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Bahmani Sultanate

The Bahmani Sultanate (also called the Bahmanid Empire or Bahmani Kingdom) was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the major medieval Indian kingdoms.[3] Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Muslim kingdom in South India.[4] The Kingdom later split into five offshoots that were collectively known as the Deccan sultanates. The last remnant of the Bahmani sultanate was defeated and destroyed in the 1520 Battle of Raichur by the Vijayanagara Empire.

Bahmani Sultanate

1347–1527
Bahmani Sultanate, 1470 CE
Bahmani Sultanate, 1470 CE
Capital
Common languages
Religion
Shia Islam[1][2]
GovernmentMonarchy
Sultan 
• 1347–1358
Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah
• 1525–1527
Kalim-Allah Shah
Historical eraLate Medieval
• Established
3 August 1347
• Disestablished
1527
CurrencyTaka
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Delhi Sultanate
Vijayanagara Empire
Bijapur Sultanate
Golconda Sultanate
Ahmadnagar Sultanate
Bidar Sultanate
Berar Sultanate
Today part ofIndia

HistoryEdit

 
Mahmud Gawan Madrasa was built by Mahmud Gawan, the Vizier of the Bahmani Sultanate as the centre of religious as well as secular education.[5]

The empire was established by an Ismaili military general from Badakhshan, Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, after revolting against the Turkic Delhi Sultanate of Muhammad bin Tughlaq.[6] Nazir Uddin Ismail Shah who had revolted against the Delhi Sultanate stepped down on that day in favour of Bahman Shah. His revolt was successful, and he established an independent state on the Deccan within the Delhi Sultanate's southern provinces.

Alauddin was succeeded by his son Mohammed Shah I. Bidar was made capital of the sultanate in 1529.[7]

The eldest sons of Humyaun Shah, Nizam-Ud-Din Ahmad III and Muhammad Shah III Lashkari ascended the throne successively, while they were young boys. The vizier Mahmud Gawan ruled as regent during this period, until Muhammad Shah reached of age. Mahmud Gawan is known for setting up the Mahmud Gawan Madrasa, a center of religious as well as secular education.[5] Gawan was considered a great statesman, and a poet of repute. However, Gawan was exectued by Muhammad Shah III, an act that the latter regretted until his death in 1482.[8]

Later rulers and DeclineEdit

Muhammad Shah II was succeeded by his son Mahmood Shah Bahmani II, the last Bahmani ruler to have real power.[9]

The last Bahmani Sultans were puppet monarchs under their Barid Shahi Prime Ministers, who were de facto rulers. After 1518 the sultanate broke up into five states: Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar, Qutb Shahi of Golconda (Hyderabad), Barid Shahi of Bidar, Imad Shahi of Berar, Adil Shahi of Bijapur. They are collectively known as the "Deccan Sultanates".[10]

The south Indian Emperor Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire defeated the last remnant of Bahmani Sultanate power after which the Bahmani Sultanate collapsed.[11]

HistoriographyEdit

Modern scholars[who?] have based their accounts of the Bahmani dynasty mainly upon the medieval chronicles of Firishta, Syed Ali Tabatabai, etc. Other contemporary works were Sivatatva Chintamani and Guru Charitra. Athanasius Nikitin traveled this kingdom. He contrasts the huge "wealth of the nobility with the wretchedness of the peasantry and the frugality of the Hindus".[12]

CultureEdit

Rulers of the dynasty believed that they descended from Bahman, the mythological figure of Greater Iranian legend and lore. The Bahamani Sultans were patrons of the Persian language, culture and literature, and some members of the dynasty became well-versed in that language and composed its literature in that language.[4]

 
Bahamani Tombs in Bidar district

The first sultan, Alauddin Bahman Shah is noted to have captured 1,000 singing and dancing girls from Hindu temples after he battled the northern Carnatic chieftains. The later Bahmanis also enslaved civilian women and children in wars; many of them were converted to Islam in captivity.[13][14] The craftspersons of Bidar were so famed for their inlay work on copper and silver that it came to be known as Bidri.

Although the sultanate practice Shi'a Islam, the majority of the population adhered to Hinduism. The common people, who were mostly Hindus, had to adjust their religious practices to become more acceptable to their Muslim political masters.[15]

ArchitectureEdit

The Persianate Indo-Islamic style of architecture developed during this period was later adopted by the Deccan Sultanates as well.

The Gulbarga Fort and Jama Masjid in Gulbarga, Bidar Fort and Madrasa Mahmud Gawan[5] in Bidar, are the major architectural contributions.

