Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Template documentation[view] [edit] [history] [purge]

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used. As with other citation templates, this template can be used either in a footnote (between <ref>...</ref> tags) or in a section that lists sources. This template uses the same Lua code as citation style 1 (CS1) templates with parameters to change the displayed format to citation style 2 (CS2).

If the correct parameters are used, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}, with one important exception: By default, this Citation template uses commas in places where the Cite templates use periods (full stops) by default; either type of template can use periods (full stops) or commas by using an optional parameter. Also, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates by default do not (although they can be made to do so).

Regardless of which citation templates are used or even if none are used at all, all citations should have the same format throughout an article in the saved, rendered text.

Note: All parameter names must be lowercase.

Simple citations

This section covers the most commonly used parameters. You can copy the horizontal form or vertical form below and then add in extra parameters from the full list. Spacing and ordering of the parameters within the template is irrelevant and does not affect the final, rendered text.

{{Citation |last= |first= |year= |title= |publisher= |publication-place= |page= |url= |accessdate= }}

{{Citation
| last       =
| first      =
| year       =
| title      =
| publisher  =
| publication-place =
| page       =
| url        =
| accessdate =
}}
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with the author parameter.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press. Not normally included where the publication is a periodical which has its own Wikipedia article (e.g. Newsweek, Billboard).
    • publication-place (or place or location): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. Omit when the publication is a periodical whose name specifies the location (e.g. The New York Times, The Times of India)
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: A url of an online location where the item can be found. If the url includes double quotes, these must be encoded as "%22".
    • accessdate: Date[n 1] when the url was accessed.

Example

{{Citation
| last      = Turner
| first     = Orsamus
| title     = History of the pioneer settlement of
Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve
| publisher = William Alling
| place     = Rochester, New York
| year      = 1851
| ol        = 7120924W
}}
Turner, Orsamus (1851), History of the pioneer settlement of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, OL 7120924W 

Full citation parameters

These can be used for all types of publication except patents. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items — these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

{{Citation
| author  =
| last    =
| first   =
| author2 =
| last2   =
| first2  =
| author-link  =
| author2-link =
| author-separator =
| author-name-separator =
| author-mask =
| display-authors =
| editor        =
| editor-last   =
| editor-first  =
| editor2       =
| editor2-last  =
| editor2-first =
| editor-link   =
| editor2-link  =
| translator-last =
| translator-first =
| translator-link = 
| translator2-last =
| translator2-first =
| translator2-link =
| others   =
| publication-date =
| date     =
| year     =
| origyear =
| title    =
| chapter  =
| chapter-url  =
| chapter-format  =
| contribution =
| contribution-url =
| type    =
| journal =
| periodical =
| newspaper  =
| magazine   =
| work =
| edition =
| series  =
| volume  =
| issue   =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| place    =
| language =
| page  =
| pages =
| nopp  =
| at   =
| id   =
| isbn =
| issn =
| oclc =
| pmid =
| pmc  =
| bibcode =
| doi =
| doi_inactivedate =
| zbl =
| url =
| accessdate  =
| format      =
| archiveurl  =
| archivedate =
| dead-url    =
| quote      =
| layurl =
| laysource  =
| laydate    =
| separator  =
| postscript =
| ref =
}}

Parameters

Syntax

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a comma (,).

COinS

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be included raw in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example &nbsp;, &ndash;, etc, should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata. Do not include Wiki markup '' (italic font) or ''' (bold font) because these markup characters will contaminate the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters
  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |contribution=, |entry=, |article=, |section=
  • |title=
  • |publication-place=, |publicationplace=, |place=, |location=
  • |date=, |year=, |publication-date=, |publicationdate=
  • |series=, |version=
  • |volume=
  • |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |distributor=, |institution=
  • |url=
  • |chapter-url=, |chapterurl=, |contribution-url=, |contributionurl=, |section-url=, |sectionurl=
  • |author#=, |author-last#=, |author#-last=, |last#=, |surname#=
  • |author-first#=, |author#-first=, |first#=, |given#=
  • any of the named identifiers (|isbn=, |issn=, |doi=, |pmc=, etc)

Deprecated

None of the cs1|2 parameters is deprecated.

