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The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent. They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. Indo-Aryan speakers form about one-half of all Indo-European speakers (about 1.5 of 3 billion), and more than half of all Indo-European languages recognized by Ethnologue. While the languages are primarily spoken in South Asia, pockets of Indo-Aryan languages are found to be spoken, mainly by the South Asian diaspora, in Europe and the Middle East.

Indo-Aryan
Indic
Geographic
distribution
South Asia
Linguistic classification Indo-European
Proto-language Proto-Indo-Aryan
ISO 639-2 / 5 inc
Linguasphere 59= (phylozone)
Glottolog indo1321[1]
{{{mapalt}}}
1978 map showing geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan languages. (Urdu is included under Hindi. Romani, Domari, and Lomavren are outside the scope of the map.) Dotted/striped areas indicate where multilingualism is common.
  Central
  Dardic
  Eastern
  Northwestern
  Southern
  Western

The largest in terms of speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 329 million),[2] Bengali (242 million),[3] Punjabi (about 100 million),[4] and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million.[5]

Contents

HistoryEdit

Proto-Indo-AryanEdit

Proto-Indo-Aryan, or sometimes Proto-Indic, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages. It is intended to reconstruct the language of the Proto-Indo-Aryans. Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan (1500–300 BCE) which is directly attested as Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan. Despite the great archaicity of Vedic, however, the other Indo-Aryan languages preserve a small number of archaic features lost in Vedic.

Indian subcontinentEdit

Old Indo-AryanEdit

The earliest evidence of the group is from Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan. Vedic has been used in the ancient preserved religious hymns, the foundational canon of Hinduism known as the Vedas. Mitanni-Aryan is of similar age to the language of the Rigveda, but the only evidence of it is a few proper names and specialized loanwords. The language of the Vedas - commonly referred to as "Vedic Sanskrit" by modern scholars - is only marginally different from reconstructed Proto-Indo-Aryan.

From the Vedic, "Sanskrit" (literally "put together", meaning perfected or elaborated) developed as the prestige language of culture, science and religion, as well as the court, theatre, etc. Sanskrit is, by convention, referred to by modern scholars as 'Classical Sanskrit' in contradistinction to the so-called 'Vedic Sanskrit', which is largely intelligible to Sanskrit speakers.

Middle Indo-Aryan (Prakrits)Edit

Outside the learned sphere of Sanskrit, vernacular dialects (Prakrits) continued to evolve. The oldest attested Prakrits are the Buddhist and Jain canonical languages Pali and Ardha Magadhi, respectively. By medieval times, the Prakrits had diversified into various Middle Indo-Aryan dialects. "Apabhramsa" is the conventional cover term for transitional dialects connecting late Middle Indo-Aryan with early Modern Indo-Aryan, spanning roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. Some of these dialects showed considerable literary production; the Sravakachar of Devasena (dated to the 930s) is now considered to be the first Hindi book.

The next major milestone occurred with the Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent in the 13th–16th centuries. Under the flourishing Turco-Mongol Mughal empire, Persian became very influential as the language of prestige of the Islamic courts due to adoptation of the foreign language by the Mughal emperors. However, Persian was soon displaced by Hindustani. This Indo-Aryan language is a combination with Persian, Arabic, and Turkic elements in its vocabulary, with the grammar of the local dialects.

The two largest languages that formed from Apabhramsa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi.

New Indo-AryanEdit

Dialect continuumEdit

The Indo-Aryan languages of Northern India and Pakistan form a dialect continuum. What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskrit-ized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals. However, the term Hindi is also used for most of the central Indic dialects from Bihar to Rajasthan. The spoken New Indo-Aryan dialects from Assam in the east to the borders of Afghanistan in the west form a linguistic continuum across the plains of North India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

HindustaniEdit

In the Western Hindi-speaking areas, for a long time the prestige dialect was Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by the Khariboli-based Hindustani. Hindustani was strongly influenced by Sanskrit and Persian, with these influences leading to the emergence of Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu as registers of the Hindustani language.[6][7] This state of affairs continued until the division of the British Indian Empire in 1947, when Hindi became the official language in India and Urdu became official in Pakistan. Despite the different script the fundamental grammar remains identical, the difference is more sociolinguistic than purely linguistic.[8][9][10] Today it is widely understood/spoken as a second or third language throughout South Asia[11] and one of the most widely known languages in the world in terms of number of speakers.

Mitanni-AryanEdit

Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggest that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, turn, round in the horse race). The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has "aiva") in general[12]

Another text has babru (babhru, brown), parita (palita, grey), and pinkara (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya, the term for warrior in Sanskrit as well; note mišta-nnu (= miẓḍha, ≈ Sanskrit mīḍha) "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (M. Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, Heidelberg, 1986–2000; Vol. II:358).

Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni royal names render Artashumara (artaššumara) as Arta-smara "who thinks of Arta/Ṛta" (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (biridašṷa, biriiašṷa) as Prītāśva "whose horse is dear" (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as citraratha "whose chariot is shining" (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (šattiṷaza) as Sātivāja "winning the race price" (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), Šubandhu as Subandhu 'having good relatives" (a name in Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (tṷišeratta, tušratta, etc.) as *tṷaiašaratha, Vedic Tvastr "whose chariot is vehement" (Mayrhofer, Etym. Wb., I 686, I 736).

Romani, Lomavren, and Domari languagesEdit

DomariEdit

Domari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East and North Africa. The language is reported to be spoken as far north as Azerbaijan and as far south as central Sudan, in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Iraq, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Syria and Lebanon.[13] Based on the systematicity of sound changes, we know with a fair degree of certainty that the names Domari and Romani derive from the Indo-Aryan word ḍom.[14]

LomavrenEdit

Lomavren is a nearly extinct mixed language, spoken by the Lom people, that arose from language contact between a language related to Romani and Domari[15] and the Armenian language.

RomaniEdit

The Romani language is usually included in the Western Indo-Aryan languages.[16] Romani — spoken mainly in various parts of Europe — is conservative in maintaining almost intact the Middle Indo-Aryan present-tense person concord markers, and in maintaining consonantal endings for nominal case – both features that have been eroded in most other modern languages of Central India. It shares an innovative pattern of past-tense person concord with the languages of the Northwest, such as Kashmiri and Shina. This is believed to be further proof that Romani originated in the Central region, then migrated to the Northwest.

There are no known historical documents about the early phases of the Romani language.

Linguistic evaluation carried out in the nineteenth century by Pott (1845) and Miklosich (1882–1888) showed that the Romani language is to be classed as a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA), not Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA), establishing that the ancestors of the Romani could not have left India significantly earlier than AD 1000.

The principal argument favouring a migration during or after the transition period to NIA is the loss of the old system of nominal case, and its reduction to just a two-way case system, nominative vs. oblique. A secondary argument concerns the system of gender differentiation. Romani has only two genders (masculine and feminine). Middle Indo-Aryan languages (named MIA) generally had three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and some modern Indo-Aryan languages retain this old system even today.

It is argued that loss of the neuter gender did not occur until the transition to NIA. Most of the neuter nouns became masculine while a few feminine, like the neuter अग्नि (agni) in the Prakrit became the feminine आग (āg) in Hindi and jag in Romani. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romani and other NIA languages have been cited as evidence that the forerunner of Romani remained on the Indian subcontinent until a later period, perhaps even as late as the tenth century.

ClassificationEdit

There can be no definitive enumeration of Indic languages because their dialects merge into one another. The major ones are illustrated here; for the details, see the dedicated articles.

The classification follows Masica (1991) and Kausen (2006).

Percentage of Indo-Aryan speakers, by language

  Hindustani (including Hindi and Urdu) (25.4%)
  Bengali (20.7%)
  Punjabi (9.4%)
  Marathi (5.6%)
  Gujarati (3.8%)
  Bhojpuri (3.1%)
  Maithili (2.6%)
  Odia (2.5%)
  Sindhi (1.9%)
  Others (25%)

DardicEdit

Kashmiri - 5.6 million speakers
Shina
Pashayi - 400,000 speakers
Kunar
Chitral
Kohistani

Northern ZoneEdit

Central Pahari
Eastern Pahari

Northwestern ZoneEdit

Dogri-Kangri (Western Pahari)
Punjabi
Sindhi

Western ZoneEdit

Ethnologue lists the following languages under the Western Zone that are not already covered in other subgroups:[17]

Rajasthani
Gujarati
  • Gujarati - 49 million speakers
  • Jandavra - 5,000 speakers
  • Saurashtra - 190,000 speakers
  • Aer - 100 speakers
  • Vaghri - 10,000 speakers
  • Vasavi - 1.2 million speakers
  • Koli - 1.4 million speakers
    • Parkari Koli - 250,000 speakers
    • Kachi Koli - 500,000 speakers
    • Wardiyara Koli - 542,000 speakers
Bhil
Khandeshi - 1.9 million speakers
Domari - 4 million speakers
Romani

Central Zone (Madhya or Hindi)Edit

 
Indic, Central Zone

Parya - 4,000 speakers

Western Hindi
Eastern Hindi

Parya historically belonged to the Central Zone but lost intelligibility with other languages of the group due to geographic distance and numerous grammatical and lexical innovations.

Eastern ZoneEdit

These languages derive from Magadhan Apabhraṃśa Prakrit. The most widely-spoken languages in this family are Bengali with 250 million speakers, Bhojpuri with 40 million speakers, and Odia with 33 million speakers. The Eastern Nagari script is the most widely used script, and is used for the Bengali-Assamese languages, and for Maithili and Angika which use the Tirhuta and Anga Lipi variations of the script respectively. The Kaithi script was once a commonly used script used for the Bhojpuri language and Magahi language but has now been replaced by the Devanagari script. The Odia script is used for the Odia language,[18] Sylheti Nagari script (closely related to the Kaithi script) is used for Sylheti and Hanifi script is used for the Rohingya language (along with Perso-Arabic, Latin and Burmese script).

Bihari
Tharu - 1.9 million speakers
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) - 33 million speakers
Halbic
Bengali–Assamese

Southern Zone languagesEdit

This group of languages developed from Maharashtri Prakrit. It is not clear if Dakhini (Deccani, Southern Urdu) is part of Hindustani along with Standard Urdu, or a separate Persian-influenced development from Marathi.

Marathi-KonkaniEdit

Insular IndicEdit

The Insular Indic languages share several characteristics that set them apart significantly from the continental languages.

UnclassifiedEdit

The following languages are related to each other, but otherwise unclassified within Indo-Aryan:

Kuswaric[19]

Chinali–Lahul Lohar[20]

The following other poorly attested languages are listed as unclassified within the Indo-Aryan family by Ethnologue 17:

Also Degaru, Mina, Bhalay and Gowlan are all names for the Gowli caste, rather than a language.

Kholosi

The Kholosi language is a more recently discovered Indo-Aryan language spoken in two villages in southern Iran and remains currently unclassified.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Stop positions[21]Edit

The normative system of New Indo-Aryan stops consists of five points of articulation: labial, dental, "retroflex", palatal, and velar, which is the same as that of Sanskrit. The "retroflex" position may involve retroflexion, or curling the tongue to make the contact with the underside of the tip, or merely retraction. The point of contact may be alveolar or postalveolar, and the distinctive quality may arise more from the shaping than from the position of the tongue. Palatals stops have affricated release and are traditionally included as involving a distinctive tongue position (blade in contact with hard palate). Widely transcribed as [tʃ], Masica (1991:94) claims [cʃ] to be a more accurate rendering.

