Kingdom of Butua

The Kingdom of Butua[pronunciation?] or Butwa (c. 1450 - 1683) was a pre-colonial African state located in what is now southwestern Zimbabwe. Butua was renowned as the source of gold for Arab and Portuguese traders. The region was first mentioned in Portuguese records in 1512.

Kingdom of Butua
1450–c. 1683
Common languagesiKalanga
Belief in Mwari
• Abandonment of Zimbabwe
• Conquest by Rozwi Empire
c. 1683
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Zimbabwe
Rozwi Empire
The ruins of Khami, capital of the Butua Kingdom.
Steps leading into the ancient city of Khami.
The outer wall of Khami

The kingdom was governed by the Torwa dynasty until 1683 from its capital at Khami. Its people were ancestors of the shona/Bakalanga. In 1683, the kingdom was conquered by the Rozwi Empire.

The foundations of the Khami Ruins show a striking resemblance to the pattern of masonry at the base of the Zimbabwe Ruins. Hence the Kalanga are thought to have built Khami, Lusvingo, Mapungugwe and other ruins scattered across western Zimbabwe and east Botswana.


  • Gwinn, Robert; Norton, Peter; Goetz, Philip (1989). The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 2. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. p. 689. ISBN 0-85229-493-X.
  • Shillington, Kevin (2004). Encyclopedia of African History, Vol. 1. London: Routledge. pp. 1912 Pages. ISBN 1-57958-245-1.

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