Description

Authors

  • last: Surname of a single author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors or authors for whom only one name is listed by the source, use last or one of its aliases (e.g. |author=Bono). Aliases: surname, author, last1, surname1, author1.
    • author: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single author (first and last) or to hold the name of a corporate author. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one author.
    • first: Given or first names of author; for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: given, first1, given1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each firstn requires a corresponding lastn). See the display parameters to change how many authors are displayed. Aliases: surname1, given1 through surnamen, givenn, or author1 through authorn. For an individual author plus an institutional author, you can use |first1=...|last1=...|author2=....
    • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: author-link1, authorlink, authorlink1, author1-link, author1link.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use author-link1 through author-linkn. Aliases: authorlink1 through authorlinkn, or author1-link through authorn-link, or author1link through authornlink.
    • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to vanc and when the list uses last/first parameters for the name list(s).
  • vauthors: comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses:
    |vauthors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corporation))
    • author-link and author-mask may be used for the individual names in |vauthors= as described above
  • authors: Free-form list of author names; use of this parameter is discouraged because it does not contribute to a citation's metadata; not an alias of last.
  • contributor-last: Surname of contributor. Do not wikilink—use contributor-link instead. For book cites only, requires contribution; used primarily to cite afterword, foreword, introduction, or preface to author's work. Aliases: contributor-surname, contributor1, contributor1-last, contributor-last1.
    • contributor-first: Given or first names of contributor. Do not wikilink—use contributor-link instead. Aliases: contributor-given, contributor1-first, contributor-first1.
    • OR: for multiple contributors, use contributor-last1, contributor-first1 through contributor-lastn, contributor-firstn where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of contributors (each contributor-firstn requires a corresponding contributor-lastn). Aliases: contributor1-last, contributor1-first through contributorn-last, contributorn-first, or contributor1 through contributorn.
    • contributor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the contributor—not the contributor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: contributor-link1, contributor1-link.
    • OR: for multiple contributors, use contributor-link1 through contributor-linkn. Aliases: contributor1-link through contributorn-link.
  • translator-last: Surname of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-surname, translator1, translator1-last, translator-last1.
    • translator-first: Given or first names of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-given, translator1-first, translator-first1.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-last1, translator-first1 through translator-lastn, translator-firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of translators (each translator-firstn requires a corresponding translator-lastn). Aliases: translator1-last, translator1-first through translatorn-last, translatorn-first, or translator1 through translatorn.
    • translator-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator—not the translator's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: translator-link1, translator1-link.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-link1 through translator-linkn. Aliases: translator1-link through translatorn-link.
  • collaboration: Name of a group of authors or collaborators; requires author, last, or vauthors listing one or more primary authors; follows author name-list; appends "et al." to author name-list.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, including illustrators. For the parameter value, write Illustrated by John Smith.
  • Note: When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field, or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Editors

  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor-last1, editor1-last, editor-surname, editor-surname1, editor1-surname, editor, editor1.
    • editor: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single editor (first and last). This parameter should never hold the names of more than one editor.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor-first1, editor1-first, editor-given, editor-given1, editor1-given.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-last1, editor-first1 through editor-lastn, editor-firstn (Aliases: editorn-last, editor-surnamen or editorn-surname; editorn-first, editor-givenn or editorn-given; editorn). For an individual editor plus an institutional editor, you can use |editor-first1=...|editor-last1=...|editor2=....
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor-link1.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-link1 through editor-linkn (alias editorn-link).
  • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to vanc and when the list uses last/first parameters for the name list(s)
  • veditors: comma separated list of editor names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional names in doubled parentheses:
    |veditors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corporation))
  • editor-linkn and editor-maskn may be used for the individual names in |veditors=, as described above
  • editors: Free-form list of editor names; use of this parameter is discouraged; not an alias of editor-last
Display:
Use display-editors to control the length of the displayed editor name list and to specify when "et al." is included.
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."

Title

(See also Help:Citation Style 1 §Titles and chapters.)