Moving away from the normative system, some languages and dialects have alveolar affricates [ts] instead of palatal, though some among them retain [tʃ] in certain positions: before front vowels (esp. /i/), before /j/, or when geminated. Alveolar as an additional point of articulation occurs in Marathi and Konkani where dialect mixture and others factors upset the aforementioned complementation to produce minimal environments, in some West Pahari dialects through internal developments (*t̪ɾ, > /tʃ/), and in Kashmiri. The addition of a retroflex affricate to this in some Dardic languages maxes out the number of stop positions at seven (barring borrowed /q/), while a reduction to the inventory involves *ts > /s/, which has happened in Assamese, Chittagonian, Sinhala (though there have been other sources of a secondary /ts/), and Southern Mewari.

Further reductions in the number of stop articulations are in Assamese and Romany, which have lost the characteristic dental/retroflex contrast, and in Chittagonian, which may lose its labial and velar articulations through spirantization in many positions (> [f, x]).

Stop series Language(s)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, //, /k/ Hindi, Punjabi, Dogri, Sindhi, Gujarati, Bihari, Maithili, Sinhala, Odia, Standard Bengali, dialects of Rajasthani (except Lamani, NW. Marwari, S. Mewari)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, /k/ Nepali, dialects of Rajasthani (Lamani and NW. Marwari), Northern Lahnda's Kagani, Kumauni, many West Pahari dialects (not Chamba Mandeali, Jaunsari, or Sirmauri)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, //, /k/ Marathi, Konkani, certain W. Pahari dialects (Bhadrawahi, Bhalesi, Padari, Simla, Satlej, maybe Kulu), Kashmiri
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, //, //, /k/ Shina, Bashkarik, Gawarbati, Phalura, Kalasha, Khowar, Shumashti, Kanyawali, Pashai
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /k/ Rajasthani's S. Mewari
/p/, //, /t/, /ts/, //, /k/ E. and N. dialects of Bengali (Dhaka, Mymensing, Rajshahi)
/p/, /t/, /k/ Assamese
/p/, /t/, //, /k/ Romani
//, /ʈ/, /k/ (with /i/ and /u/) Sylheti
//, /t/ Chittagonian

Nasals[22]Edit

Sanskrit was noted as having five nasal-stop articulations corresponding to its oral stops, and among modern languages and dialects Dogri, Kacchi, Kalasha, Rudhari, Shina, Saurasthtri, and Sindhi have been analyzed as having this full complement of phonemic nasals /m/ /n/ /ɳ/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/, with the last two generally as the result of the loss of the stop from a homorganic nasal + stop cluster ([ɲj] > [ɲ] and [ŋɡ] > [ŋ]), though there are other sources as well.

ChartsEdit

The following are consonant systems of major and representative New Indo-Aryan languages, as presented in Masica (1991:106–107), though here they are in IPA. Parentheses indicate those consonants found only in loanwords: square brackets indicate those with "very low functional load". The arrangement is roughly geographical.

Romani
p t (ts) k
b d (dz) ɡ ɡʲ
tʃʰ
m n
(f) s ʃ x (fʲ)
v (z) ʒ ɦ
ɾ l
j
Shina
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ ɖʐ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tʂʰ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
(f) s ʂ ɕ
z ʐ ʑ ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
w j
Kashmiri
p ʈ ts k t̪ʲ ʈʲ tsʲ
b ɖ ɡ d̪ʲ ɖʲ ɡʲ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ pʲʰ t̪ʲʰ ʈʲʰ tsʲʰ kʲʰ
m n ɲ
s ʃ
z ɦ ɦʲ
ɾ l ɾʲ lʲ
w j
Saraiki
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
ɳʱ
s (ʃ) (x)
(z) (ɣ) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ
w j
Punjabi
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
m n ɳ ŋ
(f) s ʃ
(z) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ ɭ
[w] [j]
Nepali
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ dz ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ ɡʱ
m n ŋ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l
ɾʱ lʱ
[w] [j]
Assamese
p t k
b d ɡ
ɡʱ
m n ŋ
s x
z ɦ
ɹ l
[w]
Sylheti
ʈ (tʃ) k
b ɖ (dʒ) ɡ
m n ŋ
f s (ʃ) x
z ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
[w]
Sindhi
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
ɳʱ
s (ʃ) (x)
(z) (ɣ) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ
w j
Marwari
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ̪ ɗ ɠ
m n ɳ
s ɦ
ɾ l ɽ ɭ
w j
Hindustani
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n
(f) s (ʃ)
(z) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɽʱ
([w]) ([j])
Assamese
p t k
b d g
ɡʱ
m n ŋ
s x
z ɦ
ɹ l
[w]
Bengali
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n
ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
[w] [j]
Gujarati
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
ɳʱ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɭ
ɾʱ lʱ
w j
Marathi
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ dz ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɭ
ɾʱ lʱ
w j
Odia
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
s ɦ
ɾ l [ɽ] ɭ
[ɽʱ]
[w] [j]
Sinhala
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
ᵐb ⁿ̪d̪ ᶯɖ ᵑɡ
m n ɲ ŋ
s ɦ
ɾ l
w j

Language and dialectEdit

In the context of South Asia, the choice between the appellations "language" and "dialect" is a difficult one, and any distinction made using these terms is obscured by their ambiguity. In one general colloquial sense, a language is a "developed" dialect: one that is standardised, has a written tradition and enjoys social prestige. As there are degrees of development, the boundary between a language and a dialect thus defined is not clear-cut, and there is a large middle ground where assignment is contestable. There is a second meaning of these terms, in which the distinction is drawn on the basis of linguistic similarity. Though seemingly a "proper" linguistics sense of the terms, it is still problematic: methods that have been proposed for quantifying difference (for example, based on mutual intelligibility) have not been seriously applied in practice; and any relationship established in this framework is relative.[23]

Language comparison chartEdit

(Note: Hindi and Urdu is in the same column as well as Chittagonian and Rohingya)

English Dhivehi Sanskrit Gujarati Rajasthani Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Bengali Sylheti Chittagonian/Rohingya Kashmiri Konkani Bhojpuri Odia Sambalpuri Odia Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki
beautiful reethi sundara sundar futaro sundara sundar sohnā suhɳā šundor,sudarshon shundor cúndor, hásin sondar chand, sundar suhnar, khapsoorat sundara sundar dhuniya, xundôr sundar sonduru, sundara, lassana sundar sundaro shukar sohnra
blood ley rakta, loha, lohita, shoNita lohi, khoon, rakt ragat rakta khūn, rakta, lahū lahū, ratt ratu rokto, lohit, lohu roxto, lou lou, hún, kún ratth rakt, ragat khūn, lahū rakta, lahu, rudhira Rakat, Ruder tez shonit le, rudiraya, ruhiru ragat ratta rat laho, rat
bread roshi rotika, polika paũ, roṭlā falko poli, bhākarī chapātī, roṭī roṭi pʰulko, maanī (pau-)ro̊ŧi ruti, luf fiçá, luthi tçhot roti, rot, polo, poli, chapati, pav roṭī pauruṭi, ruti Ruti, Paanruti pauruti, ruti roṭi, sohāri paan, roti roṭī, paũroṭi, manro roti, ma(n)ri, dhodha
bring geney anayati lā-v lajyo ān- lā- lyā ɖe an- an- ainn- ann haad lāv- Aanantu, Aana, Aane Aanan, Aana, Aan an- ān ghenna lyaunu anel ghin aa, Lai aa
brother beybe bhrātṛ, bandhu, sahodara bhāi beero, bhayo, veer bhau, bandhu bhāī prā, pāh bʱau bhai, bhaiya bai, baiya bái boéy bhav, bhau bhāī, bhaīyā bhai, bhaina Bhe, Dada bhai (bhaiti, bhayek), dada, kaka/kokai bhé, bhaīyā sahodarayā, bæyā bhāi (younger)
dāi, dāju, dādā, dājai (elder
phral bhrā, vīr, lala
come aadhey āgachchhati āv- av- ā- ā, āo, ājā ach aš- a- ai-, laa- vall yo, ye āv- āsantu, ās-, ā- āsun, Aa ah- abhin,āu enna, ena āunu āgachcha āvel āo
cry ruin roditi, rauti, krandati raḍ- rodno, roosno raḍ- rō- rō- rōaɳ kãd, kand-, rodan kor-, kann xand-, xañ- hañd- wódun rad- ro- kanda, Krandana kaandna kand- kan- aňdanawa, haňdanawa runu rodanam rovel rovanra
dark andhiri andhaḥkāra andhārũ gairo andhāra, kāḷokha andhera hanerā ôndʱah ondhokar, ãdhar andair añdár, miyonda anyí-got andhakar, andhar, kalok anhār, anhera andhāra, Andhakara andhār andhar, ôndhôkar anhār aňduru, andhakara, kaluwara andhyaro, andhakāra andhakaaro kalo andhara
daughter manje duhitṛ, putrī chhokḍi sagi, sago, chori leka, mulagī, poragī beṭi dʱī dʱī meye, beṭi furi, zi maia, zíi, futúni koor dhuv dhiyā, beṭi, chhori, bitiya jhiya jhi, Tukil ziyôri, zi (ziyek) dhiā duva, dū, diyaniya chhori chhai Dhee
day dhuvas divasa, dina divas dina, din divas, din din din, dihara ɖīhn din, diboš din din dóh dis, din, divas din dina, Dibasa Din din din dinaya, dawasa din dives denh, jehara
do kurun kṛ-, karoti kar- kar- kar- kar- kar- kar- kor- xor- hor- kar kor kar- kara- kar- kôr- kôr karanna garnu kerel karo
door dhoru dvāra, kapāṭa darvāzo, kerel kivand dār, darvāzā darvāzā, kavad būha, dar, darvāza darvāzo dorja, duar dorza, doroza Duar, doroza darwaaz, dār, daer ("window") daar, kavad, bagilu darvājā, kevadi daraja, Dwara, kabata Kapat, Dwar duwar, dôrza kebār dora, dwāraya dhoka vudar buha, dar
die maru mṛ-, glah- mar- mar- mar- mar-, mar jā- mar-, mar ja- mar- mor-, more ja- mor-, mori za- fóut marun mar mu, mar ja mar- mar- môr-, môri za- môr maranaya, märena marnu merel marna
egg bis aṇḍa, ḍimba iṇḍũ ando aṇḍa anḍā aṇḍā aṇɖo, bedo đim dim, enda, boida andha, dhim thool ande, motto anḍā anḍā, ḍimba anḍā, ḍim, Gaar kôni anḍā bittharaya, biju aṇḍā anro anda, aana
salt lonu kṣāra, sala, lavaṇa mithu loon lavana/meeth namak lūn/nūn namak lūn lobon, nun lobon, nun, nimox nun noon mith, loni noon/namak labana, Luna Noon nimôkh, nun, lôbôn nūn lunu nun khar/lavan lon loon/noon
earth dhuniye, bin pṛthvi, mahi, bhuvana, dharitrī pruthvi dharti, basudhara pruthvi, dharani prithvī, dhartī, zamīn dhartī dhartī prithibi, duniya, dhora dunwai, dunya, zomin duniyai daertī (voiced-aspirated /dh/ > /d/) dhartari, zamin, bhui, pruthvi jamīn, pirthvi pruthibi, Dhara, Dhartiri, Dharani Pruthi, Dharni prithiwi pruthuvi, polova, bhoomi, bima prithivi phuv zameen, dharti
eye loa netra, lochna, akshi, chakshu āñkh aankharli ḍoḷā, netra āñkh akh akh chokh, āñkhi, noyon souk suk aéchh dolo āñkh ākhi ayenk sôku ainkh äsa, akshi, neth, nuwan ānkhā yakh akh
father bappa pitṛ, janaka, tāta bāp baap, kaako pitā, vaḍil, bāba bāp piyō, pite, pita piu, baba baba, abba, bap abba, abbu, baba, baf abbá mol, bab bapuy, anna, aan bāp, bābuji, pitāji bāpa, bābā bāpā, Bua dêuta, bap (bapek) bābū piyā, thātthā buwā, bāu, pitā dad abbā, piyoo
fear biru bhaya, bhīti, traasa bik, ḍar bhau bhītī, bhaya, ghābar- ḍar, ghabrāhat ḍar, bhau ɖapu bhoy, đor dor dor dar bhay ḍar ḍara, Bhaya ḍar, Bhee bhoy bhay baya, biya, bhīthiya dar dar, trash darr
finger ingili añguli, añguliyaka āñgḷi aangli bōt anguli, ungli ungal, ungli āngur angul, onguli angul ouñl ungij bot, aangal anguri ānguthi āngthi aŋuli āngur äňgili aunlā angusht ungil
fire alifaan agni, bhujyu agni, jvaḷa baste āaga, agni, jāḷa, vistava āg agg bāh agoon agun ooin agénn, nār ujo (from Sanskrit udyota), aag, agni āgh agni, nia Joye, nia zui āig agni, gini, gindara āgo manta yag bhaa
fish mas matsya māchhli maachhali māsā machhlī machhī machhī māch mās mas gāda nuste, masoli, jalkay machhri māchha māch mass māch masun, mathsya, mālu māchā machho machhey
food kaana bhojana, khadati, anna, posha(Na), āhāra, etc. anna, khorāk, poshaṇ khaano, lyojibhaya jēvana, bhojan, anna, āhār khānā, bhojan khānā khādho, ann, māni khabar, khani xani hána, háñna khyann jevan, anna, khana khana, bhojan khādya, bhojana, āhāra āhāra, Khed, Bhojan ahar, khaiddyô, khuwa bostu khenāi āhāra, kæma, bojun, bhojana khānā, anna, āhār xal roti-tukkur, khanra
go dhey gachchhati, yāti jā- jā- jā- jā- jā- vaɲ ja- za- za- gatçh vach (from Vedic Ach) jāntu, Ja- jāun, Ja- zu-, za- jāhin yanna, yana janu, jā jal vanj
god raskalaange deva, īśvara, parmeśvara, devata, bhagavān, prabhu parmeshvar, dev, bhagvān isar, bavji, dai deva, parmeshwara, ishwara bhagvān, parmeshvar, ishvar, khudā pagvān, rab, ishwar, parmesar bhagvān, parmeshvar, ishvar, khudā, sāin, mālik rob, khoda rob, xuda ila dai, divta, bagvān, parmeeshar dev, sarvesvar bhagvān, mālik, iswar, daiva, daiya bhagabāna, ṭhākura, diyan Maphru, bhagbān, Devta, dewôta, bhôgôwan bhagvān devi, dēvathāvā bhagawān, deutā, ishwor devel rab, mālik
good rangalhu shobhna, uttama sārũ chokho chāngle, chhān, uttama achhā changa suʈʰo bhalo bala bála rut (moral "good"), jān (physical "good") bare, chand, layak badhiya, changa, achha bhāla Bane, bhāl bhal neek, neeman hoňdhai, hoňda raamro, asal lachho, mishto changa
grass vina tṛṇa, kusha ghāsthāro chaaro gavata ghās ghāh ghãhu ghaš gash, gah kérr dramunn tan (from Prakrit tiṇa, Sanskrit tṛṇa) ghās ghāsa Jhaar, ghāns ghãh ghās, duib thana, thruna ghaas, dubo char ghā
hand aiyy hasta hāth haat hāt hāth hath hatʰu haat aat árt atth haat hāth hāta hāt, Bahu hat hāth atha, hasthaya hāt vast hat
head boa śira, mastaka, kapāla, mūrdhā māthũ sir, maatha ḍoke, munḍake, mastaka, tāḷke sir, shīsh sir, sīs matʰo matha, shir matha matá kalla maate (from Prakrit matthao, Sanskrit Mastaka) sīr, šīs, kapār munḍa Mud mur, matha māth, mūri oluwa, sirasa, hisa tauko, seer shero ser
