In physics, the baryon asymmetry problem, also known as the matter asymmetry problem or the matter-antimatter asymmetry problem,[1][2] is the observed imbalance in baryonic matter (the type of matter experienced in everyday life) and antibaryonic matter in the observable universe. Neither the standard model of particle physics, nor the theory of general relativity provides a known explanation for why this should be so, and it is a natural assumption that the universe is neutral with all conserved charges.[3] The Big Bang should have produced equal amounts of matter and antimatter. Since this does not seem to have been the case, it is likely some physical laws must have acted differently or did not exist for matter and antimatter. Several competing hypotheses exist to explain the imbalance of matter and antimatter that resulted in baryogenesis. However, there is as of yet no consensus theory to explain the phenomenon. As remarked in a 2012 research paper, "The origin of matter remains one of the great mysteries in physics."[4]

Sakharov conditionsEdit

In 1967, Andrei Sakharov proposed[5] a set of three necessary conditions that a baryon-generating interaction must satisfy to produce matter and antimatter at different rates. These conditions were inspired by the recent discoveries of the cosmic background radiation[6] and CP violation in the neutral kaon system.[7] The three necessary "Sakharov conditions" are:

Baryon number violationEdit

Baryon number violation is obviously a necessary condition to produce an excess of baryons over anti-baryons. But C-symmetry violation is also needed so that the interactions which produce more baryons than anti-baryons will not be counterbalanced by interactions which produce more anti-baryons than baryons. CP-symmetry violation is similarly required because otherwise equal numbers of left-handed baryons and right-handed anti-baryons would be produced, as well as equal numbers of left-handed anti-baryons and right-handed baryons. Finally, the interactions must be out of thermal equilibrium, since otherwise CPT symmetry would assure compensation between processes increasing and decreasing the baryon number.[8]

Currently, there is no experimental evidence of particle interactions where the conservation of baryon number is broken perturbatively: this would appear to suggest that all observed particle reactions have equal baryon number before and after. Mathematically, the commutator of the baryon number quantum operator with the (perturbative) Standard Model hamiltonian is zero:  . However, the Standard Model is known to violate the conservation of baryon number only non-perturbatively: a global U(1) anomaly. To account for baryon violation in baryogenesis, such events (including proton decay) can occur in Grand Unification Theories (GUTs) and supersymmetric (SUSY) models via hypothetical massive bosons such as the X boson.

CP-symmetry violationEdit

The second condition for generating baryon asymmetry—violation of charge-parity symmetry—is that a process is able to happen at a different rate to its antimatter counterpart. In the Standard Model, CP violation appears as a complex phase in the quark mixing matrix of the weak interaction. There may also be a non-zero CP-violating phase in the neutrino mixing matrix, but this is currently unmeasured. CP violation was first observed in the 1964 Fitch-Cronin experiment with neutral kaons, which resulted in the 1980 Nobel Prize in physics (direct CP violation, that is violation of CP symmetry in a decay process, was discovered later, in 1999). Due to CPT symmetry, violation of CP symmetry demands violation of time inversion symmetry, or T-symmetry. Despite the allowance for CP violation in the Standard Model, it is insufficient to account for the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe given the limits on baryon number violation, meaning that beyond-Standard Model sources are needed.

A possible new source of CP violation was found at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by the LHCb collaboration during the first three years of LHC operations (beginning March 2010). The experiment analyzed the decays of two particles, the bottom Lambdab0) and its antiparticle, and compared the distributions of decay products. The data showed an asymmetry of up to 20% of CP-violation sensitive quantities, implying a breaking of CP-symmetry. This analysis will need to be confirmed by more data from subsequent runs of the LHC.[9]

Interactions out of thermal equilibriumEdit

In the out-of-equilibrium decay scenario,[10] the last condition states that the rate of a reaction which generates baryon-asymmetry must be less than the rate of expansion of the universe. In this situation the particles and their corresponding antiparticles do not achieve thermal equilibrium due to rapid expansion decreasing the occurrence of pair-annihilation.

Other explanationsEdit

Regions of the universe where antimatter dominatesEdit

Another possible explanation of the apparent baryon asymmetry is that matter and antimatter are essentially separated into different, widely distant regions of the universe. The formation of antimatter galaxies was originally thought to explain the baryon asymmetry, as from a distance, antimatter atoms are indistinguishable from matter atoms; both produce light (photons) in the same way. Along the boundary between matter and antimatter regions, however, annihilation (and the subsequent production of gamma radiation) would be detectable, depending on its distance and the density of matter and antimatter. Such boundaries, if they exist, would likely lie in deep intergalactic space. The density of matter in intergalactic space is reasonably well established at about one atom per cubic meter.[11][12] Assuming this is a typical density near a boundary, the gamma ray luminosity of the boundary interaction zone can be calculated. No such zones have been detected, but 30 years of research have placed bounds on how far they might be. On the basis of such analyses, it is now deemed unlikely that any region within the observable universe is dominated by antimatter.[4]