  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in italics. If script-title is defined, title holds romanized transliteration of title in script-title.
    • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc); not italicized, follows italicized transliteration defined in title. May be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |title=Tōkyō tawā |script-title=ja:東京タワー |trans-title=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will not display and link correctly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; {{!}} (preferred)
{{bracket|text}} &#124; or {{pipe}}see also Help:Table § Rendering the pipe
  • title-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the source named in title – do not use a web address; do not wikilink. Alias: titlelink.
  • chapter: The chapter heading of the source. May be wikilinked or may use chapter-url, but not both. Displays in quotes.
    • script-chapter: Chapter heading for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc); follows transliteration defined in chapter. Should be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |chapter=Tōkyō tawā |script-chapter=ja:東京タワー |trans-chapter=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-chapter: English translation of the chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after the chapter field; if chapter-url is defined, then trans-chapter is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, CD liner, Press release. Alias: medium.
  • language: The language in which the source is written. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name or names. Use the full language name or ISO 639-1 code. When the source uses more than one language, list them individually, separated by commas, e.g. |language=French, German. The use of language names or language codes recognized by Wikimedia adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of Category:CS1 foreign language sources; do not use templates or wikilinks. Note: When the language is "English" (or "en"), no language is displayed in the citation. Note: When two or more languages are listed there is no need to include "and" before the last language. "and" is inserted automatically by the template.

Date

  • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, or year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date 1] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher. For acceptable date formats, see Help:Citation Style 1 § Dates.
For approximate year, precede with "c. ", like this: |date=c. 1900.

For no date, or "undated", add as |date=n.d.
  • year: Year of source being referenced. Use of |date= is recommended unless all of the following conditions are met:
    1. The template uses |ref=harv, or the template is {{citation}}, or |mode=cs2
    2. The |date= format is YYYY-MM-DD.
    3. The citation requires a CITEREF disambiguator.
  • orig-year: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |orig-year=First published 1859 or |orig-year=Composed 1904. Alias: origyear
  • df: date format; sets rendered dates to the specified format; does not support date ranges or seasonal dates. Accepts one value which may be one of these:
    dmy – set publication dates to day month year format; access- and archive-dates are not modified;
    mdy – as above for month day, year format
    ymd – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
    dmy-all – set publication, access-, and archive-dates to day month year format;
    mdy-all – as above for month day, year format
    ymd-all – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
  1. ^ Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. This may be a different format from that used for archive and access dates. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Periodical

  • work: Name of the source periodical; may be wikilinked if relevant. Displays in italics. Aliases: journal, newspaper, magazine, periodical, website.
    • issue: When the publication is one of a series that is published periodically. Alias: number. When the issue has a special title of its own, this may be given, in italics, along with the issue number, e.g. |issue=2, ''Modern Canadian Literature''. Displayed in parentheses following volume.
When set, work changes the formatting of other parameters:
title is not italicized and is enclosed in quotes.
chapter does not display in this citation template (and will produce an error message).
location and publisher are enclosed in parentheses.
page and pages do not show p. or pp.
edition does not display.

Publisher

  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. The publisher is the company that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g. a book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, website). Not normally used for periodicals. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc" or "GmbH" are not usually included. Omit where the publisher's name is substantially the same as the name of the work (for example, The New York Times Co. publishes The New York Times newspaper, so there is no reason to name the publisher). Displays after title; if work is defined, then publisher is enclosed in parentheses.
  • place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the location; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title. Alias: location
  • publication-place: If any one of publication-place, place, or location is defined, the location will show after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location is shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • via: Name of the content deliverer (if different from publisher). via is not a replacement for publisher, but provides additional detail. It may be used when the content deliverer presents the source in a format other than the original (e.g. NewsBank), when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO), if the deliverer requests attribution, or as requested in WP:The Wikipedia Library (e.g. Credo, HighBeam). See also registration and subscription parameters.

Edition, series, volume

  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised", and so forth. Appends the string " ed." after the field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.
  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.
  • volume: For one publication published in several volumes. Displays after the title and series fields; volumes of four characters or less display in bold.

In-source locations

  • page: The number of a single page in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Displays preceded by p. unless |nopp=y.
  • OR: pages: A range of pages in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded by pp. unless |nopp=y. Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use |at=.
    • nopp: Set to y, yes, or true to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover or |pages=passim.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=. Use only one of |page=, |pages=, or |at=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.

URL

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Remove tracking parameters from URLs, e.g. #ixzz2rBr3aO94 or ?utm_source=google&utm_medium=...&utm_term=...&utm_campaign=.... See WP:PAGELINKS. Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon.com. Invalid URLs, including those containing spaces, will result in an error message.
    • access-date: Full date when the content pointed to by url was last verified to support the text in the article; do not wikilink; requires url; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[date 1] Not required for linked documents that do not change. For example, access-date is not required for links to copies of published research papers accessed via DOI or a published book, but should be used for links to news articles on commercial websites (these can change from time to time, even if they are also published in a physical medium). Note that access-date is the date that the URL was checked to not just be working, but to support the assertion being cited (which the current version of the page may not do). Can be hidden or styled by registered editors. Alias: accessdate.
    • archive-url: The URL of an archived copy of a web page if the original URL is no longer available. Typically used to refer to services such as WebCite (see Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and Internet Archive (see Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine); requires archive-date and url. By default (overridden by |dead-url=no) the archived link is displayed first, with the original link at the end. Alias: archiveurl.
      • archive-date: Date when the original URL was archived; preceded in display by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. This does not necessarily have to be the same format that was used for citing publication dates.[date 1] Do not wikilink. Alias: archivedate.
      • dead-url: the default value of this optional parameter, if omitted, is |dead-url=yes. Equivalent values are y or true. When the URL is still live, but pre-emptively archived, then set |dead-url=no; this changes the display order, with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end. When the original URL has been usurped for the purposes of spam, advertising, or is otherwise unsuitable, setting |dead-url=unfit or |dead-url=usurped suppresses display of the original URL (but |url= is still required). Alias: deadurl.
    • template-doc-demo: The archive parameters will be error-checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into one of the subcategories of Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template-doc-demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. (For media format, use type.) HTML is implied and should not be specified. Automatically added when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: may require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
sp " ' < > [ ] { | }
 %20  %22  %27  %3c  %3e  %5b  %5d  %7b  %7c  %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
  1. ^ a b Access-date and archive-date in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Chapter URL

  • chapter-url: URL of an individual chapter of online source. Should be at the same site as url, if any. If chapter-url is used, url should only be used if the beginning of the work and the cited chapter are on separate webpages at the site. chapter may be wikilinked or chapter-url used, but not both. Aliases: chapterurl, contribution-url, section-url.
  • chapter-format: Format of the work referred to by chapter-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after chapter. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.

Anchor

Identifiers

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable. For example, |id=NCJ 122967 will append "NCJ 122967" at the end of the citation. You can use templates such as |id={{NCJ|122967}} to append NCJ 122967 instead.

These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. rfc=822 or pmc=345678.

  • arxiv: arXiv identifier; for example: arxiv=hep-th/9205027 (before April 2007) or arxiv=0706.0001 or arxiv=1501.00001 (since April 2007). Do not include extraneous file extensions like ".pdf" or ".html".
  • asin: Amazon Standard Identification Number; if first character of asin value is a digit, use isbn. Because this link favours one specific distributor, only include it if standard identifiers aren't available.
    • asin-tld: ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US; valid values: au, br, ca, cn, co.jp, co.uk, de, es, fr, it, mx
  • bibcode: Bibcode; used by a number of astronomical data systems; for example: 1974AJ.....79..819H
  • biorxiv: bioRxiv id, a 6-digit number at the end of the biorXiv URL (e.g. 078733 for http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/10/01/078733 or https://dx.doi.org/10.1101/078733)
  • citeseerx: CiteSeerX id, a string of digits and dots found in a CiteSeerX URL (e.g. 10.1.1.176.341 for http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.176.341 )
  • doi: Digital object identifier; for example: 10.1038/news070508-7. It is checked to ensure it begins with (10.).
    • doi-broken-date: Date the DOI was found to be non-working at https://dx.doi.org. Use the same format as other dates in the article. Alias: doi_brokendate, doi-inactive-date
  • eissn: International Standard Serial Number for the electronic media of a serial publication; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space. Alias: EISSN
  • hdl: Handle System identifier for digital objects and other resources on the Internet. Alias: HDL
  • isbn: International Standard Book Number; for example: 978-0-8126-9593-9. (See Wikipedia:ISBN and ISBN § Overview.) Dashes in the ISBN are optional, but preferred. Use the ISBN actually printed on or in the book. Use the 13-digit ISBN – beginning with 978 or 979 – when it is available. If only a 10-digit ISBN is printed on or in the book, use it. ISBNs can be found on the page with the publisher's information – usually the back of the title page – or beneath the barcode as a number beginning with 978 or 979 (barcodes beginning with any other numbers are not ISBNs). For sources with the older 9-digit SBN system, prefix the number with a zero; thus, SBN 902888-45-5 should be entered as |isbn=0-902888-45-5. Do not convert a 10-digit ISBN to 13-digit by just adding the 978 prefix; the last digit is a calculated check digit and just making changes to the numbers will make the ISBN invalid. This parameter should hold only the ISBN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens, with "X" permitted as the last character in a 10-digit ISBN – and the proper check digit. Alias: ISBN
  • ismn: International Standard Music Number; for example: 979-0-9016791-7-7. Hyphens or spaces in the ISMN are optional. Use the ISMN actually printed on or in the work. This parameter should hold only the ISMN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens – and the proper check digit. Alias: ISMN
  • issn: International Standard Serial Number; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space. Alias: ISSN
  • jfm: Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik
  • jstor: JSTOR reference number; for example: jstor=3793107 will generate JSTOR 3793107.
  • lccn: Library of Congress Control Number. When present, alphabetic prefix characters are to be lower case.
  • mr: Mathematical Reviews
  • oclc: OCLC; WorldCat's Online Computer Library Center
  • ol: Open Library identifier; do not include "OL" in the value.
  • osti: Office of Scientific and Technical Information
  • pmc: PubMed Central; use article number for full-text free repository of a journal article, e.g. pmc=345678. Do not include "PMC" in the value. See also the pmid parameter, below; these are two different identifiers.
    • embargo: Date that pmc goes live; if this date is in the future, then pmc is not linked until that date.
  • pmid: PubMed; use unique identifier. See also the pmc parameter, above; these are two different identifiers.
  • rfc: Request for Comments
  • ssrn: Social Science Research Network
  • zbl: Zentralblatt MATH

Quote

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes.

Laysummary

  • lay-url: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary". Aliases: lay-summary, laysummary.
    • lay-source: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash. Alias: laysource.
    • lay-date: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses. Alias: laydate.

Display options

  • mode: Sets element separator, default terminal punctuation, and certain capitalization according to the value provided. For |mode=cs1, element separator and terminal punctuation is a period (.); where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are capitalized ('Retrieved...'). For |mode=cs2, element separator is a comma (,); terminal punctuation is omitted; where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are not capitalized ('retrieved...'). To override default terminal punctuation use postscript.
  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. You can also use editor-mask and translator-mask in the same way.
  • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of authors, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, all authors are displayed. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • display-editors: Controls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed. |display-editors=etal displays all editors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayeditors.
  • last-author-amp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to y, yes, or true. Example: |last-author-amp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to none. Ignored if quote is defined.

Subscription or registration required

Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability – Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, editors can signal the access restrictions of the external links included in a citation.

Four access levels can be used:

  • Freely accessible free: the source is free to read for anyone (this applies in particular to articles in open access)
  • Free registration required registration: a free registration is required to access the source
  • Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required limited: there are other constraints (such as a cap on daily views) to freely access this source
  • Paid subscription required subscription: the source is only accessible via a paid subscription

As there are often multiple external links with different access levels in the same citation, these values are attributed to a particular external link.

Access level of |url=

Links inserted with |url= are expected to be free to read by default. If not, editors can use one of

  • |url-access=subscription
  • |url-access=registration
  • |url-access=limited

to indicate the relevant access restriction.

Access level of identifiers

Links inserted by identifiers such as |doi= are not expected to offer a free full text by default. If they do, editors can use |doi-access=free (in the case of |doi=) to indicate the relevant access level. The following identifiers are supported:

  • |bibcode= with |bibcode-access=free
  • |doi= with |doi-access=free
  • |hdl= with |hdl-access=free
  • |jstor= with |jstor-access=free
  • |ol= with |ol-access=free
  • |osti= with |osti-access=free

Some identifiers always link to free full texts. In this case, the access level is automatically indicated by the template. This is the case for |arxiv=, |biorxiv=, |citeseerx=, |pmc=, |rfc= and |ssrn=.

Ambiguous access parameters

The parameters |registration=yes and |subscription=yes can also be used to indicate the access level of a citation. However, they do not indicate which link they apply to, so editors are encouraged to use |url-access=registration and |url-access=subscription instead, when the restriction applies to |url=. If the restriction applies to an identifier, these parameters should be omitted.

