Bhojpur is a ethnolinguistic and cultural area in the Indian subcontinent where the Bhojpuri language is spoken as a mother tongue. The Bhojpuri region encompasses parts of the Indian states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Jharkhand, and the Madhesh, Gandaki and Lumbini provinces of Nepal.[1][2][3][4]

Bhojpuri Speaking region of India
Bhojpuri Speaking region of India
CountryIndia and Nepal
StateBihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhesh, Lumbini, and Gandaki
 • Total72,004 km2 (27,801 sq mi)
 • Total76,308,751
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
Largest Cities

History edit

Pre-history and Antiquity edit

The earliest known evidence of Human settlement in the region are the Cave painting of Kaimur and Mirzapur.[5][6][7] The first Neolithic settlement found in this region is in Chirand of Saran, which dates back 2500-1500 B.C. and is contemporary to the Harrapans.[8] Historically, the region was part of Malla and Kashi Mahajanapadas.[9] Varanasi, known as the center of the Bhojpuri cultural region is one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.[10][11]

Etymology edit

The Bhojpuri region received its name after the town of Bhojpur (Arrah), the headquarters of the Ujjainiya Rajputs of the former Shahabad district of Bihar.[12]

Culture edit

The economic and industrial growth of this region had been greatly hindered because of caste-guided political in-fighting and a huge population.[13]

The culture of Bhojpur is also very much present today in Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, Guyana, Suriname, Fiji, Mauritius, and South Africa, due to the many Indian indentured laborers who were sent there by the ruling British in the mid 19th century to the early 20th century, and were from the Purvanchal-Bhojpur region.


Language edit

a page of charyapada

Bhojpuri language is a descendant of Magadhi Prakrit which started taking in shape during the reign of the Vardhana dynasty.[14][15] The earliest form of Bhojpuri can be traced in the Siddha Sahitya and Charyapada as early as 7th century A.D.[16][17][18] It is an eastern Indo-Aryan language and one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family.[19] The Bhojpuri variant of Kaithi is the indigenous script of Bhojpuri language.[20][21][22]

Festivals edit

Chhath Puja and Durga Puja are the biggest festivals of Bhojpuri region.[23][24][25][26][27]

Other important festivals include Phagwah, Saraswati Puja, Deepavali, Dussehra, Vishwakarma Puja, Ramnavami, Teej, Jitiya, Janmashtami, Anant Chaturdashi, Dev Deepawali, Pidiya, Bahura, Godhan, Chauk Chanda, Raksha Bandhan, Nag Nathaiya, Naga Panchami, Karma, etc.[28][29]

Music edit

Bhojpuri music is a form of Hindustani Classical Music and includes a broad array of Bhojpuri language performances in distinct style, both traditional and modern.

Art edit

Bhojpuri painting is a folk painting style that has flourished in the Bhojpuri region thousands of years ago. This painting style is a type of wall painting primarily done on temple walls or on walls of the rooms of newly married couples and the main motifs are that of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati. Although in recent times motifs of natural objects and life and struggles of village people are also depicted to make the painting more acceptable among the common people and bring the style close to reality.[30]

Textile arts edit

Traditional Banarasi sari with gold brocade.

Silk weaving is a manufacturing industry in Varanasi. Varanasi is known throughout India for its production of very fine silk and Banarasi saris and salwar suits.

Cuisine edit

Bhojpuri cuisine (Bhojpuri: 𑂦𑂷𑂔𑂣𑂳𑂩𑂲𑂨𑂰 𑂦𑂷𑂔) is a style of food preparation common among the Bhojpuri people. Bhojpuri foods are mostly mild and tend to be less hot in terms of spices used. The cuisine consists of both vegetable and meat dishes.[31]

Districts edit

Bhojpuri region of UP & Bihar

Bhojpuri language is spoken in the districts of Western Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh which is called Purvanchal.[32]

Bihar (India)

Patna division: Bhojpur district, Buxar district, Kaimur district and Rohtas district.

Saran division: Saran district, Siwan district, Gopalganj district.

Tirhut division: West Champaran district, East Champaran district.

Uttar Pradesh (India)

Varanasi division: Chandauli district, Ghazipur district, Jaunpur district, Varanasi district.

Gorakhpur division: Deoria district, Gorakhpur district, Kushinagar district, Maharajganj district.

Azamgarh division: Azamgarh district, Ballia district, Mau district.

Mirzapur division: Mirzapur district, Sant Ravidas Nagar district, Sonbhadra district.

Basti division: Sant Kabir Nagar district, Siddharthnagar district, Basti district

Jharkhand (India)

Palamu division: Palamu district, Garhwa district

Madhesh Pradesh (Nepal)

Bara district, Parsa district, Rautahat district

Lumbini Pradesh (Nepal)

Parasi district, Rupandehi district

Note that Bhojpur district of Koshi Pradesh is not an Indo-Aryan Bhojpuri ethnolinguistic region, although it shares the same name.

Religion edit

According to the 2011 Census, Hindus form the majority in the Bhojpuri region, with 85.33% adhering to Hinduism. Islam is practiced by 14.5% of the population, while 0.52% profess other religions.

Religion in Bhojpuri Region (2011)[33]

  Hindu (85.33%)
  Muslim (14.15%)
  Others (0.52%)

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Gopal Thakur Lohar (4 June 2006). A Sociolinguistic Survey of the Bhojpuri Language in Nepal.
  2. ^ Jha, Hari Bansh. "The new name of Madhesh province surprises Nepal". ORF. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  3. ^ Thakur, Gopal. "A GRAMMAR OF BHOJPURI A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of Tribhuvan University in Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in LINGUISTICS". Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation Submitted in Tribhuvan University.
  4. ^ Thiel-Horstmann, M. (1969). "Sadani : a Bhojpuri dialect spoken in Chotanagpur". S2CID 127410862. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |url= (help)
  5. ^ "Kaimur Hills - Home to Prehistoric Tales". 2 February 2009. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2022.
  6. ^ "Bihar: Kaimur Rock Paintings". Retrieved 13 November 2022.
  7. ^ Wakankar, Vishnu Shridhar (2005). Painted Rock Shelters of India. Directorate of Archaeology, Archives, and Museums, Government of Madhya Pradesh.
  8. ^ Sinha, Chitta Ranjan Prasad (1990). Archaeology and Art: Krishna Deva Felicitation Volume. Ramanand Vidya Bhawan.
  9. ^ Tivārī, Śaśiśekhara (1970). Bhojapurī lokoktiyām̐ (in Hindi). Bihāra-Rāshṭrabhāshā-Parishad.
  10. ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark; Roof, Wade Clark (2012). Encyclopedia of Global Religion. SAGE. ISBN 978-0-7619-2729-7.
  11. ^ Freitag, Sandria B. (1 January 1989). Collective Action and Community: Public Arenas and the Emergence of Communalism in North India. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06439-3.
  12. ^ Kolff, Dirk H.A. (2002) [First published 1990]. Naukar, Rajput, and sepoy : the ethnohistory of the military labour market in Hindustan, 1450-1850. Cambridge University Press. p. 160. ISBN 0-521-52305-2. The Bhojpuri region received its name after the town of Bhojpur, the ancient headquarters of the Ujjainiya Rajputs of the erstwhile Shahabad district of Bihar.
  13. ^ "Art and Culture | Tourism, Education, Culture and History". Archived from the original on 27 August 2013.
  14. ^ "Publication of Spiritual, Religious and Literacy Books". Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  15. ^ Tuṅga, Sudhāṃśu Śekhara (1995). Bengali and Other Related Dialects of South Assam. Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-588-3.
  16. ^ Tahmid, Syed Md. "Buddhist Charyapada & Bengali Identity".
  17. ^ The Indo-Aryan languages. Dhanesh Jain, George Cardona. London: Routledge. 2007. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9. OCLC 648298147.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  18. ^ "Bhojpuri Language| Hindi Typing -". Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  19. ^ "Bhojpuri Language Resource". UNT Digital Library. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  20. ^ Grierson, George Abraham (1881). A handbook to the Kayathi character. The Library of Congress. Calcutta, Thacker, Spink, and co.
  21. ^ "Bhojpuri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  22. ^ Grierson, George Abraham (1903). Linguistic Survey Of India Vol.5 Part.2.
  23. ^ Desai, Mira K. (21 November 2021). Regional Language Television in India: Profiles and Perspectives. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-000-47008-6.
  24. ^ "Chhath puja and the centrality of the Purvanchal community in Delhi politics". Hindustan Times. 18 October 2021. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  25. ^ "Lok Yatra | Migration and Cultural Traditions of Bhojpuri Region". Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  26. ^ Vidyarthi, Lalita Prasad; Jha, Makhan; Saraswati, Baidyanath (1979). The Sacred Complex of Kashi: A Microcosm of Indian Civilization. Concept Publishing Company.
  27. ^ Preston, Peter; Simpson-Housley, Paul (11 September 2002). Writing the City: Eden, Babylon and the New Jerusalem. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-84368-8.
  28. ^ Shandilya, Rajeshwari (1 January 2009). Bharatiya Parva Evam Tyohar (in Hindi). Prabhat Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7315-617-5.
  29. ^ Ojhā, Satyadeva (2006). भोजपुरी कहावतें: एक सांस्कृतिक अध्ययन (in Hindi). Vani Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-8143-562-0.
  30. ^ "Bhojpuri Painting". Retrieved 9 April 2023.
  31. ^ "Beyond 'litti chokha'". Mintlounge. 9 March 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2023.
  32. ^ "Culture of Bhojpuri Region". Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2018.. Discover Bihar, official website of Bihar Tourism.
  33. ^ [dead link]