Uhlig et al. 2017, pp. 117, 121.
  452. ^ Fage & Tordoff 2002, pp. 101, 285.
  453. ^ Fage & Tordoff 2002, p. 277.
  454. ^ Fage & Tordoff 2002, pp. 134–135.
  455. ^ Stein, Burton (2010). A History of India. John Wiley & Sons. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-4443-2351-1.
  456. ^ La l, Vinay (2001). "The Mughal Empire". Manas: India and its Neighbors. University of California, Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 30 April 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  457. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 529.
  458. ^ Wolpert 1997, p. 115.
  459. ^ Osborne, Eric W. (3 July 2020). "The Ulcer of the Mughal Empire: Mughals and Marathas, 1680–1707". Small Wars & Insurgencies. 31 (5): 992, 1005. doi:10.1080/09592318.2020.1764711. ISSN 0959-2318. S2CID 221060782.
  460. ^ Wolpert 1997, pp. 204, 238–240.
  461. ^ Singh, Patwant (2000). The Sikhs. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 17. ISBN 0-375-40728-6.
  462. ^ Keay 2000, pp. 410–11, 420. "This brought the British into potential conflict with Ranjit Singh, a young Sikh leader who had been prominent in repulsing Afghan attacks by Ahmed Shah Abdali's successors and who, since occupying Lahore in 1799, had been pursuing a policy of conquest and alliance that mirrored that of the British...over the next 30 years the Raja of Lahore, comparatively free of British interference, would blossom into the Maharaja of the Panjab, creator of the most formidable non-colonial state in India...Ranjit had by 1830 created a kingdom, nay an 'empire', rated by one visitor 'the most wonderful object in the whole world'."
  463. ^ Keay 2000, p. 425.
  464. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 116.
  465. ^ McNeill & McNeill 2003, p. 247.
  466. ^ Henshall 1999, pp. 41, 49, 60, 66.
  467. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, pp. 545–546, 550.
  468. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, pp. 541, 544.
  469. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, pp. 554–555, 704.
  470. ^ Yoffee 2015, p. 74. "When the Portuguese admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque conquered the sultanate of Melaka (Malacca) on August 24, 1511, he brought under Portuguese control a Southeast Asian polity whose reach stretched across the Malay peninsula."
  471. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015b, p. 257. "As of about 1500, the power in this region, and the main enemy of the Estado da Índia, was the sultanate of Johor."
  472. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, pp. 200, 276, 381–382.
  473. ^ a b c McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 336.
  474. ^ a b Paine, Lincoln P. (2013). The Sea and Civilization: A Maritime History of the World. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 402–403. ISBN 978-1-4000-4409-2.
  475. ^ Serle, Percival (1949). "Tasman, Abel". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.
  476. ^ Siler, Julia Flynn (2012). Lost Kingdom: Hawaii's Last Queen, the Sugar Kings, and America's First Imperial Adventure. New York: Grove/Atlantic, Inc. p. xxii. ISBN 978-0-8021-9488-6.
  477. ^ Matsuda, Matt (2012). Pacific Worlds: A History of Seas, Peoples, and Cultures. Cambridge University Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-521-88763-2.
  478. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 212.
  479. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, pp. 39, 66.
  480. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 475.
  481. ^ a b Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015a, p. 277.
  482. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015b, p. 227.
  483. ^ Bentley, Subrahmanyam & Wiesner-Hanks 2015b, pp. 216, 229.
  484. ^ Wheeler, Mary E. (1971). "Empires in Conflict and Cooperation: The "Bostonians" and the Russian-American Company". Pacific Historical Review. 40 (4): 441. doi:10.2307/3637703. JSTOR 3637703. This view overlooks the fact that, in the forty years since Shelikhov had founded the first permanent settlement on Kodiak Island in 1784, only eight additional settlements had been established, none of which was south of 57° north latitude.
  485. ^ Black, Lydia T. (2004). Russians in Alaska, 1732–1867. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-1-889963-05-1. The winter was spent preparing timbers and preparing the site, and Settlement Ross was founded in June 1812.
  486. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 482. "The peace agreement forced France to yield Canada to the English and cede Louisiana to Spain."
  487. ^ Tindall & Shi 2010, pp. 219, 254.
  488. ^ Tindall & Shi 2010, p. 352.
  489. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 562. "Manchester's rise as a large, industrial city was a result of what historians call the Industrial Revolution, the most profound transformation in human life since the beginnings of agriculture."
  490. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 137.
  491. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, pp. 584–5.
  492. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, p. 490.
  493. ^ Babones, Salvatore (2008). "Studying Globalization: Methodological Issues". In Ritzer, George (ed.). The Blackwell Companion to Globalization. Malden: John Wiley & Sons. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-470-76642-2. OCLC 232611725.