These parameters add a link note to the end of the citation:

  • registration: For online sources that require registration, set |registration=yes (or y, or true); superseded by subscription if both are set.
  • subscription: For online sources that require a subscription, set |subscription=yes (or y, or true); supersedes registration if both are set.

Setting |registration= or |subscription= to any value other than y, yes, or true will generate an error message.

Examples

Books

Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{Citation
| last1  = Lincoln
| first1 = A.
| last2  = Washington
| first2 = G.
| last3  = Adams
| first3 = J.
| lastauthoramp = yes
| title     = All the Presidents' Names
| publisher = The Pentagon
| place     = Home Base, New York
| volume  = XII
| edition = 2nd
| year    = 2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names, XII (2nd ed.), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon 

Web

Web page
{{Citation
| url   = http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/
| title = NPS Focus
| work  = National Register of Historic Places
| publisher  = [[National Park Service]]
| accessdate = November 30, 2010
| ref = none
}}
"NPS Focus", National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, retrieved November 30, 2010 
Archived page
{{Citation
| url = http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| title = Earth's Atmosphere
| accessdate = October 25, 2007
| publisher  = [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]
| year   = 1995
| author = NASA
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/http://
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| archivedate = October 13, 2007
}}
NASA (1995), Earth's Atmosphere, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, archived from the original on October 13, 2007, retrieved October 25, 2007 

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals

Journal article
{{Citation
| last  = Hill
| first = Marvin S.
| title = Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume  = 12
| issue   = 2
| year    = 1976
| pages   = 1–8
| url     = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
}}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), "Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties" (PDF), BYU Studies, 12 (2): 1–8 
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
{{Citation
| last1  = Mandelkern
| first1 = M,
| last2  = Elias
| first2 = J,
| last3  = Eden
| first3 = D,
| last4  = Crothers
| first4 = D
| display-authors = 2
| title   = The dimensions of DNA in solution
| journal = J Mol Biol
| volume  = 152
| issue   = 1
| pages   = 153–161
| year    = 1981
| pmid    = 7338906
| doi     = 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
}}
Mandelkern, M,; Elias, J,; et al. (1981), "The dimensions of DNA in solution", J Mol Biol, 152 (1): 153–161, PMID 7338906, doi:10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1 
Newspaper article
{{Citation
| last  = Smith
| first = Joseph III
| author-link = Joseph Smith III
| title = Last Testimony of Sister Emma
| newspaper = The Saints' Herald
| publication-place = Plano, IL
| volume = 26
| issue  = 19
| date   = October 1, 1879

| page   = 289
| url    = http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/
IL/sain1872.htm#100179
}}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), "Last Testimony of Sister Emma", The Saints' Herald, Plano, IL, 26 (19), p. 289 

Conference papers and public lectures

Conference paper
{{Citation
| last   = Sullivan
| first  = D.B.
| contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
| year   = 2001
| title  = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
| publisher = National Institute of Standards and Technology
| contribution-url = http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/general/pdf/1485.pdf
| chapter-format = PDF
}}
Sullivan, D.B. (2001), "Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years" (PDF), 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp., National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Lecture
{{Citation
| last   = Habicht
| first  = Christian
| contribution = Hellenistic Athens and her Philosophers
| year   = 1988
| title  = David Magie Lecture, Princeton University Program in the History, Archaeology, and Religions of the Ancient World
| publisher = Princeton University
| page=14 
}}
Habicht, Christian (1988), "Hellenistic Athens and her Philosophers", David Magie Lecture, Princeton University Program in the History, Archaeology, and Religions of the Ancient World, Princeton University, p. 14 

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
| last  = Bidamon
| first = Emma Smith
| author-link = Emma Hale Smith
| chapter = Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
| date = March 27, 1876
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", in Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books (published 1996), ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Vogel, Dan, ed. (1996), Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
| last  = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link  = Martin Kramer
| year=1999
| title = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last  = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages  = 719–720
| location = London
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| url = http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
| title = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| year = 1999
| encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| location = London
| url = http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, ed. (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
| last = Knight
| first = Joseph, Sr.
| year = 1833
| editor-last = Jessee
| editor-first = Dean
| title = Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 17
| issue = 1
| publication-date = 1976
| page = 35
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
}}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, ed., "Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History" (PDF), BYU Studies (published 1976), 17 (1): 35 
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
| last = Klingensmith
| first = Philip
| type = Affidavit
| date = September 5, 1872
| place = Lincoln County, Nevada
| title = Mountain Meadows Massacre
| editor-last = Toohy
| editor-first = Dennis J.
| journal = Corinne Daily Reporter
| publication-date = September 24, 1872
| publication-place = Corinne, Utah
| volume = 5
| issue = 252
| page = 1
| url = http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
}}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), written at Lincoln County, Nevada, Toohy, Dennis J., ed., "Mountain Meadows Massacre", Corinne Daily Reporter (Affidavit), Corinne, Utah (published September 24, 1872), 5 (252): 1 

