North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India. The dominant geographical features of North India are the Indus-Gangetic Plain and the Himalayas, which demarcate the region from the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia.
|States and territories|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
The term North India has varying definitions - the Ministry of Home Affairs in its Northern Zonal Council Administrative division included the states of Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Rajasthan. while the Ministry of Culture in its North Culture Zone includes the state of Uttarakhand but excludes Delhi whereas the Geological Survey of India includes Uttar Pradesh and Delhi but excludes Rajasthan and Chandigarh. Other states sometimes included are Bihar, and Madhya Pradesh.
North India has been the historical centre of the Mughal, Delhi Sultanate and British Indian Empires. It has a diverse culture, and includes the Hindu pilgrimage centres of Char Dham, Haridwar, Varanasi, Ayodhya, Mathura, Allahabad, Vaishno Devi and Pushkar, the Buddhist pilgrimage centres of Bodhgaya, Sarnath and Kushinagar, the Sikh Golden Temple as well as world heritage sites such as the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Khajuraho temples, Hill Forts of Rajasthan, Jantar Mantar (Jaipur), Bhimbetka Caves, Sanchi monuments, Qutb Minar, Red Fort, Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri and the Taj Mahal.
Different authorities and sources define North India differently.
Government of India definitionsEdit
The Northern Zonal Council is one of the advisory councils, created in 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act to foster inter-state cooperation under the Ministry of Home Affairs which included the states of Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Rajasthan.
In contrast, the Geological Survey of India (part of the Ministry of Mines) included Uttar Pradesh and Delhi in its Northern Region, but excluded Rajasthan and Chandigarh, with a regional headquarters in Lucknow.
The Hindu newspaper puts Bihar as well as Uttar Pradesh and Delhi related articles on its North pages. Other articles in the Indian press have included the states from Punjab to Bihar, and the BIMARU states in North India.
The Tropic of Cancer, which divides the temperate zone from the tropical zone in the Northern Hemisphere, runs through India, and could theoretically be regarded as a geographical dividing line in the country. North Indian states which are entirely above the Tropic of Cancer are Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. However that definition would also include most of North East Indian states as well as a major part of Rajasthan and minor parts of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Gujarat.
The term "North Indian" is sometimes used to describe people from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, often using the term bhaiya (which literally means 'elder brother') in a derogatory sense, though some press reports have contradicted this. In Punjab, people from the same region (Uttar Pradesh and Bihar) are often referred to as Purabias, or Easterners. The Government of Bihar official site places the state in the eastern part of India. Within Uttar Pradesh itself, "the cultural divide between the east and the west is considerable, with the purabiyas (easterners) often being clubbed with Biharis in the perception of the westerners."
The empires and dynasties that have ruled parts or all of North India include:
- Maurya Empire, 326 – 187 BCE
- Indo-Greek Kingdom, c.150 BCE - 10 CE (Menander I conquered Punjab)
- Northern Satraps, 1st century BCE to 1st century CE
- Gupta Empire, during the reign of Samudragupta, c.335 – c.550 CE
- Empire of Harsha, 606 to 647 CE
- Pala Empire, 770 to 810 CE
- Pratihara Empire, mid-7th to the 11th century
- Delhi Sultanate, 1206–1526
- Mughal Empire, 1526–1540, then 1555–1857, interrupted briefly by the Sur Empire,
- Sur Empire 1540–1556
- Sikh Empire 1799–1849
- Maratha Empire 1761-1818
- British Indian Empire 1858–1947
The Delhi Sultanate, Mughal and British Indian Empires had Delhi as their capital for some or all of their rule.
"North of the Vindhyas"Edit
One demarcation between northern and southern nations has been the Vindhya mountain range. In centuries past this sometimes formed a border during periods of imperial expansion, such as the one ruled by the Gupta emperor Samudragupta. The Vindhyas also find mention in the narrative of Rishi Agastya as a dividing feature between North and South India. The Manusmṛti also describes the southern limit of Aryavarta (i.e. the abode of the Aryans) as being defined by the Vindhya range.
Muslim, Central Asian and Afghan impacts as defining influencesEdit
Several sources consider sizable Muslim populations and deep-seated Islamic, Central Asian and Afghan influences to be defining characteristics of North Indian culture, both linguistically and culturally. Some of these influences are pre-Islamic, such as the Bactrian-originated Kushan Empire (modern day Afghanistan) that maintained twin capitals in Mathura (now in Uttar Pradesh) and Peshawar (in the present-day Pakistani Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province), as well as the Hun confederacies that periodically asserted their rule over large parts of North India.
North India lies mainly on continental India, north of peninsular India.[Which part lies on insular India?] Towards its north are the Himalayas which define the boundary between the Indian subcontinent and the Tibetan plateau. To its west is the Thar desert, shared between North India and Pakistan and the Aravalli Range, beyond which lies the state of Gujarat. The Vindhya mountains are, in some interpretations, taken to be the southern boundary of North India.
The predominant geographical features of North India are:
- the Indo-Gangetic plain, which spans the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar;
- the Himalayas, which lie in the states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir;
- the Thar desert, which lies mainly in the state of Rajasthan.
The state of Madhya Pradesh has large areas under forest cover, as do Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Chhattisgarh.
North India lies mainly in the north temperate zone of the Earth. Though cool or cold winters, hot summers and moderate monsoons are the general pattern. North India is one of the most climatically diverse regions on Earth. During summer, the temperature often rises above 35 °C across much of the Indo-Gangetic plain, reaching as high as 60 °C in the Thar desert, Rajasthan and up to 49 in Delhi. During winter, the lowest temperature on the plains dips to below 5 °C, and below the freezing point in some states. Heavy to moderate snowfall occurs in Himachal Pradesh, J&K and Uttarakhand. Much of North India is notorious for heavy fog during winters.
Extreme temperatures among inhabited regions have ranged from −45 °C (−49 °F) in Dras, Jammu and Kashmir to 50.6 °C (123 °F) in Alwar, Rajasthan. Dras is claimed to be the second-coldest inhabited place on the planet (after Siberia), with a recorded low of -60 °C.
The region receives rain and snow precipitation through two primary weather patterns: the Indian Monsoon and the Western Disturbances. The Monsoon carries moisture northwards from the Indian Ocean, occurs in late summer and is important to the Kharif or autumn harvest. Western Disturbances, on the other hand, are an extratropical weather phenomenon that carry moisture eastwards from the Mediterranean Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. They primarily occur during the winter season and are critically important for the Rabi or spring harvest, which includes the main staple over much of North India, wheat. The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand receive sustained snowfall in winter months.
Northern Indian tradition recognises six distinct seasons in the region: summer (grishma or garmi, May–June), rainy (varsha, July–August), cool (sharad, September–October, sometimes thought of as 'early autumn'), autumn (hemant, November–December, also called patjhar, lit. leaf-fall), winter (shishir or sardi, January–February) and spring (vasant, March–April). The literature, poetry and folklore of the region uses references to these six seasons quite extensively and has done so since ancient times when Sanskrit was prevalent. In the mountainous areas, sometimes the winter is further divided into "big winter" (e.g. Kashmiri chillai kalaan) and "little winter" (chillai khurd).
The people of North India mostly belong to the Indo-Aryan ethno linguistic branch, and include various ethnic groups such as Brahmins, Rajputs, Banias, Jats, Ahirs, Gurjars, Kolis, Khatris, Kambojs and Dalits. Other minority ethno-linguistic communities such as Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman and Austroasiatic exist throughout the region.
Hinduism is the dominant religion in North India. Other religions practiced by various ethnic communities include Islam, Sikhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Bahá'í, Christianity, and Buddhism. The states of Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh are overwhelmingly Hindu. The states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have Hindu majorities with a significantly large minority of Muslims; the combined Muslim population of these two states surpasses many of the biggest Islamic nations. Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a majority Muslim population, while Punjab is the only state with a majority Sikh population.
Linguistically, North India is dominated by Indo-Aryan languages, although subregions of Northern Dravidian languages, Tibeto-Burman languages (such as Himachal's Lahauli language) and Austroasiatic languages (such as Munda) exist throughout the region.[Nowhere do we define these subregions] It is in this region, or its proximity, that Sanskrit and the various Prakrits are thought to have evolved. The most widely spoken Indo-Aryan language native to North India is the Hindi Belt, which includes the Hindustani lingua franca (including both its Hindi and Urdu registers), a wide range of western and eastern Hindi dialects, (Awadhi, Chattisgarhi), Bihari languages (Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Maithili and Angika), Rajasthani languages (Marwari, Mewari, Shekhawati, Malwi, Bagri), Haryanvi, Pahari, Kumaoni, Garhwali, Punjabi, Kashmiri, Haryanavi and other languages. The subregion where the Hindi Belt is widely spoken (as either primary or secondary languages) is sometimes called the Hindi Heartland , and is loosely defined.
Dance of North India too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab, and rouf and bhand pather of Kashmir. Main dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama such as kathak of Uttar Pradesh.
Each state of North India has its own regional forms of clothing:
Flora and faunaEdit
North Indian vegetation is predominantly deciduous and coniferous. Of the deciduous trees, sal, teak, walnut, sheesham (Indian rosewood) and poplar are some which are important commercially. The Western Himalayan region abounds in chir, pine, deodar (Himalayan cedar), blue pine, spruce, various firs, birch and junipers. The birch, especially, has historical significance in Indian culture due to the extensive use of birch paper (Sanskrit: bhurja patra) as parchment for many ancient Indian texts. The Eastern Himalayan region consists of oaks, laurels, maples, rhododendrons, alder, birch and dwarf willows. Reflecting the diverse climatic zones and terrain contained in the region, the floral variety is extensive and ranges from Alpine to temperate thorn, coniferous to evergreen, and thick tropical jungles to cool temperate woods.
There are around 500 varieties of mammals, 2000 species of birds, 30,000 types of insects and a wide variety of fish, amphibians and reptiles in the region. Animal species in North India include elephant, tiger, leopard, snow leopard, sambar (Asiatic stag), chital (spotted deer), hangul (red deer), hog deer, chinkara (Indian gazelle), blackbuck, nilgai (blue bull antelope), porcupine, wild boar, Indian fox, Tibetan sand fox, rhesus monkey, langur, jungle cat, hyena, jackal, black bear, Himalayan brown bear, sloth bear, and the endangered caracal.
Reptiles are represented by a large number of snake and lizard species, as well as the ghariyal and crocodiles. Venomous snakes found in the region include king cobra and krait. Various scorpion, spider and insect species include the commercially useful honeybees, silkworms and lac insects. The strikingly coloured bir bahuti is also found in this region.
The region has a wide variety of birds, including peafowl, parrots, and thousands of immigrant birds, such as the Siberian crane. Other birds include pheasants, geese, ducks, mynahs, parakeets, pigeons, cranes (including the celebrated sarus crane), and hornbills. great pied hornbill, Pallas's fishing eagle, grey-headed fishing eagle, red-thighed falconet are found in the Himalayan areas. Other birds found here are tawny fish owl, scale-bellied woodpecker, red-breasted parakeet, Himalayan swiftlet, stork-billed kingfisher and Himalayan or white-tailed rubythroat.
Wildlife parks and reservesEdit
Important national parks and tiger reserves of North India include -
Corbett National Park: It was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park along the banks of the Ramganga River. It is India's first National Park, and was designated a Project Tiger Reserve in 1973. Situated in Nainital district of Uttarakhand, the park acts as a protected area for the critically endangered Bengal tiger of India. Cradled in the foothills of the Himalayas, it comprises a total area of 500 km2 out of which 350 km2 is core reserve. This park is known not only for its rich and varied wildlife but also for its scenic beauty.
Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Flowers National Park: Located in West Himalaya, in the state of Uttarakhand, these two national parks constitute a biosphere reserve that is in the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2004. The Valley of Flowers is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora, this richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals.
Dachigam National Park: Dachigam is a higher altitude national reserve in the state of Jammu and Kashmir that ranges from 5,500 to 14,000 feet above sea level. It is home to the hangul (a red deer species, also called the Kashmir stag).
Great Himalayan National Park: This park is located in Himachal Pradesh and ranges in altitude from 5,000 to 17,500 feet. Wildlife resident here includes the snow leopard, the Himalayan brown bear and the musk deer.
Kanha National Park: The sal and bamboo forests, grassy meadows and ravines of Kanha were the setting for Rudyard Kipling's collection of stories, "The Jungle Book". The Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh came into being in 1955 and forms the core of the Kanha Tiger Reserve, created in 1974 under Project Tiger.
Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary: It is one of the finest bird parks in the world, it is a reserve that offers protection to faunal species as well. Nesting indigenous water birds as well as migratory water birds and waterside birds, this sanctuary is also inhabited by sambar, chital, nilgai and boar.
Dudhwa National Park: It covers an area of 500 km2 along the Indo-Nepal border in Lakhimpur Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh, is best known for the barasingha or swamp deer. The grasslands and woodlands of this park, consist mainly of sal forests. The barasingha is found in the southwest and southeast regions of the park. Among the big cats, tigers abound at Dudhwa. There are also a few leopards. The other animals found in large numbers, are the Indian rhinoceros, elephant, jungle cats, leopard cats, fishing cats, jackals, civets, sloth bears, sambar, otters, crocodiles and chital.
Ranthambhore National Park: It spans an area of 400 km2 with an estimated head count of thirty two tigers is perhaps India’s finest example of Project Tiger, a conservation effort started by the government in an attempt to save the dwindling number of tigers in India. Situated near the small town of Sawai Madhopur it boasts of variety of plant and animal species of North India.
Places of interestEdit
The Indian Himalayas, the Thar desert and the Indo-Gangetic plain dominate the natural scenery of North India. The region encompasses several of the most highly regarded hill destinations of India such as Srinagar, Shimla, Manali, Nainital, Mussoorie, Kausani and Mount Abu. Several spots in the states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh provide panoramic views of the snow-clad Himalayan range. The Himalayan region also provides ample opportunity for adventure sports such as mountaineering, trekking, river rafting and skiing. Camel or jeep safaris of the Thar desert are also popular in the state of Rajasthan. North India includes several national parks such as the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Jim Corbett National Park, Keoladeo National Park and Ranthambore National Park.
North India encompasses several of the holiest pilgrimage centres of Hinduism (Varanasi, Haridwar, Allahabad, Char Dham, Vaishno Devi, Rishikesh, Ayodhya, Mathura/Vrindavan, Pushkar, Prayag and seven of the twelve Jyotirlinga sites), the most sacred destinations of Buddhism (Bodh Gaya, Sarnath and Kushinagar), the most regarded pilgrimage centres of Sikhism (Amritsar and Hemkund) and some of the highly regarded destinations in Sufi Islam (Ajmer and Delhi). The largest Hindu temple, Akshardham Temple, the largest Buddhist temple in India, Mahabodhi, the largest mosque in India, Jama Masjid, and the largest Sikh shrine, Golden Temple, are all in this region.
North India includes some highly regarded historical, architectural and archaeological treasures of India. The Taj Mahal, an immense mausoleum of white marble in Agra, is one of the universally admired buildings of world heritage. Besides Agra, Fatehpur Sikri and Delhi also carry some great exhibits from the Mughal architecture. Gwalior has some rich cultural sites. Gwalior Fort, Sun Temple which was made by Birla group. Also Jai vilas palace shows maharaja culture. Lucknow has the greatest mix of Hindu and Muslim cultures in India. Kanpur reflects excellent British architecture with monuments like-Edward Hall, Police Quarters, Cutchery Cemetery etc. Khajuraho temples constitute another famous world heritage site. The state of Rajasthan is known for exquisite palaces and forts of the Rajput clans. Historical sites and architecture from the ancient and medieval Hindu and Buddhist periods of Indian history, such as Jageshwar, Deogarh and Sanchi, as well as sites from the bronze age Indus Valley Civilization, such as Manda and Alamgirpur, can be found scattered throughout northern India. Varanasi, on the banks of the River Ganga, is considered one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and the oldest in India. Bhimbetka is an archaeological site of the Paleolithic era, exhibiting the earliest traces of human life on the Indian subcontinent.
North India has several universities, including
- Agra University
- All India Institute of Medical Sciences
- Allahabad University
- Aligarh Muslim University
- Avadh University
- Benaras Hindu University
- Birla Institute of Technology and Science
- Central University of Rajasthan
- Delhi University
- Delhi Technological University
- Gautam Buddha University
- Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
- Gurukul Kangri University
- Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology
- Haryana Agricultural University
- Jai Narain Vyas University
- Jawaharlal Nehru University
- Jiwaji University
- Kanpur University
- Kumaon University
- Kurukshetra University
- Maharaja Ganga Singh University
- Maharana Pratap University
- O. P. Jindal Global University,
- Panjab University
- Patna University
- Punjab Technical University
- Srm university
- University of Ajmer
- University of Jammu
- University of Kashmir
- University of Kota
- University of Lucknow
- University of Rajasthan
- Uttarakhand Technical University
- Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University
and many more. The Indian Institute of Technology, National Institute of Technology and Indian Institute of Management have campuses in several cities of North India such as Delhi, Kanpur, Roorkee, Varanasi, Lucknow, Kashipur, Indore and Patna. One of the first great universities in recorded history, the Nalanda University, is in the state of Bihar. There has been plans for revival of this ancient university, including an effort by a multinational consortium led by Singapore, China, India and Japan.
The economy of North India is predominantly agrarian, but is changing fast with rapid economic growth that has ranged above 8% annually. Several parts of North India have prospered as a consequence of the Green Revolution, including Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh, and have experienced both economic and social development. The eastern areas of East Uttar Pradesh, however, have lagged and the resulting disparity has contributed to a demand for separate statehood in West Uttar Pradesh (the Harit Pradesh movement). Bihar's economy has been the fastest growing state economy in India, higher than all the Indian states including Gujarat.
However the birth rate in North India is much higher than in other parts of the country and this can lead to poverty and related problems. Joblessness is a critical problem in North India and cannot be tackled easily because of the lack of hi-tech industries in the region. A large number of unskilled and skilled workers have moved to Southern India and other nations because of the unavailability of jobs locally. The technology boom that occurred in the past three decades in Southern India has helped many Indians from the north to find jobs and live prosperous lives in Southern cities.
The states with the highest GDP per capita in North India are Delhi, Haryana, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. The National Capital Region of Delhi has emerged as an economic power house with rapid industrial growth along with adjoining areas of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan. Chandigarh has the highest per-capita State Domestic Product (SDP) of any Indian union territory.
References and bibliographyEdit
- "North Zone Cultural Centre". www.culturenorthindia.com. Ministry of Culture, Government of India. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
- "Northern Region - Geological Survey of India". Geological Survey of India, MOI, Government of India. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "The Hindu (NOIDA Edition)". Dropbox. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- TNN (18 January 2016). "Marriages last the longest in north India, Maharashtra; least in northeast". The Times of India.
- FP Editors (30 April 2012). "Can North India overtake 'arrogant' South in growth?". Firstpost.
- "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Ram Nath Dubey, "Economic Geography of India", Kitab Mahal, 1961. ... The Tropic of Cancer divides India roughly into two equal parts: the Warm Temperate and Tropical ...
- "A clash of cultures". NDTV. 2008-02-25. Archived from the original on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
... no one in North India, and here I am talking of the states of Punjab, Himachal, Uttarakhand, Haryana and Rajasthan, considers people from eastern UP and Bihar as North Indians!!!
- "Politicians to blame for low turnout". The Tribune, Chandigarh. 2001-12-11. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- "Government of Bihar Official Web Portal". Government of Bihar. Retrieved 2008-10-18.
- "Unorganised Workers of Delhi and the Seven Day Strike of 1988". Indrani Mazumdar, Archives of Indian Labour. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- Susheela Raghavan, "Handbook of Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings", CRC Press, 2007, ISBN 0-8493-2842-X. ... Maharashtra, in North India, has kala masala in many versions ...
- Kalidasa, HH Wilson (1843). The Mégha dúta; or, Cloud messenger. pp. 19–20.
- Bowman, John Stewart (2000). "Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture". Columbia University Press. p. 261. ISBN 0-231-11004-9.
... Samudragupta is notable for the king's tireless military campaigning and expansion of empire. He conquers the entire Aryavarta ... His expeditions into south India are unsuccessful; the Vindhya hills form the southern boundary of empire ...
- Varadaraja V. Raman, "Glimpses of Indian Heritage", Popular Prakasan, 1989.
- Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri (1976), A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar, Oxford University Press,
... The Vindhya range was the recognised southern limit of the Aryan land. Manu states distinctly that the country between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas and between the eastern and western oceans comprised Aryavarta, the abode of the Aryas ...
- Christopher Alan Bayly, "Rulers, Townsmen, and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770-1870", CUP Archive, 1983, ISBN 0-521-31054-7.
- Romila Thapar, "Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300", University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 0-520-24225-4.
- "Forest Survey of India - State of Forest Report 2003". Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India. Retrieved 2008-10-20.
- Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. (direct: Final Revised Paper)
- Yash Pal Singh, Social Science Textbook for Class IX Geography, VK Publications, ISBN 978-81-89611-15-6,
... The Tropic of Cancer divides India into almost two equal parts. It makes the southern half of India in the Tropical Zone and the northern half in the Temperate zone ...
- "Dras, India Travel Weather Averages". Weatherbase.
- Sarina Singh, "India: Lonely Planet Guide", Lonely Planet, 2003, ISBN 1-74059-421-5.
- H. N. Kaul (1998-01-01), Rediscovery of Ladakh, Indus Publishing, 1998, ISBN 9788173870866,
... With its altitude of 10000 ft. above the sea, Dras is considered to be the second coldest inhabited place in the world after Siberia where mercury sinks as low as -40 °C during winter, though it has also recorded a low of -60 °C ...
- Galen A. Rowell, Ed Reading (June 1980), Many people come, looking, looking, Mountaineers, 1980, ISBN 9780916890865,
... the bleak village of Dras, reportedly the second coldest place in Asia with recorded temperatures of −80 °F (−62 °C) ...
- Vidya Sagar Katiyar, "Indian Monsoon and Its Frontiers", Inter-India Publications, 1990, ISBN 81-210-0245-1.
- Ajit Prasad Jain and Shiba Prasad Chatterjee, "Report of the Irrigation Commission, 1972", Ministry of Irrigation and Power, Government of India, 1972.
- "Western disturbances herald winter in Northern India". The Hindu Business Line. 2005-11-17. Retrieved 2008-10-20.
- Bin Wang, "The Asian Monsoon", Springer, 2006, ISBN 3-540-40610-7.
- R.K. Datta (Meteorological Office, Dum Dum) and M.G. Gupta (Meteorological Office, Delhi), "Synoptic study of the formation and movements of Western Depressions", Indian Journal of Meteorology & Geophysics, India Meteorological Department, 1968.
- A.P. Dimri, "Models to improve winter minimum surface temperature forecasts, Delhi, India", Meteorological Applications, 11, pp 129-139, Royal Meteorological Society, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
- Geography, Yash Pal Singh, pp. 420, FK Publications, ISBN 9788189611859, ... The sequence of the six traditional seasons is correct only for northern and central parts of India ...
- The Life of a Text: Performing the Rāmcaritmānas of Tulsidas, Philip Lutgendorf, pp. 22, University of California Press, 1991, ISBN 9780520066908, ... likening the major episodes of the narrative to various features of the river and its banks, and to the appearance of the river in each of the six seasons of the North Indian year ...
- Essays on North Indian Folk Traditions, Susan Snow Wadley, pp. 226, Orient Blackswan, 2005, ISBN 9788180280160, ... Yet another cultural division of the year views it as six seasons ... This cycle of six seasons, while known and referred to today, is more widely recognised in Sanskrit literature ...
- Systematic Geography Of Jammu And Kashmir, S.A. Qazi, pp. 25, APH Publishing, 2005, ISBN 9788176487863
- Sarat Chandra Roy and Ral Bahadur, "Man in India", A.K. Bose, 1996.
- Kumool Abbi, "Discourse of Zindaginama: A semio-anthropological critique", Harman Publishing House, 2002.
- Kiran Prem, Haryana Gazetteers Organization, "Haryana District Gazetteers", Government of Haryana, 1970.
- Prabodh Bechardas Pandit, "Language in a Plural Society", Dev Raj Chanana Memorial Committee, 1977.
- Robert McHenry, "The New Encyclopædia Britannica", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1993.
- B.L. Sukhwal (1985), Modern Political Geography of India, Stosius Inc/Advent Books Division,
... In the Hindi heartland ...
- Stuart Allan; Barbie Zelizer (2004), Reporting war: journalism in wartime, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-33998-7,
... located in what is called the "Hindi heartland" or the "Hindi belt" of north and central India ...
- B.S. Kesavan (1997), Origins of printing and publishing in the Hindi heartland (Volume 3 of History of printing and publishing in India : a story of cultural re-awakening), National Book Trust, ISBN 81-237-2120-X
- David Lockhart Robertson Lorimer (1938), The Burushaski language, Part I, H. Aschehoug,
... Burushaski has ... small numbers are to be found in Srinagar and down country, even in Bombay ...
- Braj B. Kachru; Yamuna Kachru; S. N. Sridhar (2008), Language in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-78141-8,
... Nihali, which has some 2000 speakers in the Indian state of Maharashtra is generally also regarded as an isolate ...
- N.C. Saxena, "The Saga of Participatory Forest Management in India", Center for International Forestry Research, 1997, ISBN 979-8764-15-3.
- R.L. Singh, "India: A Regional Geography", National Geographical Society of India, 1971.
- Bansi Lal Kaul, "Ecodegradation of Himalayas", Vinod Publishers & Distributors, 1995.
- S.S. Negi, "Himalayan Forests and Forestry", Indus Publishing, 2002, ISBN 81-7387-112-4. Snippet:... Important Himalayan trees are sal, chir pine, deodar, oaks, fir, spruce, rhododendrons, and the giant evergreen trees of the Eastern Himalayas ...
- R.P. Sharma, "The Indian Forester", v.72:6-12 (Jan-June 1946).
- Sanjukta Gupta, "Lakṣmī Tantra: A Pāñcarātra Text", Brill Archive, 1972, ISBN 90-04-03419-6. Snippet:... the text recommends that the bark of the Himalayan birch tree (bhurja-patra) should be used for scribbling mantras ...
- Amalananda Ghosh, "An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology", BRILL, 1990, ISBN 90-04-09264-1. Snippet:... Bhurja-patra, the inner bark on the birch tree grown in the Himalayan region, was a very common writing material ...
- Casey A. Wood, "Through Forest and Jungle in Kashmir and Other Parts of North India: The Annual Smithsonian Institution Report, 1932", Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1933.
- North India Online - India - Flora and Fauna - Animals - Trees - Birds - Mammals - Insects
- John Shakespear (1817), Dictionary: Hindustani and English, Taylor & Francis,
... bir bahuti: a small insect with a back of a bright red colour; the scarlet or lady fly, commonly called the "Rain insect" as it makes its appearance when the first rains have fallen ...
- nimmi. "India Geography - indian rivers, indian flora & fauna wildlife, national symbols in india".
- "Flora & Fauna North India". Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-15.
- "Edward Jim Corbett- the legendary hunter who inspired conservation of wildlife".
- Largest Hindu Temple: Guinness World Records
- Masjid-i-Jahan Numa
- Taj Mahal UNESCO » Culture » World Heritage Centre » World Heritage List
- "Obama visit may explore perplexing issues". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- Mohamad Riad El Ghonemy, "The Dynamics of Rural Poverty", Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1986. ... Haryana and West Uttar Pradesh recorded spectacular production increases ...
- V. G. Rastyannikov, "Agrarian Evolution in a Multiform Structure Society: Experience of Independent India", Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981, ISBN 0-7100-0755-8.
- B. M. Bhatia, "Food Security in South Asia", Oxford & IHB Pub. Co., 1985.
- Robert E. B. Lucas, Gustav Fritz Papanek, "The Indian Economy: Recent Development and Future Prospects", Westview Press, 1988, ISBN 0-8133-7505-3.
- Gilbert Etienne, "Rural Development In Asia: Meetings With Peasants", Sage Publications, 1985, ISBN 0-8039-9495-8.
- Gyanesh Kudaisya, "Region, Nation, Heartland: Uttar Pradesh in India's Body Politic", Sage Publications, 2006, ISBN 0-7619-3519-3.
- "RLD, BSP gear up as Mulayam exit looms". The Tribune, Chandigarh. 2007-02-19. Retrieved 2008-10-18.
- "8 Indian states have more poor than 26 poorest African nations". Times of India.
- "North India vs South India: Who is doing better? Report says South India". India Today Group.
- "Thehindubusinessline.com". Retrieved 2007-11-10.
- "Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation - Publications". Government of India. Retrieved 2008-10-18.