Particle physics

Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behaviour.

The Standard Model of particle physics, listing all elementary particles

In current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model and its various possible extensions, e.g. to the newest "known" particle, the Higgs boson, or even to the oldest known force field, gravity.[1][2]

Subatomic particlesEdit

Elementary Particles
Types Generations Antiparticle Colours Total
Quarks 2 3 Pair 3 36
Leptons Pair None 12
Gluons 1 None Own 8 8
Photon Own None 1
Z Boson Own 1
W Boson Pair 2
Higgs Own 1
Total number of (known) elementary particles: 61

Modern particle physics research is focused on subatomic particles, including atomic constituents, such as electrons, protons, and neutrons (protons and neutrons are composite particles called baryons, made of quarks), that are produced by radioactive and scattering processes; such particles are photons, neutrinos, and muons, as well as a wide range of exotic particles.[3]

Dynamics of particles are also governed by quantum mechanics; they exhibit wave–particle duality, displaying particle-like behaviour under certain experimental conditions and wave-like behaviour in others. In more technical terms, they are described by quantum state vectors in a Hilbert space, which is also treated in quantum field theory. Following the convention of particle physicists, the term elementary particles is applied to those particles that are, according to current understanding, presumed to be indivisible and not composed of other particles.[4]

All particles and their interactions observed to date can be described almost entirely by a quantum field theory called the Standard Model.[5] The Standard Model, as currently formulated, has 61 elementary particles.[4] Those elementary particles can combine to form composite particles, accounting for the hundreds of other species of particles that have been discovered since the 1960s.

The Standard Model has been found to agree with almost all the experimental tests conducted to date. However, most particle physicists believe that it is an incomplete description of nature and that a more fundamental theory awaits discovery (See Theory of Everything). In recent years, measurements of neutrino mass have provided the first experimental deviations from the Standard Model, since neutrinos are massless in the Standard Model.[6]


The idea that all matter is fundamentally composed of elementary particles dates from at least the 6th century BC.[7] In the 19th century, John Dalton, through his work on stoichiometry, concluded that each element of nature was composed of a single, unique type of particle.[8] The word atom, after the Greek word atomos meaning "indivisible", has since then denoted the smallest particle of a chemical element, but physicists soon discovered that atoms are not, in fact, the fundamental particles of nature, but are conglomerates of even smaller particles, such as the electron. The early 20th century explorations of nuclear physics and quantum physics led to proofs of nuclear fission in 1939 by Lise Meitner (based on experiments by Otto Hahn), and nuclear fusion by Hans Bethe in that same year; both discoveries also led to the development of nuclear weapons. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, a bewildering variety of particles were found in collisions of particles from beams of increasingly high energy. It was referred to informally as the "particle zoo". Important discoveries such as the CP violation by James Cronin and Val Fitch brought new questions to matter-antimatter imbalance.[9] After the formulation of the Standard Model during the 1970s, physicists clarified the origin of the particle zoo. The large number of particles was explained as combinations of a (relatively) small number of more fundamental particles and framed in the context of quantum field theories. This reclassification marked the beginning of modern particle physics.[10][11]

Standard ModelEdit

The current state of the classification of all elementary particles is explained by the Standard Model, which gained widespread acceptance in the mid-1970s after experimental confirmation of the existence of quarks. It describes the strong, weak, and electromagnetic fundamental interactions, using mediating gauge bosons. The species of gauge bosons are eight gluons,
, and the photon.[5] The Standard Model also contains 24 fundamental fermions (12 particles and their associated anti-particles), which are the constituents of all matter.[12] Finally, the Standard Model also predicted the existence of a type of boson known as the Higgs boson. On 4 July 2012, physicists with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN announced they had found a new particle that behaves similarly to what is expected from the Higgs boson.[13]

Experimental laboratoriesEdit

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA

The world's major particle physics laboratories are:

Many other particle accelerators also exist. The techniques required for modern experimental particle physics are quite varied and complex, constituting a sub-specialty nearly completely distinct[citation needed] from the theoretical side of the field.


Theoretical particle physics attempts to develop the models, theoretical framework, and mathematical tools to understand current experiments and make predictions for future experiments (see also theoretical physics). There are several major interrelated efforts being made in theoretical particle physics today.

One important branch attempts to better understand the Standard Model and its tests. Theorists make quantitative predictions of observables at collider and astronomical experiments, which along with experimental measurements is used to extract the parameters of the Standard Model with less uncertainty. This work probes the limits of the Standard Model and therefore expands scientific understanding of nature's building blocks. Those efforts are made challenging by the difficulty of calculating high precision quantities in quantum chromodynamics. Some theorists working in this area use the tools of perturbative quantum field theory and effective field theory, referring to themselves as phenomenologists.[citation needed] Others make use of lattice field theory and call themselves lattice theorists.

Another major effort is in model building where model builders develop ideas for what physics may lie beyond the Standard Model (at higher energies or smaller distances). This work is often motivated by the hierarchy problem and is constrained by existing experimental data.[citation needed] It may involve work on supersymmetry, alternatives to the Higgs mechanism, extra spatial dimensions (such as the Randall–Sundrum models), Preon theory, combinations of these, or other ideas.