One attempt to explain the lack of observable interfaces between matter and antimatter dominated regions is that they are separated by a Leidenfrost layer of very hot matter created by the energy released from annihilation. This is similar to the manner in which water may be separated from a hot plate by a layer of evaporated vapor, delaying the evaporation of more water.[citation needed]

Electric dipole momentEdit

The presence of an electric dipole moment (EDM) in any fundamental particle would violate both parity (P) and time (T) symmetries. As such, an EDM would allow matter and antimatter to decay at different rates leading to a possible matter-antimatter asymmetry as observed today. Many experiments are currently being conducted to measure the EDM of various physical particles. All measurements are currently consistent with no dipole moment. However, the results do place rigorous constraints on the amount of symmetry violation that a physical model can permit. The most recent EDM limit, published in 2014, was that of the ACME Collaboration, which measured the EDM of the electron using a pulsed beam of thorium monoxide (ThO) molecules.[13]

Baryon asymmetry parameterEdit

The challenges to the physics theories are then to explain how to produce the predominance of matter over antimatter, and also the magnitude of this asymmetry. An important quantifier is the asymmetry parameter,


This quantity relates the overall number density difference between baryons and antibaryons (nB and nB, respectively) and the number density of cosmic background radiation photons nγ.

According to the Big Bang model, matter decoupled from the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at a temperature of roughly 3000 kelvin, corresponding to an average kinetic energy of 3000 K / (10.08×103 K/eV) = 0.3 eV. After the decoupling, the total number of CBR photons remains constant. Therefore, due to space-time expansion, the photon density decreases. The photon density at equilibrium temperature T per cubic centimeter, is given by


with kB as the Boltzmann constant, ħ as the Planck constant divided by 2π and c as the speed of light in vacuum, and ζ(3) as Apéry's constant. At the current CBR photon temperature of 2.725 K, this corresponds to a photon density nγ of around 411 CBR photons per cubic centimeter.

Therefore, the asymmetry parameter η, as defined above, is not the "good" parameter. Instead, the preferred asymmetry parameter uses the entropy density s,


because the entropy density of the universe remained reasonably constant throughout most of its evolution. The entropy density is


with p and ρ as the pressure and density from the energy density tensor Tμν, and g* as the effective number of degrees of freedom for "massless" particles (inasmuch as mc2 ≪ kBT holds) at temperature T,


for bosons and fermions with gi and gj degrees of freedom at temperatures Ti and Tj respectively. Presently, s = 7.04nγ.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "The matter-antimatter asymmetry problem". CERN. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  2. ^ Sather, Eric. "The Mystery of the Matter Asymmetry" (PDF). Vanderbuilt University. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  3. ^ Sarkar, Utpal (2007). Particle and astroparticle physics. CRC Press. p. 429. ISBN 978-1-58488-931-1.
  4. ^ a b Canetti, L.; Drewes, M.; Shaposhnikov, M. (2012). "Matter and Antimatter in the Universe". New J. Phys. 14 (9): 095012. arXiv:1204.4186. Bibcode:2012NJPh...14i5012C. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/14/9/095012.
  5. ^ A. D. Sakharov (1967). "Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry, and baryon asymmetry of the universe". Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Letters. 5: 24–27. and in Russian, A. D. Sakharov (1967). "Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry, and baryon asymmetry of the universe". ZhETF Pis'ma. 5: 32–35. republished as A. D. Sakharov (1991). "Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry, and baryon asymmetry of the universe". Soviet Physics Uspekhi (in Russian and English). 34 (5): 392–393. Bibcode:1991SvPhU..34..392S. doi:10.1070/PU1991v034n05ABEH002497.
  6. ^ A. A. Penzias; R. W. Wilson (1965). "A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Mc/s". Astrophysical Journal. 142: 419–421. Bibcode:1965ApJ...142..419P. doi:10.1086/148307.
  7. ^ J. W. Cronin; V. L. Fitch; et al. (1964). "Evidence for the 2π decay of the
    meson". Physical Review Letters. 13 (4): 138–140. Bibcode:1964PhRvL..13..138C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.138.
  8. ^ M. E. Shaposhnikov; G. R. Farrar (1993). "Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe in the Minimal Standard Model". Physical Review Letters. 70 (19): 2833–2836. arXiv:hep-ph/9305274. Bibcode:1993PhRvL..70.2833F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.2833. PMID 10053665.
  9. ^ "New source of asymmetry between matter and antimatter | CERN". Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  10. ^ A. Riotto; M. Trodden (1999). "Recent progress in baryogenesis". Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science. 49: 46. arXiv:hep-ph/9901362. Bibcode:1999ARNPS..49...35R. doi:10.1146/annurev.nucl.49.1.35.
  11. ^ Davidson, Keay; Smoot, George (2008). Wrinkles in Time. New York: Avon. pp. 158–163. ISBN 978-0061344442.
  12. ^ Silk, Joseph (1977). Big Bang. New York: Freeman. p. 299. ISBN 9780805072563.
  13. ^ The ACME Collaboration; et al. (17 January 2014). "Order of Magnitude Smaller Limit on the Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron". Science. 343 (269): 269–72. arXiv:1310.7534. Bibcode:2014Sci...343..269B. doi:10.1126/science.1248213. PMID 24356114.