Press release

Press release with quotation
{{Citation
| url = http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title = Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher = Apple Inc
| accessdate = April 10, 2010
| quote = in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3
| ref = none}}
Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day, Apple Inc, retrieved April 10, 2010, in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3 

Citing patents

Parameters (all are optional)

{{Citation
| inventor-last =
| inventor-first =
| inventorlink =
| inventor2-last =
| inventor2-first =
| inventorlink2 =
| publication-date =
| issue-date =
| title =
| country-code =
| description =
| patent-number =
| ref =
}}
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "&#91;" for "[" and "&#93;" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.
  • ref: Anchor id.

Examples

United States patent with multiple inventors
{{Citation
| inventor1-last = Degermark
| inventor1-first = Mikael
| inventor2-last = Brodnik
| inventor2-first = Andrej
| inventor3-last = Carlsson
| inventor3-first = Svante
| inventor4-last = Pink
| inventor4-first = Stephen
| title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
| issue-date = 2001
| patent-number = 6266706
| country-code = US}}
US 6266706, Degermark, Mikael; Andrej Brodnik & Svante Carlsson et al., "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

Anchored citations

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template.

To disable anchor generation, specify |ref=none (in contrast, other Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}} do not create an anchor by default). You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents 

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "(Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix)", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R. H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372}}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R. H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372 

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "CITEREFWrightEvans1851".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{harvnb|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</ref> or {{sfn|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}} both of which generate a footnote, such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation | author = Sigmund Freud | title = The Ego and the Id | year = 1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki § Time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and ISO 8601 standard format YYYY-MM-DD as listed in WP:MOS), but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use |year=2005 rather than |date=2005.

IDs must be unique

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g. "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Dates

  1. ^ The format of dates in the references of an article should use consistent and unambiguous styles. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include:
    • 2009
    • 2009-09-14 (ISO 8601 standard format: YYYY-MM-DD)
    • 14 September 2009
    • September 14, 2009 (with comma)
    • September 2009
    Dates should not be linked (say, to a Wikipedia article of the same name) in references. Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers) § Dates for more guidance about formatting dates.

Tools

See Wikipedia:Citing sources § Citation templates and tools for a list of tools that can help create a reference in the "citation" format.

TemplateData

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools.

See the monthly error report for this template.

TemplateData for Citation

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

Template parameters

Parameter Description Type Status
1 1

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
2 2

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
3 3

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author surname last

surname of the author of the cited material

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author given name first

given name (first name) of the author of the cited material

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
title of source title

Title of source; displays in italics.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String required
date of source date

Full date of source being referenced in the same format as other publication dates in the citations.[1] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
url of source url

URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor-surname inventor-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor1-surname inventor1-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor-last inventor-last

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor1-last inventor1-last

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor inventor

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent1 invent1

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent-1 invent-1

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
country-code country-code

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2-surname inventor2-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2-last inventor2-last

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2 inventor2

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent2 invent2

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3-surname inventor3-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3-last inventor3-last

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3 inventor3

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent3 invent3

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4-surname inventor4-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4-last inventor4-last

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4 inventor4

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent4 invent4

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor-given inventor-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor1-given inventor1-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor-first inventor-first

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor1-first inventor1-first

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2-given inventor2-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2-first inventor2-first

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3-given inventor3-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3-first inventor3-first

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4-given inventor4-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4-first inventor4-first

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink1 inventorlink1

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink inventorlink

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink2 inventorlink2

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink3 inventorlink3

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink4 inventorlink4

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
country country

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
publication-number publication-number

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
patent-number patent-number

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
number number

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
description description

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
status status

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
publication-date publication-date

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pubdate pubdate

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
issue-date issue-date

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
gdate gdate

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
year year

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
fdate fdate

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pridate pridate

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
assign1 assign1

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
assign2 assign2

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ref ref

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
separator separator

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
quote quote

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
postscript postscript

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author-separator author-separator

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author-mask author-mask

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authormask authormask

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last1 last1

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname1 surname1

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author1 author1

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author author

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authors authors

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last2 last2

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname2 surname2

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author2 author2

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last3 last3

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname3 surname3

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author3 author3

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last4 last4

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname4 surname4

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author4 author4

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last5 last5

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname5 surname5

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author5 author5

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last6 last6

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname6 surname6

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author6 author6

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last7 last7

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname7 surname7

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author7 author7

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last8 last8

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname8 surname8

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author8 author8

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last9 last9

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname9 surname9

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author9 author9

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first1 first1

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given1 given1

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first2 first2

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given2 given2

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first3 first3

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given3 given3

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first4 first4

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given4 given4

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first5 first5

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given5 given5

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first6 first6

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given6 given6

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first7 first7

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given7 given7

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first8 first8

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given8 given8

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first9 first9

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given9 given9

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author-link author-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author1-link author1-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink authorlink

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink1 authorlink1

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author2-link author2-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink2 authorlink2

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author3-link author3-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink3 authorlink3

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author4-link author4-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink4 authorlink4

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author5-link author5-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink5 authorlink5

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author6-link author6-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink6 authorlink6

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author7-link author7-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink7 authorlink7

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author8-link author8-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink8 authorlink8

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author9-link author9-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink9 authorlink9

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
coauthor coauthor

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
coauthors coauthors

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
origyear origyear

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
month month

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
trans_chapter trans_chapter

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
trans_title trans_title

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
type type

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
archiveurl archiveurl

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
deadurl deadurl

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
series series

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
version version

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
journal journal

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
periodical periodical

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
newspaper newspaper

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
magazine magazine

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
work work

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
volume volume

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
issue issue

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pages pages

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
page page

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
at at

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
nopp nopp

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
chapter chapter

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
contribution contribution

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
chapter-url chapter-url

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
chapterurl chapterurl

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
contribution-url contribution-url

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
chapter-format chapter-format

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
others others

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
edition edition

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
place place

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
location location

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
publication-place publication-place

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
publisher publisher

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-last editor-last

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-surname editor-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-last editor1-last

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-surname editor1-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1 editor1

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor editor

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editors editors

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-last editor2-last

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-surname editor2-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2 editor2

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-last editor3-last

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-surname editor3-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3 editor3

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-last editor4-last

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-surname editor4-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4 editor4

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-first editor-first

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-given editor-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-first editor1-first

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-given editor1-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-first editor2-first

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-given editor2-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-first editor3-first

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-given editor3-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-first editor4-first

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-given editor4-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-link editor-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-link editor1-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-link editor2-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-link editor3-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-link editor4-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
language language

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
in in

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
format format

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
arxiv arxiv

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
asin asin

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ASIN ASIN

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
asin-tld asin-tld

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
bibcode bibcode

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
doi doi

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
DOI DOI

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
doi_inactivedate doi_inactivedate

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
doi_brokendate doi_brokendate

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
isbn isbn

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ISBN ISBN

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
issn issn

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ISSN ISSN

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
jfm jfm

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
JFM JFM

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
jstor jstor

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
JSTOR JSTOR

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
lccn lccn

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
LCCN LCCN

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
mr mr

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
MR MR

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
oclc oclc

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
OCLC OCLC

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ol ol

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
OL OL

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
osti osti

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
OSTI OSTI

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pmc pmc

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
PMC PMC

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pmid pmid

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
PMID PMID

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
rfc rfc

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
RFC RFC

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ssrn ssrn

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
SSRN SSRN

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
zbl zbl

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
id id

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ID ID

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
access-date access-date

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
accessdate accessdate

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
laysummary laysummary

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
laysource laysource

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
laydate laydate

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author-name-separator author-name-separator

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
lastauthoramp lastauthoramp

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
display-authors display-authors

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
archivedate archivedate

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
Translator-first translator-first

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Unknown optional
Translator-last translator-last

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Unknown optional
Translator2-first translator2-first

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Unknown optional
Translator2-last translator2-last

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Unknown optional

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.

See also