A third major effort in theoretical particle physics is string theory. String theorists attempt to construct a unified description of quantum mechanics and general relativity by building a theory based on small strings, and branes rather than particles. If the theory is successful, it may be considered a "Theory of Everything", or "TOE".[26]

There are also other areas of work in theoretical particle physics ranging from particle cosmology to loop quantum gravity.[citation needed]

This division of efforts in particle physics is reflected in the names of categories on the arXiv, a preprint archive:[27] hep-th (theory), hep-ph (phenomenology), hep-ex (experiments), hep-lat (lattice gauge theory).

Practical applicationsEdit

In principle, all physics (and practical applications developed therefrom) can be derived from the study of fundamental particles. In practice, even if "particle physics" is taken to mean only "high-energy atom smashers", many technologies have been developed during these pioneering investigations that later find wide uses in society. Particle accelerators are used to produce medical isotopes for research and treatment (for example, isotopes used in PET imaging), or used directly in external beam radiotherapy. The development of superconductors has been pushed forward by their use in particle physics. The World Wide Web and touchscreen technology were initially developed at CERN. Additional applications are found in medicine, national security, industry, computing, science, and workforce development, illustrating a long and growing list of beneficial practical applications with contributions from particle physics.[28]


The primary goal, which is pursued in several distinct ways, is to find and understand what physics may lie beyond the standard model. There are several powerful experimental reasons to expect new physics, including dark matter and neutrino mass. There are also theoretical hints that this new physics should be found at accessible energy scales.

Much of the effort to find this new physics are focused on new collider experiments. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was completed in 2008 to help continue the search for the Higgs boson, supersymmetric particles, and other new physics. An intermediate goal is the construction of the International Linear Collider (ILC), which will complement the LHC by allowing more precise measurements of the properties of newly found particles. In August 2004, a decision for the technology of the ILC was taken but the site has still to be agreed upon.

In addition, there are important non-collider experiments that also attempt to find and understand physics beyond the Standard Model. One important non-collider effort is the determination of the neutrino masses, since these masses may arise from neutrinos mixing with very heavy particles. In addition, cosmological observations provide many useful constraints on the dark matter, although it may be impossible to determine the exact nature of the dark matter without the colliders. Finally, lower bounds on the very long lifetime of the proton put constraints on Grand Unified Theories at energy scales much higher than collider experiments will be able to probe any time soon.

In May 2014, the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel released its report on particle physics funding priorities for the United States over the next decade. This report emphasized continued U.S. participation in the LHC and ILC, and expansion of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, among other recommendations.

See alsoEdit


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  2. ^ "The BEH-Mechanism, Interactions with Short Range Forces and Scalar Particles" (PDF). 8 October 2013.
  3. ^ Terranova, Francesco (2021). A Modern Primer in Particle and Nuclear Physics. Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-19-284524-5.
  4. ^ a b Braibant, S.; Giacomelli, G.; Spurio, M. (2009). Particles and Fundamental Interactions: An Introduction to Particle Physics. Springer. pp. 313–314. ISBN 978-94-007-2463-1.
  5. ^ a b "Particle Physics and Astrophysics Research". The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  6. ^ "Neutrinos in the Standard Model". The T2K Collaboration. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  7. ^ "Fundamentals of Physics and Nuclear Physics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  8. ^ "Scientific Explorer: Quasiparticles". 22 May 2012. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  9. ^ "Antimatter". 1 March 2021.
  10. ^ Weinberg, Steven (1995–2000). The quantum theory of fields. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521670531.
  11. ^ Jaeger, Gregg (2021). "The Elementary Particles of Quantum Fields". Entropy. 23 (11): 1416. Bibcode:2021Entrp..23.1416J. doi:10.3390/e23111416. PMC 8623095. PMID 34828114.
  12. ^ Nakamura, K (1 July 2010). "Review of Particle Physics". Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics. 37 (7A): 075021. Bibcode:2010JPhG...37g5021N. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/37/7A/075021. PMID 10020536.
  13. ^ Mann, Adam (28 March 2013). "Newly Discovered Particle Appears to Be Long-Awaited Higgs Boson". Wired Science. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  14. ^ Harrison, M.; Ludlam, T.; Ozaki, S. (March 2003). "RHIC project overview". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 499 (2–3): 235–244. Bibcode:2003NIMPA.499..235H. doi:10.1016/S0168-9002(02)01937-X.
  15. ^ Courant, Ernest D. (December 2003). "Accelerators, Colliders, and Snakes". Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science. 53 (1): 1–37. Bibcode:2003ARNPS..53....1C. doi:10.1146/annurev.nucl.53.041002.110450. ISSN 0163-8998.
  16. ^ "index". Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  17. ^ "The VEPP-4 accelerating-storage complex". Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  18. ^ "VEPP-2M collider complex" (in Russian). Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  19. ^ "The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics". English Russia. 21 January 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  20. ^ "Welcome to". Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  21. ^ "Germany's largest accelerator centre". Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  22. ^ "Fermilab | Home". Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  23. ^ "IHEP | Home". Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  24. ^ "Kek | High Energy Accelerator Research Organization". Archived from the original on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  25. ^ "SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Home Page". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  26. ^ Wolchover, Natalie (22 December 2017). "The Best Explanation for Everything in the Universe". The Atlantic. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  27. ^ " e-Print archive".
  28. ^ "Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Benefits to Society". Retrieved 23 June 2012.

Further readingEdit

Introductory reading
Advanced reading

External linksEdit