The rulers are buried in an elaborate tomb complex, known as the Bahmani Tombs.[16] The interior of the tombs are decorated with coloured tiles. Persian poetry and Quranic verses are inscribed on the tombs.[16]

List of Bahmani ShahsEdit

Titular Name Personal Name Reign
Independence from Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughlaq.
Shah
شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah
علاء الدین حسن بہمن شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah I
حسن گنگو
3 August 1347 – 11 February 1358
Shah
شاہ
Mohammad Shah I
محمد شاہ بہمنی
11 February 1358 – 21 April 1375
Shah
شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Mujahid Shah
علاء الدین مجاہد شاہ
Mujahid Shah 21 April 1375 – 16 April 1378
Shah
شاہ
Dawood Shah
داود شاہ بہمنی
16 April 1378 – 22 May 1378
Shah
شاہ
Mohammad Shah II
محمود شاہ بہمنی
21 May 1378 – 20 April 1397
Shah
شاہ
Ghiyath-ad-din Shah
عیاث الدین شاہ بہمنی
20 April 1397 – 14 June 1397
Shah
شاہ
Shams-ad-din Shah
شمس الدین شاہ بہمنی
Puppet King Under Lachin Khan Turk
14 June 1397 – 15 November 1397
Shah
شاہ
Taj-ud-Din Feroze Shah
تاج الدین فیروز شاہ
Feroze Shah
فیروز خان
24 November 1397 – 1 October 1422
Shah
شاہ
Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani
احمد شاہ ولی بہمنی
1 October 1422 – 17 April 1436
Shah
شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Ahmed Shah
علاء الدین احمد شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Ahmed Shah Bahmani
علاء الدین احمد شاہ بہمنی
17 April 1436 – 6 May 1458
Shah
شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Humayun Shah
علاء الدین ھمایوں شاہ
Humayun Shah Zalim Bahmani
ھمایوں شاہ ظالم بہمنی
7 May 1458 – 4 September 1461
Shah
شاہ
Nizam Shah Bahmani
نظام شاہ بہمنی
4 September 1461 – 30 July 1463
Shah
شاہ
Muhammad Shah Lashkari
محمد شاہ لشکری
Muhammad Shah Bahmani III
محمد شاہ بہمنی دوئم
30 July 1463 – 26 March 1482
Vira Shah
ویرا شاہ
Mahmood Shah Bahmani II
محمود شاہ بہمنی دوئم
26 March 1482 – 27 December 1518
Shah
شاہ
Ahmed Shah Bahmani II
احمد شاہ بہمنی دوئم
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
27 December 1518 – 15 December 1520
Shah
شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Shah
علاء الدین شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Shah Bahmani II
علاء الدین شاہ بہمنی دوئم
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
28 December 1520 – 5 March 1523
Shah
شاہ
Waliullah Shah Bahmani
ولی اللہ شاہ بہمنی
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
5 March 1522 – 1526
Shah
شاہ
Kaleemullah Shah Bahmani
کلیم اللہ شاہ بہمنی
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
1525–1527
Dissolution of the Sultanate into 5 Kingdoms namely; Bidar Sultanate; Ahmednagar Sultanate; Bijapur Sultanate; Golconda Sultanate and Berar Sultanate.
 
Great Mosque in Gulbarga Fort

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Shia Islam in India, Islamic Civilization in South Asia: A History of Muslim Power and Presence in the Indian subcontinent, (Routledge, 2013), 91.
  2. ^ Farooqui Salma Ahmed, A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century, (Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd., 2011), 170.
  3. ^ "The Five Kingdoms of the Bahmani Sultanate". orbat.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2007.
  4. ^ a b Ansari, N.H. "Bahmanid Dynasty" Archived 19 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopaedia Iranica
  5. ^ a b c Yazdani, 1947, pp. 91-98.
  6. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 106–108, 117. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  7. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 23.
  8. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 10.
  9. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 10-11.
  10. ^ Haig, 1925, pp. 425-426.
  11. ^ Eaton, Richard M. A Social History of the Deccan, 1300–1761: Eight Indian Lives. p. 88.
  12. ^ P. M. Kemp (1958). Bharat-Rus: An Introduction to Indo-Russian Contracts and Travels from Mediaeval Times to the October Revolution. ISCUS. p. 20.
  13. ^ Haig, 1925, pp. 391, 397-398.
  14. ^ Sewell, Robert. A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar) pp.57-58.
  15. ^ http://hdl.handle.net/10603/108004
  16. ^ a b Yazdani, 1947, pp. 114-142.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit