The Bahmani Sultanate (Persian: سلطان‌نشین بهمنی) was a late medieval empire that ruled the Deccan Plateau in India. The first independent Muslim kingdom of the Deccan,[7] the Bahmani Sultanate came to power in 1347 during the rebellion of Ismail Mukh against Muhammad bin Tughlaq, the Sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi. Ismail Mukh then abdicated in favour of Zafar Khan, who would establish the Bahmani Sultanate.

Bahmani Sultanate
1347–1527
The Bahmani Sultanate at its greatest extent in 1470 under regent Mahmud Gawan[1][2]
The Bahmani Sultanate at its greatest extent in 1470 under regent Mahmud Gawan[1][2]
StatusSultanate
Capital
Common languagesPersian (official)[3]
Marathi
Deccani Urdu
Telugu
Kannada
Religion
Sunni Islam[4]
Shia Islam[4][5]
Sufism[6]
GovernmentMonarchy
Sultan 
• 1347–1358
Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah
• 1525–1527
Kalim-Allah Shah
Historical eraLate Medieval
• Established
3 August 1347
• Disestablished
1527
CurrencyTaka
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Delhi Sultanate
Bijapur Sultanate
Golconda Sultanate
Ahmadnagar Sultanate
Berar Sultanate
Bidar Sultanate
Today part ofIndia

The Bahmani Sultanate was in perpetual war with its neighbors, including its rival to the south, the Vijayanagara Empire, which would outlast the Sultanate.[8] The Bahmani Sultans also patronized many architectural works, including Mahmud Gawan, the vizier regent of the Sultanate, who oversaw the creation of the Mahmud Gawan Madrasa, and Ahmad Shah I, who constructed the Bidar Fort.

The Sultanate would begin its decline under the reign of Mahmood Shah. Through a combination of factional strife and financial ruin, the Bahmani Sultanate split up into five states, known as the Deccan Sultanates, in 1518, ending its 180 year rule over the Deccan. The last four Bahmani rulers would be puppet monarchs under Amir Barid I of the Bidar Sultanate.[9][10]

Origin

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The Bahmani Sultanate was founded by Zafar Khan, who was of either Afghan or Turk origin.[11][12][13][14] Encyclopedia Iranica states him to be a Khorasani adventurer, who claimed descent from Bahrām Gōr.[15] According to the medieval historian Ferishta, his obscurity makes it difficult to track his origin, but he is nonetheless stated as of Afghan birth.[16] Ferishta further writes, Zafar Khan had earlier been a servant of a Brahmin astrologer at Delhi named Gangu, giving him the name Hasan Gangu,[17][18] and says that he was from North India.[19] Historians have not found any corroboration for the legend,[20][21] but Barani, who was the court chronicler of Sultan Firuz Shah, as well as some other scholars have also called him Hasan Gangu.[22] Another theory of origin for Zafar Khan is that he was of Brahmin origin,[23] and that Bahman (his given name following the establishment of the Sultanate) is a corrupted personalized form of Brahman,[24] with Hasan Gangu being a Hindu Brahman who became Muslim.[25][23] However this view has been discredited by S.A.Q. Husaini, who considers the idea of a Brahmin origin or Zafar Khan originally being a Hindu convert to Islam from Punjab untenable.[26]

History

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Ziauddin Barani, the court chronicler of Sultan Firuz Shah, states that Hasan Gangu, the Bahmani Sultanate's founder, was "born in very humble circumstances" and that "For the first thirty years of his life he was nothing more than a field laborer."[27] He was made a commander of a hundred horsemen by the Delhi Sultan, Muhammad bin Tughluq, who was pleased with his honesty. This sudden rise in the military and socio-economic ladder was common in this era of Muslim India.[28] Zafar Khan or Hasan Gangu was among the inhabitants of Delhi who were forced to migrate to the Deccan, to build a large Muslim settlement in the region of Daulatabad.[29] Zafar Khan was a man of ambition and looked forward to the adventure. He had long hoped to employ his body of horsemen in the Deccan region as the Deccan was seen as the place of bounty in Muslim imagination at the time. He was rewarded with an Iqta for taking part in the conquest of Kampili.[30]

Rise

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Before the establishment of his kingdom, Hasan Gangu (Zafar Khan) was Governor of Deccan and a commander on behalf of the Tughlaqs. On 3 August 1347, during the rebellion by the Amirs of the Deccan, Ismail Mukh, the leader of the rebellion (whom the rebel amirs of the Deccan placed on the throne of Daulatabad in 1345), abdicated in favor of Zafar Khan, resulting in the establishment of the Bahmani Kingdom. The Sultan of Delhi had besieged the rebels at the citadel of Daulatabad. As another rebellion had begun in Gujarat, the Sultan left and installed Shaikh Burhan-ud-din Bilgrami and Malik Jauhar and other nobles in charge of the siege. Meanwhile, as these nobles were unable to stop the Deccani amirs from pursuing the imperial army, Hasan Gangu, a native of Delhi, then being pursued by Governor of Berar Imad-ul-Mulk, the leader to whom the Deccani Amirs had re-assembled against, attacked and slew the latter and marched on towards Daulatabad. Here Hasan Gangu and the Deccani amirs put to flight the imperial forces which had been left to besiege. The rebels at Daulatabad had the sense to see Hasan Gangu as the man of the hour, and the proposal to crown Hasan Gangu, entitled Zafar Khan, was accepted without a dissentient voice on 3 August 1347.[32][33][34][35][36] His revolt was successful, and he established an independent state on the Deccan within the Delhi Sultanate's southern provinces with its headquarters at Hasanabad (Gulbarga), where all his coins were minted.[32][37]

 
Chand Minar at Daulatabad fort complex

With the support of the influential Indian Chishti Sufi Shaikhs, he was crowned "Alauddin Bahman Shah Sultan – Founder of the Bahmani Dynasty".[38] They bestowed upon him a robe allegedly worn by the prophet Muhammad. The extension of the Sufi's notion of spiritual sovereignty lent legitimacy to the planting of the Sultanate's political authority, where the land, people, and produce of the Deccan were merited state protection, no longer available for plunder with impunity. These Sufis legitimized the transplantation of Indo-Muslim rulership from one region in South Asia to another, converting the land of the Bahmanids into being recognized as Dar ul-Islam, while it was previously considered Dar ul-Harb.[39]

Turkish or Indo-Turkish troops, explorers, saints, and scholars moved from Delhi and North India to the Deccan with the establishment of the Bahmanid sultanate. How many of these were Shi'ites is unclear. Nonetheless, there is enough evidence to demonstrate that a number of nobility at the Bahmani court identified as Shi'ites or had significant Shi'ite inclinations.[a][4]

Succeeding rulers (1358–1422)

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Alauddin was succeeded by his son Mohammed Shah I.[41] His conflicts with the Vijayanagar empire were singularly savage wars, as according to the historian Ferishta, "the population of the Carnatic was so reduced that it did not recover for several ages."[42] The Bahmanids' aggressive confrontation with the two main Hindu kingdoms of the southern Deccan, Warangal and Vijayanagara in the First Bahmani–Vijayanagar War, made them renowned among Muslims as warriors of the faith.[43]

The Vijayanagara empire and the Bahmanids fought over the control of the Godavari-basin, Tungabadhra Doab, and the Marathwada country, although they seldom required a pretext for declaring war,[44] as military conflicts were almost a regular feature and lasted as long as these kingdoms continued.[45] Military slavery involved captured slaves from Vijayanagara whom were then converted to Islam and integrated into the host society, so they could begin military careers within the Bahmanid empire.[46][47]

Ghiyasuddin succeeded his father Muhammad II at the age of seventeen in April 1397, but was blinded and imprisoned by a Turkic slave called Taghalchin,[48][49] who had held a grudge on the Sultan for the latter's refusal to appoint him as a governor. He had lured the Sultan into putting himself in the former's power, using the beauty of his daughter, who was accomplished in music and arts, and had introduced her to the Sultan at a feast.[50][51] He was succeeded by Shamsuddin, who was a puppet king under Taghalchin. Firuz and Ahmed, the sons of the fourth sultan Daud, marched to Gulbarga to avenge Ghiyasuddin. Firuz declared himself the sultan, and defeated Taghalchin's forces. Taghalchin was killed and Shamsuddin was blinded.[52]

 
Garden of Fort Bidar

Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah became the sultan in November 1397.[53] Firuz Shah fought against the Vijayanagara Empire on many occasions and the rivalry between the two dynasties continued unabated throughout his reign, with victories in 1398 and in 1406, but a defeat in 1419. One of his victories resulted in his marriage to the daughter of Deva Raya, the Vijayanagara Emperor.

Firuz Shah expanded the nobility by enabling Hindus and granting them high office.[54] In his reign, Sufis such as Gesudaraz, a Chishti saint who had immigrated from Dehli to Daulatabad, were prominent in court and daily life.[55] He was the first author to write in the Dakhni dialect of Urdu.[56] The Dakhni language became widespread, practised by various milieus from the court to the Sufis. It was established as a lingua franca of the Muslims of the Deccan, as not only the aspect of a dominant urban elite, but an expression of the regional religious identity.[57]

Later rulers (1422–1482)

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Firuz Shah was succeeded by his younger brother Ahmad Shah I Wali. Following the establishment of Bidar as capital of the Sultanate in 1429,[58] Ahmad Shah I converted to Shi'ism.[4] Ahmad Shah's reign was marked by relentless military campaigns and expansionism. He imposed destruction and slaughter on Vijayanagara and finally captured the remnants of Warangal.[59]

 
Coinage of Ala al-Din Ahmad Shah II (r. 1435–1458)

Alauddin Ahmad II succeeded his father to the throne in 1436.[60] He ordered the construction of the Chand Minar, a minaret in Daulatabad. For the first half-century after the establishment of the Bahmanids, the original North Indian colonists and their sons had administered the empire quite independent of either the non-Muslim Hindus, or the Muslim foreign immigrants.

However, the later Bahmani Sultans, mainly starting from his father Ahmad Shah Wali I, began to recruit foreigners from overseas, whether because of depletion among the ranks of the original settlers, or the feelings of dependency upon the Persian courtly model, or both.[61] This resulted in factional strife that first became acute in the reign of his son Alauddin Ahmad Shah II.[62] In 1446, the powerful Dakhani nobles persuaded the Sultan that the Persians were responsible for the failure of the earlier invasion of the Konkan.[63]

The Sultan, drunk, condoned a large-scale massacre of Persian Shi'a Sayyids by the Sunni Dakhani nobles and their Sunni Abyssinian slaves.[64] A few survivors escaped the massacre dressed in women's clothing and convinced the Sultan of their innocence.[65] Ashamed of his own folly, the Sultan punished the Dakhani leaders who were responsible for the massacre, putting them to death or throwing them in prison, and reduced their families to beggary.[66] The accounts of the violent events likely included exaggerations as it came from the pen of the chroniclers who were themselves mainly foreigners and products of Safavid Persia.[67]

 
Mahmud Gawan Madrasa, built by Mahmud Gawan to be the centre of religious as well as secular education[68]

The eldest sons of Humayun Shah, Nizam-Ud-Din Ahmad III and Muhammad Shah III Lashkari ascended the throne successively, while they were young boys. The vizier Mahmud Gawan ruled as regent during this period, until Muhammad Shah reached age. Mahmud Gawan is known for setting up the Mahmud Gawan Madrasa, a center of religious as well as secular education,[68] as well as achieving the Sultanate's greatest extent during the his rule.[2] He also increased the administrative divisions of the Sultanate from four to eight to ease the administrative burden from previous expansion of the state. Gawan was considered a great statesman, and a poet of repute.[69]

Mahmud Gawan was caught in a struggle between a rivalry between two groups of nobles, the Dakhanis and the Afaqis. The Dakhanis made the indigenous Muslim elite of the Bahmanid dynasty, being descendants of Sunni immigrants from Northern India, while the Afaqis were foreign newcomers from the West such as Gawan, who were mostly Shi'is.[70][71] The Dakhanis believed that the privileges, patronage and positions of power in the Sultanate should have been reserved solely for them.[72]

The divisions included sectarian religious divisions where the Afaqis were looked upon as heretics by the Sunnis as the former were Shi'as.[73] Eaton cites a linguistic divide where the Dakhanis spoke Dakhni while the Afaqis favored the Persian language.[74] Although Mahmud Gawan was a foreigner, he attempted to reconcile the factions and strengthen the Sultanate by allotting offices to the Dakhanis.

Nonetheless, Mahmud Gawan found it difficult to win their confidence; the party strife could not be stopped and his opponents eventually managed to poison the ears of the Sultan.[75] Mahmud Gawan was executed by Muhammad Shah III, an act that the latter regretted until he died in 1482.[69] Upon his death, Nizam-ul-Mulk Bahri, the father of the founder of the Nizam Shahi dynasty became the regent of the king.[76] Nizam-ul-Mulk, as leader of the Dakhani party, led a cold-blooded massacre of Iranian Georgians and Turkmens in the capital of Bidar.[77][78]

Decline

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Muhammad Shah III Lashkari was succeeded by his son Mahmood Shah Bahmani II, the last Bahmani ruler to have real power.[79] In 1501, Mahmood Shah Bahmani united his amirs and wazirs in an agreement to wage annual Jihad against Vijayanagara. The expeditions were financially ruinous.[80]

 
Sultan Husain Nizam Shah I on Horseback, founder of the Nizam Shahi Sultanate

The last Bahmani Sultans were puppet monarchs under their Barid Shahi Prime Ministers, who were de facto rulers. After 1518 the Sultanate broke up into five states: Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar, Qutb Shahi of Golconda (Hyderabad), Barid Shahi of Bidar, Imad Shahi of Berar, and Adil Shahi of Bijapur. They are collectively known as the Deccan Sultanates.[9]

Historiography

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Modern scholars like Haroon Khan Sherwani and Richard M. Eaton have based their accounts of the Bahmani dynasty mainly upon the medieval chronicles of Firishta and Syed Ali Tabatabai.[81][82] Other contemporary works were the Sivatattva Chintamani, a Kannada language encyclopedia on the beliefs and rites of the Veerashaiva faith, and Guru Charitra. Afanasy Nikitin, a Russian merchant and traveler, traveled through the Bahmani Sultanate in his journeys. He contrasts the huge "wealth of the nobility with the wretchedness of the peasantry and the frugality of the Hindus".[83]

Culture

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Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah of the Bahmani Sultanate's Firman

The Bahmani dynasty patronized Indo-Muslim and Persian culture from Northern India and the Middle East.[84] However, the society of the Bahmnanis was dominated prominently by Iranians, Afghans, and Turks.[85] They also had considerable and social influence such as with the celebration of Nowruz by Bahmani rulers.[85] This also comes as Mohammed Shah I ascended the throne on Nowruz.[86] According to Khafi Khan and Ferishta, musicians flocked to the court from Lahore, Delhi, Persia and Khorasan.[87]

The Bahmani Sultans were patrons of the Persian language, culture and literature, and some members of the dynasty became well-versed in the language and composed its literature in the language.[7]

The first sultan, Alauddin Bahman Shah, is noted to have captured 1,000 singing and dancing girls from Hindu temples after he battled the northern Carnatic chieftains. The later Bahmanis also enslaved civilian women and children in wars; many of them were converted to Islam in captivity.[88][89]

Bidriware

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Bidriware is a metal handicraft from the city of Bidar in Karnataka. It was developed in the 14th century during the rule of the Bahmani Sultans.[90] The term "bidriware" originates from the township of Bidar, which is still the chief center of production.[91] The craftspersons of Bidar were so famed for their inlay work on copper and silver that it came to be known as Bidri.[90] The metal used is white brass that is blackened and inlaid with silver.[91] As a native art form, Bidriware obtained a geographical Indications (GI) registry on 3 January 2006.[92]

Architecture

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Gateway to Bidar Fort

The Bahmani Sultans patronized many architectural works, although many have since been destroyed.[93] The Gulbarga Fort, Haft Gumbaz, and Jama Masjid in Gulbarga, the Bidar Fort and Madrasa Mahmud Gawan in Bidar, and the Chand Minar in Daulatabad are some of their major architectural contributions.[68]

The later Sultans were buried in a necropolis known as the Bahmani Tombs. The exterior of one of the tombs is decorated with coloured tiles. Arabic, Persian and Urdu inscriptions are inscribed inside the tombs.[94][95]

The Bahmani Sultans built many mosques, tombs, and madrasas in Bidar and Gulbarga, the two capitals. They also built many forts in Daulatabad, Golconda and Raichur. The architecture was highly influenced by Persian architecture, as they invited architects from Persia, Turkey and Arabia. The Persianate Indo-Islamic style of architecture developed during this period was later adopted by the Deccan Sultanates as well.[96][93]

Turquoise Throne

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The Turquoise Throne was a jeweled royal throne mentioned by Firishta. It was the seat of the sultans of the Bahmani Sultanate since Mohammed Shah I (r.1358–1375). It was a gift of Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka, then king of the Telangana region.[97] It was mentioned by Firishta that on 23 March 1363,[b] this throne replaced an earlier silver throne that the first Bahmani sultan Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah used.

Gunpowder weapons

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Cannons and Mortar at Paranda fort

The Bahmani Sultanate was likely the first state to invent and utilize gunpowder artillery and firearms within the Indian Subcontinent. Their firearms were the most advanced of their time, surpassing even those of the Yuan Dynasty and the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. The first recorded use of firearms in South Asia was at the Battle of Adoni in 1368, where the Bahmani Sultanate led by Mohammed Shah I used a train of artillery against the Vijayanagara Empire who was led by Emperor Harihara II.[99] [100] Following the initial use of gunpowder weapons in 1368, they became the backbone of the Bahmani army.[101]

The scholar Iqtidar Alam Khan claims, however, that based on a differing translation of a passage of medieval historian Ferishta's text Tarikh-i Firishta, in which he describes early use of gunpowder weapons in the Indian Subcontinet, it can be inferred that both the Delhi Sultanate and non-Muslim Indian states had the gunpowder weapons that the Bahmani Sultanate began to use in 1368, and that the Bahmanis had acquired the weapons from the Delhi Sultanate.[102] Contemporary evidence shows the presence of gunpowder for pyrotechnic uses in the Delhi Sultanate,[103] and Alam Khan states that their usage in the Battle of Adoni in 1368 was rather the first military usage of gunpowder-derived objects in the Subcontinent.[104]

List of Bahmani rulers

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Titular Name Personal Name Reign
Independence from Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughlaq
Shah Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah I 3 August 1347 – 11 February 1358
Shah Mohammad Shah I 11 February 1358 – 21 April 1375
Shah Ala-ud-Din Mujahid Shah Mujahid Shah 21 April 1375 – 16 April 1378
Shah Davood Shah 16 April 1378 – 22 May 1378
Shah Mohammad Shah II 21 May 1378 – 20 April 1397
Shah Ghiyath-ad-din Shah 20 April 1397 – 14 June 1397
Shah Shams-ud-Din Shah
Puppet King Under Lachin Khan Turk
14 June 1397 – 15 November 1397
Shah Taj-ud-Din Feroze Shah
Feroze Shah 24 November 1397 – 1 October 1422
Shah Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani 1 October 1422 – 17 April 1436
Shah Ala-ud-Din Ahmed Shah Ala-ud-Din II Ahmed Shah Bahmani 17 April 1436 – 6 May 1458
Shah Ala-ud-Din Humayun Shah Humayun Shah Zalim Bahmani 7 May 1458 – 4 September 1461
Shah Nizam Shah Bahmani 4 September 1461 – 30 July 1463
Shah Muhammad Shah Lashkari Muhammad Shah Bahmani III 30 July 1463 – 26 March 1482
Vira Shah Mahmood Shah Bahmani II
Puppet King Under Nizam-ul-Mulk Bahri
26 March 1482 – 27 December 1518
Shah Ahmed Shah Bahmani II
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
27 December 1518 – 15 December 1520
Shah Ala-ud-Din Shah Bahmani II
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
28 December 1520 – 5 March 1522
Shah Waliullah Shah Bahmani
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
5 March 1522 – 1526
Shah Kaleemullah Shah Bahmani
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
1525–1527
Dissolution of the Sultanate into five kingdoms — Bidar Sultanate, Ahmednagar Sultanate, Bijapur Sultanate, Golconda Sultanate, and Berar Sultanate

See also

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References

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Notes

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  1. ^ Stephen F. Dale refers to the Bahmanis as Shi'i Muslims.[40]
  2. ^ Firishta mentioned that Sultan Bahman Shah first sat on the new throne (i.e. the Takht-e-Firoza) on Nowruz, the Persian new year, following the autumnal solstice in 764 AH.[98]

Citations

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  1. ^ "Schwartzberg Atlas — Digital South Asia Library". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  2. ^ a b Mirza, Umair (2014). History of Medieval India 800–1700 A.D. pp. 146–148.
  3. ^ Ansari 1988, pp. 494–499.
  4. ^ a b c d Khalidi, Umar (1990). "The Shiʿites of the Deccan: An Introduction". Rivista degli studi orientali. 64, Fasc. 1/2, SGUARDI SULLA CULTURA A SCIITA NEL DECCAN GLANCES ON SHI'ITE DECCAN CULTURE: 5.
  5. ^ John Morris Roberts, Odd Arne Westad (2013). The History of the World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199936762.
  6. ^ Eaton 1978, p. 49.
  7. ^ a b Ansari, N.H. "Bahmanid Dynasty". Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  8. ^ George C. Kohn (2006). Dictionary of Wars. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9781438129167.
  9. ^ a b Haig, 1925, pp. 425–426.
  10. ^ History of The Deccan. Mittal Publications. 1990. p. 15.
  11. ^ Jenkins, Everett (2015). The Muslim Diaspora (Volume 1, 570–1500): A Comprehensive Chronology of the Spread of Islam in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas, Volume 1. McFarland. p. 257. ISBN 9781476608884. Zafar Khan alias Alauddin Hasan Gangu ('Ala al-Din Hasan Bahman Shah), an Afghan or a Turk soldier, revolted against Delhi and established the Muslim Kingdom of Bahmani on August 3 in the South (Madura) and ruled as Sultan Alauddin Bahman Shah.
  12. ^ Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India. Psychology Press. p. 181. ISBN 9780415329200. The Bahmani sultanate of the Deccan Soon after Muhammad Tughluq left Daulatabad, the city was conquered by Zafar Khan, a Turkish or Afghan officer of unknown descent, had earlier participated in a mutiny of troops in Gujarat.
  13. ^ Wink, André (2020). The Making of the Indo-Islamic World C.700–1800 CE. Cambridge University Press. p. 87. ISBN 9781108417747. Finally, and more importantly, the independent Bahmani dynasty of the Deccan was founded in 1348 by Zafar Khan, probably an Afghan who broke away from Delhi with the support of Afghan and Mongol "New Muslims"
  14. ^ Kerr, Gordon (2017). A Short History of India: From the Earliest Civilisations to Today's Economic Powerhouse. Oldcastle Books Ltd. p. 160. ISBN 9781843449232. In the early fourteenth century, the Muslim Bahmani kingdom of the Deccan emerged following Alauddin's conquest of the south. Zafar Khan, an Afghan general and governor appointed by Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq, was victorious against the troops of the Delhi Sultanate, establishing the Bahmani kingdom with its capital at Ahsanabad (modern-day Gulbarga).
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  17. ^ Bhattacharya, Sachchidananada. A Dictionary of Indian History (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1972) p. 100
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  20. ^ Chandra 2004, p. 177.
  21. ^ Majumdar 1967, p. 248.
  22. ^ Chopdar (27 February 1967). History and Culture of the Indian People, Volume 06,The Delhi Sultanate. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 248.
  23. ^ a b Jayanta Gaḍakarī (2000). Hindu Muslim Communalism. p. 140.
  24. ^ McCann, Michael W. (15 July 1994). Rights at Work: Pay Equity Reform and the Politics of Legal Mobilization. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-55571-3.
  25. ^ Suvorova (2000). Masnavi: A Study of Urdu. Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-19-579148-8.
  26. ^ Husaini (Saiyid.), Abdul Qadir (1960). Bahman Shāh, the Founder of the Bahmani Kingdom. Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay. pp. 60–63.
  27. ^ Gribble (1896). A History of the Deccan: Volume 1. Luzac and Company. p. 16.
  28. ^ J.D.E 1990, p. 16.
  29. ^ A. Rā Kulakarṇī; M. A. Nayeem; Teotonio R. De Souza (1996). Mediaeval Deccan History: Commemoration Volume in Honour of Purshottam Mahadeo Joshi. Popular Prakashan. p. 34. ISBN 9788171545797.
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  31. ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 39, 147. ISBN 0226742210.
  32. ^ a b Mahajan, V.D. (1991). History of Medieval India, Part I, New Delhi:S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, pp.279–80
  33. ^ Bhattacharya. Indian History. p. 928
  34. ^ Thomas Wolseley Haig (1919). Historic landmarks of the Deccan. Pioneer Press.
  35. ^ Ahmed Farooqui, Salma (2011). Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson. p. 150. ISBN 9789332500983.
  36. ^ Ibrahim Khan (1960). Anecdotes from Islam. M. Ashraf.
  37. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 106–108, 117. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  38. ^ Burjor Avari (2013). Islamic Civilization in South Asia: A History of Muslim Power and Presence in the Indian Subcontinent. Routledge. p. 88. ISBN 9780415580618.
  39. ^ Richard M. Eaton (2019). India in the Persianate Age: 1000–1765. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 9780141966557.
  40. ^ Dale, Stephen F. (2009). The Muslim Empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals. Cambridge University Press. p. 31. ...may have contributed to the decision by a group of Shi'i Muslims from the Deccan, the Bahmani, to proclaim the new Muslim Sultanate there.
  41. ^ Prasad 1933, p. 417.
  42. ^ Abraham Elahy (2015). the Age of Wrath:A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin Books Limited.
  43. ^ Blair, Sheila S.; Bloom, Jonathan M. (25 September 1996). The Art and Architecture of Islam 1250–1800. Yale University Press. p. 159. ISBN 0300064659.
  44. ^ E. J. Brill (1993). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 1072. ISBN 9789004097940.
  45. ^ MEDIEVAL INDIA UPSC PREPARATION BOOKS HISTORY SERIES. Mocktime Publication. 2011.
  46. ^ Eaton 2005, p. 126.
  47. ^ Roy S. Fischel (2020). Local States in an Imperial World. p. 72. ISBN 9781474436090.
  48. ^ The Cambridge Shorter History of India. CUP Archive. p. 285.
  49. ^ Sherwani 1946, p. 129.
  50. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1951). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The Delhi sultanate. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
  51. ^ Sherwani 1946, p. 93.
  52. ^ Sherwani 1946, p. 132.
  53. ^ Prasad 1933, p. 423.
  54. ^ John Stewart Bowman (2000). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 275. ISBN 9780231110044.
  55. ^ Jamal Malik (2020). Islam in South Asia: Revised, Enlarged and Updated Second Edition. Brill. p. 168. ISBN 9789004422711.
  56. ^ Annemarie Schimmel (1975). Classical Urdu Literature from the Beginning to Iqbāl. Harrassowitz. p. 132.
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