  494. ^ O'Rourke, Kevin H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G. (2002). "When Did Globalization Begin?". European Review of Economic History. 6 (1): 23–50. doi:10.1017/S1361491602000023. S2CID 15767303.
  495. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, pp. 529, 532.
  496. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 563. "The first countries to industrialize grew rich and powerful, facilitating a second great wave of European imperialism in the 19th century."
  497. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, pp. 532, 676–8, 692.
  498. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 448.
  499. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 562.
  500. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 532.
  501. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, pp. 306, 310–311.
  502. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 312.
  503. ^ Huntington, Samuel P. (1991). The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late 20th Century. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-8061-8604-7.
  504. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, p. 112.
  505. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 390–92.
  506. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, pp. 370, 386, 388, 390–91.
  507. ^ Meyer-Fong, Tobie S. (2013). What Remains: Coming to Terms with Civil War in 19th Century China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-8047-5425-5.
  508. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, pp. 390, 623.
  509. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, pp. 600, 602.
  510. ^ Landes, David S. (1969). The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-521-07200-7.
  511. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 80.
  512. ^ Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015, p. 206. "The half-century preceding the outbreak of World War I stands out as an era of European economic, political, and cultural dominance never achieved before and impossible to sustain at the end of the war."
  513. ^ a b McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, pp. 313–314.
  514. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 306.
  515. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, p. 308.
  516. ^ Schoppa 2021, p. 25.
  517. ^ Suny, Ronald Grigor (2015). "They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else": A History of the Armenian Genocide. Princeton University Press. pp. 245, 330. ISBN 978-1-4008-6558-1.
  518. ^ Bozarslan, Hamit [in French]; Duclert, Vincent [in French]; Kévorkian, Raymond H. (2015). Comprendre le Génocide des Arméniens—1915 à nos Jours [Understanding the Armenian Genocide: 1915 to the Present Day] (in French). Tallandier. p. 187. ISBN 979-10-210-0681-2.
  519. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, pp. 246–247.
  520. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 450.
  521. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 452.
  522. ^ Schoppa 2021, pp. 159–160n.
  523. ^ Schoppa 2021, p. 35.
  524. ^ Schoppa 2021, p. 95.
  525. ^ Christian 2011, p. 448.
  526. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, pp. 301–302, 312.
  527. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, p. 312.
  528. ^ Sainsbury, Keith (1986). The Turning Point: Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek, 1943: The Moscow, Cairo, and Teheran Conferences. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-19-285172-7.
  529. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, pp. 423–424.
  530. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, pp. 507–508. "Indeed, Japan's China war between 1931 and 1945 exacted the heaviest toll in lives of all colonial wars – between 10 and 30 million Chinese deaths being the best estimates available in the absence of official or authoritative statistics."
  531. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, p. 319.
  532. ^ Fasulo, Linda (2015). An Insider's Guide to the UN (3rd ed.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0-300-20365-3.
  533. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 324.
  534. ^ Dinan, Desmond (2004). Europe Recast: a History of European Union. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. xiii, 8–9. ISBN 0-333-98734-9.
  535. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, pp. 319, 451.
  536. ^ Acheson, Dean (1969). Present at the Creation, (New York: W. W. Norton).
  537. ^ Kennedy, Paul (1987). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. New York: Random House. p. 357. ISBN 978-0-394-54674-2.
  538. ^ Bulliet et al. 2015b, p. 817.
  539. ^ Allison 2018, p. 126.
  540. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, pp. 321, 330.
  541. ^ Allison 2018, pp. 127–128.
  542. ^ Stevenson, Tom (22 October 2020). "In the Grey Zone". London Review of Books. Vol. 42, no. 20. pp. 41–43. Archived from the original on 29 July 2022. Retrieved 24 July 2022.
  543. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, p. 342.
  544. ^ Christian 2011, pp. 456–457. "The collapse of the Soviet Union was, as Mikhail Gorbachev understood, a failure to compete economically and technologically."
  545. ^ a b Scranton, Philip (2006). "Urgency, uncertainty, and innovation: Building jet engines in postwar America". Management & Organizational History. 1 (2): 131. doi:10.1177/1744935906064096. ISSN 1744-9359. S2CID 143813033. Archived from the original on 12 September 2022. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  546. ^ Wolfe, Audra J. (2013). Competing with the Soviets: Science, Technology, and the State in Cold War America. JHU Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-4214-0901-6.
  547. ^ Naughton 2016, p. 7.
  548. ^ a b McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, p. 195.
  549. ^ Easton, Richard D. (2013). GPS Declassified. Potomac Books. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-61234-408-9.
  550. ^ Naughton 2016, p. 14.
  551. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, pp. 195–196.
  552. ^ Pääbo, Svante (2003). "The mosaic that is our genome". In Clayton, Julie; Dennis, Carina (eds.). 50 Years of DNA. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-4039-1479-8.
  553. ^ Pettersson E, Lundeberg J, Ahmadian A (February 2009). "Generations of sequencing technologies". Genomics. 93 (2): 105–111. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.10.003. PMID 18992322.
  554. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 258.
  555. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 91.
  556. ^ a b McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, p. 200.
  557. ^ Gleick, James (15 August 2019). "Moon Fever". The New York Review of Books. Vol. LXVI, no. 13. Archived from the original on 1 July 2022. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  558. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, p. 198.
  559. ^ Nyenah, Emmanuel; Sterl, Sebastian; Thiery, Wim (1 May 2022). "Pieces of a puzzle: solar-wind power synergies on seasonal and diurnal timescales tend to be excellent worldwide". Environmental Research Communications. 4 (5): 055011. Bibcode:2022ERCom...4e5011N. doi:10.1088/2515-7620/ac71fb. ISSN 2515-7620. S2CID 249227821.
  560. ^ Christian 2011, p. 442.
  561. ^ Christian 2011, pp. 442, 446.
  562. ^ "Ending Mass Poverty" by Ian Vásquez, Cato Institute, 4 September 2001
  563. ^ Christian 2011, p. 449.
  564. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, pp. 459–460.
  565. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 629.
  566. ^ Abernethy, David B. (2000). The Dynamics of Global Dominance: European Overseas Empires, 1415–1980. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-300-09314-8.
  567. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, pp. 578–579.
  568. ^ Schoppa 2021, p. 111.
  569. ^ Schoppa 2021, pp. 140–141.
  570. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, pp. 550–551.
  571. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015b, pp. 547–550.
  572. ^ Friedman, Thomas (2007). The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (Further Updated and Expanded ed.). New York: Picador. pp. 137–138, passim. ISBN 978-0-312-42507-4.
  573. ^ McNeill & Pomeranz 2015a, p. 609. "But the crisis beginning in 2007, with the eddying effects of the subprime lending-induced financial crash, demonstrated how vital the health of the American economy remained for global growth and stability. Events and processes outside the United States continued to affect the internal politics and economics, and vice versa. The United States and the rest of the world were interconnected, and disengagement was impossible."
  574. ^ "Large, creative AI models will transform lives and labour markets". The Economist. 22 April 2023. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 13 December 2023.
  575. ^ Roivainen, Eka, "AI's IQ: ChatGPT aced a [standard intelligence] test but showed that intelligence cannot be measured by IQ alone", Scientific American, vol. 329, no. 1 (July/August 2023), p. 7.
  576. ^ Casselman, Ben (22 February 2022). "Pandemic's Economic Impact Is Easing, but Aftershocks May Linger". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 May 2023. Retrieved 11 May 2023.
  577. ^ Howe, D. C.; Chauhan, R. S.; Soderberg, A. T.; Buckley, M. R. (2020). "Paradigm shifts caused by the COVID-19 pandemic". Organizational Dynamics. 50 (4). doi:10.1016/j.orgdyn.2020.100804. PMC 7648497. PMID 33191959.
  578. ^ Armstrong McKay, David I.; et al. (9 September 2022). "Exceeding 1.5 °C Global Warming Could Trigger Multiple Climate Tipping Points". Science. 377 (6611): eabn7950. doi:10.1126/science.abn7950. hdl:10871/131584. PMID 36074831. S2CID 252161375.
  579. ^ Kolbert, Elizabeth (27 February 2023). "Phosphorus Saved Our Way of Life—and Now Threatens to End It". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 18 November 2023. [T]he world's phosphorus problem [arising from the element's exorbitant use in agriculture] resembles its carbon-dioxide problem, its plastics problem, its groundwater-use problem, its soil-erosion problem, and its nitrogen problem. The path humanity is on may lead to ruin, but, as of yet, no one has found a workable way back.
  580. ^ Kolbert, Elizabeth (2014). The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History. Henry Holt and Company. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-8050-9979-9.
  581. ^ Oreskes, Naomi (1 February 2022). "New Nuclear Power Plants Are Unlikely to Stop the Climate Crisis". Scientific American. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  582. ^ "Progress on climate change has been too slow. But it's been real". The Economist. 23 November 2023. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2 December 2023.
  583. ^ Ritchie, Hannah, "What We Learned from Acid Rain: By working together, the nations of the world can solve climate change", Scientific American, vol. 330, no. 1 (January 2024), pp. 75–76.