heart hiyy hrdaya hruday hivado, kaljo hrudaya, kāḷij dil, hriday, antar dil, riday dil dil, hridoy, ontor dil, ontor dil ryeda Hadde, Hardey (From Sanskrit Hrdaya), Hrdaya dil, hivara, jiyara hrudaya hurud hridoy, hiya hada, hardaya, hadawatha hridaya, mutu ilo Dil
horse as ashva, ghotaka, hayi, turanga ghoḍũ ghodo ghoda ghoṛa koṛa ghoɽʱo ghoɍa ghuɍa gúñra, gúra gur ghodo ghoṛa ghoda ghoda ghůra ghodā ashvaya, thuranga ghodā khoro, grast ghora
house ge' gṛha, alaya ghar ghar, taaparo ghar kār ghôr ɡʱar, jaɡʱah ghor ghor gor ghar ghar ghar ghara, Gruha ghar ghôr ghôr, gedhara, gruha gruhaya, geya, gedara, niwasa ghar, griha kher ghar
hunger banduhai bubuksha, kshudhā bhukh bhukh bhūk bhūkh pukh bhūkhayal bhukh, khida bhuk búk bo'tchh bhuk bhūkh bhoka bhok bhuk bhūkh kusagini, badagini bhok bokh bhuk
language bas bhāshā, vāNī bhāshā boli, zaban bhāshā bhāshā, zabān, baat boli, zabān, pasha ɓoli, bhasha, zabān bhaša basha, zobān, maat báca booyl, zabān bhasha, bhas bhākhā, boli, jubaan bhāsā bhāsā bhaxa bhāshā bhashawa, basa bhāshā chhib boli, zaban
laugh (v.) hunun hāsa, smera has- has- hās- hãs- hassa kʰillu haš, hãš ash- áñc- assun has- has- hãs- hās- hãh- hôs hina, sinaha, sina hasnu asal khill
life dhiriulhun jivana, jani jivan, jindagi bhav jīvan, jīv jīvan, zindagī jindrī, jīvan, jind zindagī ɉibon, zindegi zibon, zindegi zibon, zindigi zoo, zindagayn jivit, jivan jinigi jibana, prāna jiban ziwôn jiban jeevithe, jivana jeewan, jindagi jivipen zindgey
moon handhu chandramā, soma, māsa chandra, chāndo chaan, chando chandra chandramā, chandā, chānd chann, chānd chanɖ cãd, condro, chand sand san, zun tçandram chandra, chandrim channa, channarma, mah chandra, Janha Jan, JanhaMamu zunbai, zun, sôndrô jonhi, chan chandra, saňdu, haňda chandramā, juun chhon chandr
mother mamma janani, mātṛ mā, bā mai, ma āi, māi mā, mata, mai māo, amma ma, amma, ammu ma, amma, ammu amma maeyj amma, mai matāri, māi, amma mā, bou ai, ma mawa, amma, matha, mæni āmā, muwā, mumā, mātā dai amma, maa
mouth anga ās, mukha moḍhũ, mukha moondo tond, mukha mūñh mūñh, mukh mūñh, vāt mukh muk cuuñçi, gal mūñh tond, mukh mūñh mukha, Paati Tund, Paati mukh mūh mukha, kata mukh, thutuno
name nan nāma nām naam nāv nām nālo nam naam nam naav naav nā, nām nāma, nā nam nām nama, nāmaya nām nav
night reygandu raatri, rajani, nishā, naktam, etc. rāt, rātri, nishā raati, raat rātra rāt, rātri, nishā rāt rāt rat, ratri, nishi rait, ratri, shob rait, lailat raath raat, ratri rāt rāti, Ratri, Nishi Rayet rati rāit rāthriya, ræ raati, raat, raatri raat
open hulhuvaa uttana, udhatita khullũ khulyuda ughad, khol khulā khulla, khol khol khulā kulā kúilla khol ughad, ukt-, udhaar khullā kholā kholā khula khujal harinna khulla rat khulla
peace sul'ha shānti shānti, shāntatā shaanti shānti shānti, aman shānti, aman, sakūn shānti, aman, sukoon šanti shanti cánti aman, shaenti shanti, santatay sānti-sakoon, aman sānti sānti xanti shānti sāmaya, shāntiya shaanti kotor aman, sakoon
place than stapana, sthala, bhu, sthāna jagyā, sthaļ jageh sthān, sthal, jāga sthān, jagah thāñ, asthān jaɠah, thāñ ɉaega, sthan, zomin zega, zaga, zomin zaga jaay jaag, thal jagah jāgā jāgā thai tthām sthanaya, thäna thaaun, jagga, sthal than jaga
queen ranin rāni, rājpatni rāṇi, madhurāṇi raani rāni, rājmātā rāni, malkā rāni, malka rāɳi rani rani rani māhraeny (also used for "newly-wed bride") raani rāni, begam rāṇi rāṇi rani rāni räjina, dēvi, bisawa rāni rani, thagarni ranri, malka
read kiun pathati, vachana vānch- baanch- vāch- paṛh- paṛh- paɽʱ- poṛh- for- for- parun vajji/vaach paṛh- paḍh- paḍdh- pôrh- pôdh kiyawanna padh- chaduvu parhnra, parh
rest araamu vishrāma ārām aaraam vishrānti ārām arām ārām aram, bišrom araam aram, ziro araam aaraam rām ārām, bisrām thāk, bisrām aram, zirôni arām vishrāma, viwēka ārām, bishrām Araam
say buney vadati, braviti, brūté, bōl- bōl- bōl-, mhaṇ-, sāng- bōl, ākh, keh bôl-, keh chao bol-, koh- xo- hoó-, bul- bōl- mhan, sang, ulay bol-, kah- kũhantu, Kuha, Kah- Kahan, kaha, kah bāj pawasanna, kiyanna bhannu, bolnu phenel bol, aakh
sister dhahtha svasṛ, bhagini bêhn bain, bayee, beeri bhaginī, bahīṇ behn pēn bēɳ bon, apa, didi boin, afa bóin, bubu, buu baeynn bhaini bahin, didi, didiya bhauṇi bahen bhônti, bhôni bôhin sahodariya bahini, didi phen bheinr
small kuda alpa, laghu, kanishtha, kshudra nāhnũ nāhnũ lahān, laghu chhoṭā nikka, chhoṭā nanɖo cho̊ŧo huru, suto, kuti cóñço lokutt, nyika, pyoonth Saan chhoṭ, nanhi choṭa, sana chot, alap, tike xôru, suti (for short) chhot chuti, podi, kudā saano, chhoto tikno, xurdo nikka, chauta
son kalo sunu, putra chhokḍo choora, betoo mulgā, porgā bēṭā put, puttar puʈ chele, put, bēṭā fua, fut, bēṭā fut nyechu, pothur put putt/chhora pua Po, Pila put (putek) pūt puthra, puthā, puthu chhora, putra chhavo putr
soul furaana ātmā, atasa ātmā aatma ātmā ātmā, rūh ātmā, rūh ātmā, rūh ātmā, rūh ruh, zaan ruú, zan āthmā atma, jeev rūh ātmā ātmā atma ātmā ātmā ātmā di rooh
sun iru sūrya sūraj, sūrya suraj sūrya sūrya, sūraj sūraj siju šurɉo surzo, shurzo beil, cújjo siri surya sūraj sūrjya sūrjya beli beri, sūrj ira, hiru, sūrya sūrya, ghām kham sijh
ten dhihayeh dasha das das dahā das das, daha ɖaha doš dosh doc duh dha das dasa das dôh dôs dahaya, dasa das desh dah
three thineh trī, trayah, trīNi (neut. nom. pl.) traṇ tiin tīn tīn tin, traiy ʈeh tin teen tin t're teen tīn tini tīn tini tīn thuna tin trin trai
village avah grāma gāñḍu gaaon, dhaani gāv, khēda gāoñ pinḍ, gāñ ɠoʈʰ gram, gaon gau, geram fara, gang, gām ganv gāoñ-dehāt, jageer gān, grāma gān gaû gām gama, gramaya gaun gav dehat, jhoauk, vasti
want beynun ichhati, kankshati, amati, apekshati joi- chai- pāhijē, havē chāh- chāh- kʰap, chāh- cha- sa-, lag- lag- yatshun, kan'tchun jaay- chāh- Chanunchi, Loduchi Chounchen bisar-, lag-, khuz- chāhi oone, awashyayi chāhanā, ichhya kamel, mangel chah
water fen pāniya, jala pāṇi paani pāṇi pāni, jal pāni, jal pāṇi pani, ɉol fani faní poyn, zal (used for "urine" only) udak, uda, pani, jal pāni pāṇi, jala pāyeṇ pani pain jalaya, wathura, pän pāni, jal pani panri
when kon iraku kada, ched kyahre kadine kēvhā, kadhee kab kad, kadoñ kaɖahn kokhon, kobe kumbala, xobe hoñótté karr kedna, kenna kab kebe Ketebele, kebe ketiya kakhan, kahiyé kawadhāda, kedinada kahile kana kadanr
wind vai pavana, vāyu, vātā havā, pavan havaa vāra havā, pavan havā, paun. vah havā bataš, haoa batash bathác, bouyar tshath, hava vaar hāvā pabana Dhuka, haba, paban bôtãh basāt hulan, sulan, pavana, nala hāwā, batās balval hava, phook
wolf hiyalhu vrka, shvaka shiyāl bheriyo kōlha bhēṛhiyā pēṛhiyā ɡidʱar nekre, shiyal hiyal cíal vrukh kolo bhērhiyā gadhiyā Kulia xiyal siyār vurkaya bwānso ruv baghiyaar
woman anhenaa nāri, vanitā, strī, mahilā, lalanā mahilā, nāri lugai, aurat bāi, mahilā, stree aurat, strī, mahilā, nāri naar, mutiyar māi mohila, nari, stri beti, mohila maiñya zanaan baayal, stree mehraru, aurat, janaani stree, nāri Mayeji môhila, maiki manuh maugi, stri kānthāwa, gähäniya, sthriya, mahilāwa, lalanāwa, liya, laňda, vanīthāwa mahilaa, naari, stree juvli aurat, treimat, zaal, zanaani
year aharu varsh, shārad varash saal, uun varsh sāl, baras, varsh sāl, varah sāl bocchor, shal, boshor, bosor, sāl bosór váreeh varas sāl, baris, barikh barsa baras, Bachar bôsôr barakh varshaya, vasara barsha bersh saal
yes / no aan, labba, aadhe / noon, nooney hyah, kam / na, ma hā / nā hon/koni hōy, hō, hā / nāhi, nā hāñ / nā, nahīñ hāñ, āho / nā, nahīñ hā/ na hæ, ho, oi / na ii, oe / na ói / na aa / ná, ma Vayi/naa hāñ / nā han /Na Hoye/nei hôy / nôhôy hô/nai ow / næ ho / hoina, la / nai va / na ha / na
yesterday iyye hyah, gatadinam, gatakāle (gai-)kāl(-e) kaal kāl kal kal kalla (goto-)kal(-ke) (goto-)khail, (goto-)khal, khal(-ke), khail(-ku) hail kāla, rāth kaal kālh (gata-)kāli gala kāli (zuwa-)kali kāilh īyē hijo ij kal
English Dhivehi Sanskrit Gujarati Rajasthani Marathi Hindi-Urdu Punjabi Sindhi Bengali Sylheti Rohingya/Chittagonian Kashmiri Konkani Bhojpuri Odia Kosli Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki (Southern Punjabi)

Interrogative pronounsEdit

English Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian/Rohingya Kashmiri Nepali Sinhala
who kaaku kün, kai ke koṇ, koṇa kōṇa kaun kauna xe hon ko kavuda
what keekey ki, kih ki śũ kāya kya ki čhā kita ki ke
where konthaaku kót, keni kothay, koi kya kuṭhe kahan kithe xoi, xano hoçé kithé kaham koheda
when kon iraku ketia, kahani kokhon, kobe kyāre kadhī kab kadom kumbela, kunbala, xobe hoñótté kahile, kab kavada
why keevve kio, kelei keno sa mate kyun kiun xene, kitar lagi kiá kina æyi
how kihineh kene, kene (-koi/ke, -kua), kidore kemon, kibhabe kai rite kasē kaise kive kila, xemne keén kasari
English Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian/Rohingya Kashmiri Nepali Sinhala

Personal pronounsEdit

English Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian/Rohingya Kashmiri Konkani Kamtapuri Bhojpuri Odia Nepali
i aharun aham moi ami huṁ, hu ,mein mein maiṁ maa mui, ami Ãi aav mui haum mu͂ ma
we aharumen ami amra ame,apane āmhī hum asīṁ asā amra añára aami hamra aame hāmī
you (inf) kaley, theena toi tui tu tu Tusīṁ tui tui tui tu taṁ
you (mid frm) tumi tumi tame tūmhī tum Tusīṁ tumi tuñí tomra tume timī
you (frm) apüni apni āp, āpaṅ āp Tusīṁ tāhā afne oñne tumi aapaNa tapāīṁ
you (inf, pl) kaleymen, thimeehun tohõt tora tuae Not used Not used tomra tuáñra Not used Not used
you (mid frm, pl) tümalük tomra tamaru tumlog tumitain, tumra tumi tumemaane timīharū
you (frm, pl) apünalük apnara tameloko āplog afnain, afnara tumi aapaNamaane tapāīṁharū
he (mid frm) eyna xi śe pelo who ho he ité to se ū
she (mid frm) eyna tai śe peli who huā tai ití ti se ū
he (frm) teü, tekhet tini, uni pelae ve tain, ein uite se unī
she (frm) teü, tekhet tini, uni palie tain, ein se unī
they (mid frm) emeehun xihõt tara pelaloko wohlog huā tara itará taani semaane unīharū, tinīharū
they (frm) teülük, tekhetxokol tahara pela lokoe ve tara iín semaane unīharū, tinīharū
English Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindi Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian/Rohingya Kashmiri Konkani Kamtapuri Bhojpuri Odia Nepali

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Indo-Aryan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Standard Hindi first language: 260.3 million (2001), as second language: 120 million (1999). Urdu L1: 68.9 million (2001-2014), L2: 94 million (1999): Ethnologue 19.
  3. ^ Bengali or Bangla-Bhasa, L1: 242.3 million (2011), L2: 19.2 million (2011), Ethnologue
  4. ^ "världens-100-största-språk-2010". Nationalencyclopedin. Govt. of Sweden publication. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  5. ^ Edwin Francis Bryant; Laurie L. Patton (2005). The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. Routledge. pp. 246–247. ISBN 978-0-7007-1463-6. 
  6. ^ Kulshreshtha, Manisha; Mathur, Ramkumar (24 March 2012). Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4614-1137-6. 
  7. ^ Robert E. Nunley; Severin M. Roberts; George W. Wubrick; Daniel L. Roy (1999), The Cultural Landscape an Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-080180-1, ... Hindustani is the basis for both languages ... 
  8. ^ "Urdu and its Contribution to Secular Values". South Asian Voice. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 26 February 2008. 
  9. ^ "Hindi/Urdu Language Instruction". University of California, Davis. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015. 
  10. ^ "Ethnologue Report for Hindi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 26 February 2008. 
  11. ^ Otto Zwartjes Portuguese Missionary Grammars in Asia, Africa and Brazil, 1550-1800 Publisher John Benjamins Publishing, 2011 ISBN 9027283257, 9789027283252
  12. ^ Paul Thieme, The 'Aryan' Gods of the Mitanni Treaties. JAOS 80, 1960, 301–17
  13. ^ Matras (2012)
  14. ^ "History of the Romani language". 
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.  Encyclopedia Iranica
  16. ^ "Romani (subgroup)". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved September 15, 2013. 
  17. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/indo-aryan
  18. ^ Ray, Tapas S. (2007). "Chapter Eleven: "Oriya". In Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 445. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
  19. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kuswaric". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  20. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chinali–Lahul Lohar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  21. ^ Masica (1991:94–95)
  22. ^ Masica (1991:95–96)
  23. ^ Masica 1991, pp. 23–27.

Further readingEdit

  • John Beames, A comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India: to wit, Hindi, Panjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, and Bangali. Londinii: Trübner, 1872–1879. 3 vols.
  • Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 .
  • Madhav Deshpande (1979). Sociolinguistic attitudes in India: An historical reconstruction. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. ISBN 0-89720-007-1, ISBN 0-89720-008-X (pbk).
  • Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 81-7074-128-9
  • Erdosy, George. (1995). The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-014447-6.
  • Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
  • Kobayashi, Masato.; & George Cardona (2004). Historical phonology of old Indo-Aryan consonants. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ISBN 4-87297-894-3.
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2 .
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1980). Fresh light on Indo-European classification and chronology. Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1991–1993). The Old-Indo-Aryan, a historical & comparative grammar (Vols. 1–2). Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Sen, Sukumar. (1995). Syntactic studies of Indo-Aryan languages. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Foreign Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  • Vacek, Jaroslav. (1976). The sibilants in Old Indo-Aryan: A contribution to the history of a linguistic area. Prague: Charles University.

External linksEdit