Caribbean Hindustani or Caribbean Hindi-Urdu, is an Indo-Aryan language historically spoken as a lingua franca by Indo-Caribbeans and the Indo-Caribbean diaspora. It is based on Bhojpuri with influences from Awadhi. These were spoken by indentured laborers who came as immigrants to the Caribbean from the Indian subcontinent. It is closely related to Fijian Hindi, the Bhojpuri spoken in Mauritius and the Hindustani spoken in South Africa.
|150,000 in Suriname|
26,000 in Trinidad and Tobago
Perso-Arabic (Urdu alphabet)
Because a majority of people came from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand, Caribbean Hindustani is most influenced by Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Braj Bhasha, and other Bihari dialects. It has a very minor influence from Tamil, Telugu, and other Dravidian languages. It has also borrowed a large number of words from Dutch in Suriname and other Dutch colonies, and English and French in former British colonies and French colonies. A large number of words, unique to Caribbean Hindustani, have been created to cater for the new environment that Indo-Caribbeans now live in.
Like the Hindustani spoken in the Indian subcontinent, Caribbean Hindustani is broken up into Caribbean Hindi and Caribbean Urdu. Hindustani refers to both Hindi and Urdu. Hindi is spoken by Hindus and people of Hindu descent, whereas Urdu is spoken by Muslims and people of Muslim descent. Hindi has more influence from Sanskrit, while Urdu has more influence from Arabic and Persian. Hindi is written in the Devanagari, Devanagari Braille, and Kaithi script, whereas Urdu is written in the Perso-Arabic script and Urdu Braille, although in more recent times they both are written in the Latin script and English Braille.
Chutney music, chutney soca, chutney parang, baithak gana, folk music, classical music, some Hindu religious songs, some Muslim religious songs, and some Christian religious songs are sung in Caribbean Hindustani, sometimes being mixed with English in the Anglophone Caribbean or Dutch in Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean.
The Caribbean Hindustani of Guyana is known as Aili Gaili (Aaye-Gaye [I] Came-Gone is spoken as Aili-Gaili in Bhojpuri, Maithili and Awadhi and almost all dialects of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand (meaning broken or corrupted language) or Guyanese Hindustani and is spoken by some members in a community of 300,000 Indo-Guyanese.
The variant that is spoken in Trinidad and Tobago is known as Trinidadian Hindustani, Trinidadian Bhojpuri, Plantation Hindustani, or Gaon ke Bolee (Village Speech). A majority of the early Indian immigrants spoke the Bhojpuri and Awadhi dialect of Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), which later formed into Trinidadian Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), which became the lingua franca of Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonians. In 1935, Indian movies began showing to audiences in Trinidad. Most of the Indian movies were in the Standard Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu) dialect and this modified Trinidadian Hindustani slightly by adding Standard Hindu and Urdu phrases and vocabulary to Trinidadian Hindustani. Indian movies also revitalized Hindustani among Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonians. Around the mid to late 1970s the lingua franca of Indo-Trinidaian and Tobagonians switched from Trinidadian Hindustani to a sort of Hindinized version of English. Today Hindustani survives on through Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian musical forms such as, Bhajan, Indian classical music, Indian folk music, Filmi, Pichakaree, Chutney, Chutney soca, and Chutney parang. Presently there are about 26,000 people, which is 5.53% of the Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian population, who speak Trinidadian Hindustani. Many Indo-Trinidadians and Tobagonians today speak a type of Hinglish that consist of Trinidadian and Tobagonian English that is heavily laced with Trinidadian Hindustani vocabulary and phrases and many Indo-Trinidadians and Tobagonians can recite phrases or prayers in Hindustani today. There are many places in Trinidad and Tobago that have names of Hindustani origin. Some phrases and vocabulary have even made its way into the mainstream English and English Creole dialect of the country.
Sarnami Hindustani meaning Surinamese Hindustani is the most widely spoken language in Suriname after Dutch, Sranan Tongo (the two lingua francas) and English. It is a distinct dialect of the Bhojpuri language (the language spoken in north Indian states Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand) with heavy lexical influence from other languages spoken in Suriname. It is mainly spoken by and within Suriname’s Indo-Surinamese (ca. 27% of the population) community and therefore it is not considered to be a third lingua franca.
Baithak Gana is the most famous form of the song being sung in Sarnami Hindustani.
- "Trinidad and Tobago". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Caribbean Hindustani". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Caribbean Hindustani at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
- "Hindustani, Sarnami". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- Mahabir, Kumar (December 1999). "The Impact of Hindi on Trinidadian English". Caribbean Quarterly. 45 (4): 13–34.