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Europe at the height of German control in 1942

German–occupied Europe or Nazi Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.[1]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Several German-occupied countries entered World War II as Allies of the United Kingdom or the Soviet Union. Some were forced to surrender such as Czechoslovakia; others like Poland (invaded on 1 September 1939)[1] were conquered in battle and then occupied. In some cases, the legitimate governments went into exile, in other cases the governments-in-exile were formed by their citizens in other Allied countries. Some countries occupied by Nazi Germany were officially neutral. Others were former members of the Axis powers that were occupied by German forces at a later stage of the war.

Occupied countriesEdit

The countries occupied included all, or most of the following:

Country or territory of occupation Puppet state(s) or military administration(s) Timeline of occupation(s) German annexed territory Resistance movement(s)
  Albanian Kingdom   Albanian Kingdom 8 September 1943  – 29 November 1944 None Albanian resistance
  Bailiwick of Guernsey   Military Administration in France 30 June 1940  – 16 May 1945 None Guernsey people's resistance
  Bailiwick of Jersey   Military Administration in France 1 July 1940  – 9 May 1945 None Jersey people's resistance
  Czechoslovak Republic

  Czecho-Slovak Republic


  Czechoslovak Republic

  Slovak Republic

  German Zone of Protection in Slovakia

1 October 1938  – 11 May 1945   Gau Bayreuth
  Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
  Reichsgau Niederdonau
  Reichsgau Oberdonau
  Reichsgau Sudetenland
Czechoslovakian resistance
  Federal State of Austria None 12 March 1938  – 9 May 1945   Reichsgau Kärnten
  Reichsgau Niederdonau
  Reichsgau Oberdonau
  Reichsgau Salzburg
  Reichsgau Steiermark
  Reichsgau Tirol-Vorarlberg
  Reichsgau Wien
Austrian resistance
  Free City of Danzig None 1 September 1939  – 9 May 1945   Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia Danzig people's resistance
  French Republic

  Free France


  Provisional Government of the French Republic

  French State

  Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France


  Military Administration in France


  Realm Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France

10 May 1940  – 9 May 1945   Gau Baden
  Gau Western March
  Reichsgau Wallonien
French resistance
  Governorate of Montenegro   German occupied territory of Montenegro 26 September 1943  – February 1945 None Yugoslav resistance
  Grand Duchy of Luxembourg   Military Administration of Luxembourg

  Civil Administration Area of Luxembourg

10 May 1940  – February 1945   Gau Moselland Luxembourg resistance
  Independent State of Macedonia None 8 September 1944  – December 1944 None Yugoslav resistance
  Independent State of Croatia   German zone of influence 10 April 1941  – 9 May 1945 None Yugoslav resistance
  Italian Islands of the Aegean   Italian Islands of the Aegean 8 September 1943  – 8 May 1945 None
  Kingdom of Belgium   Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France

  Realm Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France

10 May 1940  – February 1945   Gau Cologne-Aachen

  Reichsgau Wallonien

Belgian resistance
  Kingdom of Denmark None 9 April 1940  – 5 May 1945 None Danish resistance
  Kingdom of Greece   Military Administration in Greece
6 April 1941  – 8 May 1945 None Greek resistance
  Kingdom of Hungary   Kingdom of Hungary 19 March 1944  – May 1945 None Hungarian resistance
  Kingdom of Italy   Italian Social Republic

  Military Administration in Kotor

8 September 1943  – 2 May 1945 None Italian resistance
  Kingdom of Norway   Realm Commissariat for the Occupied Norwegian Territories 9 April 1940  – 8 May 1945 None Norwegian resistance
  Kingdom of the Netherlands   Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories 10 May 1940  – 20 May 1945 None Dutch resistance
  Kingdom of Yugoslavia

  Republic of Užice


  Bihać Republic

  Albanian Kingdom

  German occupied territory of Montenegro


  Independent State of Croatia


  Independent State of Macedonia


  Military Administration in Kotor


  Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia

6 April 1941  – 15 May 1945   Reichsgau Kärnten
  Reichsgau Steiermark
Yugoslav resistance
  Principality of Monaco None 8 September 1943  – 3 September 1944 None
  Republic of Finland None 15 September 1944  – 25 April 1945 None Finnish resistance
  Republic of Lithuania

Provisional Government of Lithuania

  Reich Commissariat East 22 March 1939  – 21 July 1940

23 June 1941  – 5 August 1941

  Gau East Prussia Lithuanian resistance
  Republic of Poland   Military Administration in Poland

  Reich Commissariat East


  Reich Commissariat Ukraine

1 September 1939  – 9 May 1945   Bezirk Bialystok
  Gau East Prussia
  Gau Niederschlesien
  General Government
  Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia
  Reichsgau Wartheland
Polish resistance
  Republic of San Marino None 17 September 1944  – 20 September 1944 None
  Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia   Commissioner Government

  Government of National Salvation

April 30, 1941  – January 1945 None Serbian resistance
  Slovak Republic   German Zone of Protection in Slovakia 23 March 1939  – May 1945 None Slovakian resistance
  Territory of the Saar Basin None 1 March 1935  – April 1945   Gau Palatinate-Saar

  Gau Saar-Palatinate
  Gau Westmark

Saar Basin people's resistance
  Ukrainian National Government   Reich Commissariat Ukraine 30 June 1941  – September 1941   General Government Ukrainian resistance
  Union of Soviet Socialist Republics   Military Administration in the Soviet Union

  Reich Commissariat East


  Reich Commissariat Ukraine

22 June 1941  – 10 May 1945   Bezirk Bialystok
  General Government
Soviet resistance

Governments in exileEdit

Allied governments in exileEdit

Government in exile Capital in exile Timeline of exile Occupier(s)
  Austrian Democratic Union   London 1941 – 1945   German Reich/Greater German Reich
  Free France   London
(1940 – 1941)

  Algiers, Algeria
(1942 – August 31, 1944)

1940 – August 31, 1944   French State

  German Reich/Greater German Reich
  Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France
  Reich Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France

  Government of the Republic of Poland in exile   Paris
(September 29/30, 1939 – 1940)
  Angers, French Republic
(1940 – June 12, 1940)

  London
(June 12, 1940 – 1990)

September 29/30, 1939 – December 22, 1990   German Reich/Greater German Reich

  Reich Commissariat East
  Reich Commissariat Ukraine
  Slovak Republic
  Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
  People's Republic of Poland

  Kingdom of Belgium   London
(October 22, 1940 – September 8, 1944)
October 22, 1940 – September 8, 1944   German Reich/Greater German Reich

  Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France
  Reich Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France

  Kingdom of Denmark 1943 – 1945   German Reich/Greater German Reich
  Kingdom of Luxembourg   London 1940 – 1944   German Reich/Greater German Reich
  Kingdom of Greece   Cairo, Egypt April 29, 1941 – October 12, 1944   German Reich/Greater German Reich

  Kingdom of Italy
  Kingdom of Bulgaria

  Kingdom of Norway   London June 7, 1940 – May 31, 1945   Realm Commissariat for the Occupied Norwegian Territories
  Kingdom of Yugoslavia   London June 7, 1941 – March 7, 1945   Albanian Kingdom

Commissioner Government
  German occupied territory of Montenegro
  German Reich/Greater German Reich
  Government of National Salvation
  Independent State of Croatia
  Independent Macedonia
  Kingdom of Bulgaria
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia

  Kingdom of the Netherlands   London 1940 – 1945   Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories
  Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia   Paris
(October 2, 1939 – 1940)

  London
(1940 – 1941)
  Aston Abbotts, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
(1941 – 1945)

October 2, 1939 – May 8, 1945   German Reich/Greater German Reich

  Kingdom of Hungary
  Slovak Republic

Axis governments in exileEdit

Government in exile Capital in exile Timeline of exile Occupier(s)
Bulgarian government-in-exile   Vienna, Greater German Reich September 16, 1944 – May 10, 1945   Kingdom of Bulgaria
  French State   Sigmaringen, Greater German Reich 1944 – April 22, 1945   Provisional Government of the French Republic
Montenegrin State Council   Zagreb, Independent State of Croatia 1944 – May 8, 1945   Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Neutral governments in exileEdit

Government in exile Capital in exile Timeline of exile Occupier(s)
  Belarusian Democratic Republic   Prague, Czechoslovak Republic
(1923 – 1938)

  Prague, Czecho-Slovak Republic
(1938 – 1939)


  Prague, German Reich/Greater German Reich
(1939 – 1945)

1919 – present   German Reich/Greater German Reich

  Realm Commissariat East
  Realm Commissariat Ukraine
  Republic of Poland
  Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

  Republic of Estonia   Stockholm, Kingdom of Sweden
(1944 – August 20, 1991)

  New York City, United States of America

June 17, 1940 – August 20, 1991   Realm Commissariat East

  Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

  Ukrainian People's Republic   Warsaw, Republic of Poland
(1920 – 1939)

  Prague, German Reich/Greater German Reich
(1939 – 1944)

1920 – August 22, 1992   German Reich/Greater German Reich

  Kingdom of Hungary
  Kingdom of Romania
  Realm Commissariat Ukraine
  Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

  Spanish Republic   Paris, French Republic (1939-1940, 1946-1977)

  Mexico City, United Mexican States (1940-1946)

4 April 1939 – 1 July 1977   Spanish State

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, German occupied Europe. World War II. Retrieved 1 September 2015 from the Internet Archive.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit