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Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland") is a state in eastern India carved out of the southern part of Bihar and Uttara pradesh on 15 November 2000.[3] The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi).

Jharkhand
झारखंड
State of India
Seal of Jharkhand
Seal
Location of Jharkhand
Location of Jharkhand
Map of Jharkhand
Map of Jharkhand
Coordinates (Ranchi): 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23.35°N 85.33°E / 23.35; 85.33Coordinates: 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23.35°N 85.33°E / 23.35; 85.33
Country India
Region East India
Formation 15 November 2000
Capital Ranchi
Largest city Jamshedpur
Districts 24
Government
 • Governor Draupadi Murmu
 • Chief Minister Raghubar Das (BJP)
 • Legislature Unicameral (81 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency 14
 • High Court Jharkhand High Court
Area
 • Total 79,714 km2 (30,778 sq mi)
Area rank 16th
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 32,988,134
 • Rank 14th
 • Density 414/km2 (1,070/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-JH
HDI Increase 0.376 (low)
HDI rank 19th (2007-08)
Literacy 67.6% (25th)
Official languages Hindi[2]
Website www.jharkhand.gov.in
Formed by the Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000

The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital. Dhanbad is the largest industrial city in the state, while Jamshedpur and Bokaro Steel City are the second and fourth most populous cities respectively.

Jharkhand accounts for 40% of the mineral resources of India but it suffers widespread poverty as 39.1 per cent of the population is below the poverty line and 19.6 per cent of the children under five years of age are malnourished.[4] The State is primarily a rural state as only 24 percent of the population resides in cities.[5]

Contents

HistoryEdit

According to writers including Gautam Kumar Bera,[6] there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the Magadha Empire. Bera's book (page 33) also refers to the Hindu epic Bhavishya Purana. The tribal rulers, some of whom continue to thrive till today were known as the Munda Rajas,[7][8] who basically had ownership rights to large farmlands.[9] For a greater part of Vedic age, Jharkhand remained unnoticed. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. In those days the northern portion of Jharkhand state was a tributary state of Magadha (ancient Bihar) Empire and southern part was a tributary of Kalinga (ancient Odisha) Empire.

British ruleEdit

In 1765, the region came under the control of the British East India Company. The subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. Almost one hundred years before Indian Rebellion of 1857, Adivasis of Jharkhand were already beginning what would become a series of repeated revolts against British colonial rule:

The period of revolts of the Adivasis to protect their Jharkhand land took place from 1771 to 1900. The first ever revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi,[10] a Santhal leader in Santal tribal belt in 1771. He wanted to liberate his people from the clutches of the unscrupulous landlords and restore the lands of their ancestors. The British government sent its troops and crushed the uprisings of Tilka Manjhi. Soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum, now in West Bengal. This was followed by the Chero tribes unrest in Palamau. They revolted against the British rule in 1800 AD. Hardly seven years later in 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their big landlord of Srinagar west of Gumla. Soon the uprisings spread around Gumla. The tribal uprisings spread eastward to neighbouring Tamar areas of the Munda tribes. They too rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. The Hos in Singhbhum were growing restless and came out in open revolt in 1820 and fought against the landlords and the British troops for two years. This is called the Lakra Kol Risings 1820–1821. Then came the great Kol Risings of 1832. This was the first biggest tribal revolt that greatly upset the British administration in Jharkhand. It was caused by an attempt by the Zamindars to oust the tribal peasants from their hereditary possessions. The Santhal rebellion broke out in 1855 under the leadership of two brothers Sidhu and Kanhu. They fought bitterly against the British troops but finally they too were crushed down. Other notable Adivasi warriors are Jabra Paharia, Veer Budhu Bhagat, Poto Sardar, Telenga Kharia, Phulo-Jhano, Manki Munda, Gaya Munda.

Then Birsa Munda revolt,[11] broke out in 1895 and lasted till 1900. The revolt though mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon, pulled its supporters from Oraon belt of Lohardaga, Sisai and even Barway. It was the longest and the greatest tribal revolt.[12] It was also the last tribal revolt in Jharkhand. All of these uprisings were quelled by the British through massive deployment of troops across the region.

British Government faced a lot of tribal revolt in Chhota Nagpur Division. Wherever resistance to British rule existed they tried to divide them. The policy of "Divide and rule" was made effective by Lord Curzon, when he was Governor General of India. He carried out Partition of Bengal in 1905, when the Princely states of Gangpur and Bonai of Chota Nagpur States were transferred from the control of Commissioner of Chhota Nagpur Division to Orissa Division and Princely states of Jashpur, Surguja, Udaipur, Chang Bhakar and Koriya were transferred from Chhota Nagpur Division to Chhattisgarh Division of Central Provinces, leading to shrinkage of Chhota Nagpur Division. Due to popular resistance to Partition of Bengal, the two Bengals were reunited in 1912 by Governor General Harding, and the province of Bihar and Orissa was created by taking out of Bengal the Bihar Division, Chhota Nagpur Division and Orissa Division. During this creation Midnapur, Purulia and Bankura remained with Bengal. Thus, whenever there was reorganisation of provinces, Chhota Nagpur Division lost some area. Thus during British rule, tribal areas, although geographically continuous, were put under different administrations.

Birsa Munda (1875-1900) and Sidho and Kanho are the legendary heroes of the tribal of Jharkhand state who fought against the oppressive rule of the British government. The Birsa Munda movement of 1885-1900 was the most important among early uprisings against exploitation of the original inhabitants by non-tribal landowners and money lenders. Birsa Munda fought for the tribal natural right over forests and land that was mercilessly being acquired by the British for exploitation. After a long fight, Birsa Munda was captured by the British authorities and died in prison. In 1914 the Tana Bhagat resistance movement started which gained the participation of more than 26,000 adivasis, and eventually merged with Mahatma Gandhi's Satyagraha and Civil Disobedience movement. A landmark in the movement was the formation of the Chotanagpur Unnati Samaj in 1915, which acquired political overtones with the demand for a sub-state for the adivasis. The demand was, however, turned down by the Simon commission.

The 20th-century Jharkhand movement may also be seen as moderate movement as compared to the bloody revolts of the 19th century. Having the Chhotanagpur Tenancy Act 1908 to protect their lands, the tribal leaders now turned to socio-economic development of the people. In 1914 Jatra Oraon started what is called the Tana Movement. Later this movement joined the Satyagrah Movement of Mahatma Gandhi in 1920 and stopped giving land tax to the Government. In 1915 the Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj was started for the socio-economic development of the tribals. This organisation had also political objectives in mind. When the Simon Commission came to Patna in 1928, the Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj sent its delegation and placed its demand for a separate Jharkhand State for self-rule by the tribals. The Simon Commission however did not accede to the demand for a separate Jharkhand State. Thereafter Theble Oraon organised Kishan Sabha in 1931. In 1935 the Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj and the Kishan Sabha were merged with a view to acquire political power.

Post-independenceEdit

After the last Assembly election in the state threw up a hung Assembly, RJD's dependence on the Congress extended support on the precondition that RJD will not pose a hurdle to the passage of the Bihar reorganization Bill (Jharkhand Bill). Finally, with the support from both RJD and Congress, the ruling coalition at the Centre led by the BJP which has made statehood its mail poll plank in the region in successive polls earlier, cleared the Jharkhand Bill in the monsoon session of the Parliament this year, thus paving the way for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state.[13]

Jharkhand statehoodEdit

The dynamics of resources and the politics of development still influence the socio-economic structures in Jharkhand, which was carved out of the relatively under developed southern part of Bihar. According to the 1991 census, the state has a population of over 20 million out of which 28% is tribal while 12% of the people belong to scheduled castes. Jharkhand has 24 districts, 260 blocks and 32,620 villages out of which only 45% have access to electricity while only 8,484 are connected by roads. Jharkhand is the leading producer of mineral wealth in the country after Chhattisgarh state, endowed as it is with vast variety of minerals like iron ore, coal, copper ore, mica, bauxite, graphite, limestone, and uranium. Jharkhand is also known for its vast forest resources.[14]

Flora and faunaEdit

State symbols of Jharkhand
Formation day 15 November 2000 Created by "Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000."
State animal Elephant[15]  
State bird Koel  
State tree Sal[15]  
State flower Palash[15]  
 
Palaash flowers, bright red, pepper the skyline in Jharkhand during fall, also known as forest fire
 
A crocodile at Muta crocodile breeding centre at Ormanjhi, Ranchi

Jharkhand has a rich variety of flora and fauna. The National Parks and the Zoological Gardens located in the state of Jharkhand present a panorama of this variety.

Part of the reason for the variety and diversity of flora and fauna found in Jharkhand state may be accredited to the Palamau Tiger Reserves under the Project Tiger. This reserve is abode to hundreds of species of flora and fauna,[16] as indicated within brackets: mammals (39), snakes (8), lizards (4), fish (6), insects (21), birds (170), seed bearing plants and trees (97), shrubs and herbs (46), climbers, parasites and semi-parasites (25), and grasses and bamboos (17).

DemographyEdit

 
Youth marching: parade for India's Republic Day, Jharkhand state, India

ReligionEdit

 

Religion in Jharkhand (2011)[18]

  Hinduism (67.8%)
  Islam (14.5%)
  Sarnaism (12.8%)
  Christianity (4.3%)
  Not stated (0.6%)

As per the 2011 census, Hinduism is the majority religion in the state at 67.8%, followed by Islam at 14.5% and Christianity at 4.3%.[19] Other religions constitute 12.8% of the population, which is primarily Sarnaism.

CuisineEdit

Jharkhandis have a cuisine in which spices are rarely used and rice is the staple diet. They prepare different dishes of rice, different types of Rotis, Litti Chokha, Pani puri (Gupchup), Pittha, Dhuska, Dudhauri, kera-dudhauri, Jhalmudhi etc. Dhuska is a famous dish of Jharkhand cooked with mashed rice and pulses and served with either aaloo dum or mutton curry; kera-dudhauri is a famous dish prepared with milk, rice, ghee and gur. In many parts of Jharkhand including Panch Pargana area (Bundu, Rahe, Sonahatu, Silli, Angara, Arki and Tamar Blocks of Ranchi & Khunti districts) a special food item "Charpa" is prepared by frying mashed rice mixed with spicy vegetable preparations; hence the name follows viz. Sembi Charpa, Egg Charpa and many more depending upon the ingredient vegetable source.[20][21]

Local alcoholic drinks include rice beer, originally known as Handiya, named after the vessel (earthen pot) used to make it. Handiya is culturally associated with native i.e. Tribals as well as Sadan, as this drink is consumed by both men and women, on social occasions like marriage and other festivals.[22][23] Another common liquor is called Mahu, made from fruit/flowers of the "Mahua" tree (Madhukam Indicum).[24]

Administrative districtsEdit

The state was formed with 18 districts that were formerly part of south Bihar. Some of these districts were reorganised to form 6 new districts, namely, Latehar, Saraikela Kharsawan, Jamtara, Sahebganj, Khunti and Ramgarh. At present, the state has 5 Divisions and 24 Districts. One interesting thing about Jharkhand is that all its districts, except Lohardaga and Khunti, share a border with a neighboring state.[25]

Divisions and DistrictsEdit

Palamu Division:

North Chotanagpur Division:

South Chotanagpur Division:

Kolhan Division:

Santhal Pargana Division:

Major CitiesEdit

Naxal insurgencyEdit

Jharkhand has been at the centre of the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency. Since the uprising of the Naxalites in 1967, 6,000 people have been killed in fighting between the Naxalites and counter-insurgency operations by the police, and its paramilitary groups such as the Salwa Judum.[27]

Despite having a presence in almost 7.80% of India's geographical area[28] (home to 5.50% of India's population), the state of Jharkhand is part of the "Naxal Belt" comprising 92,000 square kilometres,[28] where the highest concentrations of the groups estimated 20,000 combatants[29] fight. Part of this is due to the fact that the state harbours a rich abundance of natural resources, while its people live in abject poverty and destitution.[30] The impoverished state provides ample recruits for the communist insurgents, who argue that they are fighting on behalf of the landless poor that see few benefits from the resource extractions.[30] As the federal government holds a monopoly on sub-surface resources in the state, the tribal population is prevented from staking any claim on the resources extracted from their land.[30] In response, the insurgents have recently begun a campaign of targeting infrastructure related to the extraction of resources vital for Indian energy needs, such as coal.[28]

On 5 March 2007, Sunil Mahato, a member of the national parliament, was shot dead by Naxalite rebels while watching a football match on the Hindu festival of Holi near Kishanpur, 160 km (99 mi) east of the state capital, Ranchi.[16] His wife, Suman Mahato, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha candidate, won the Jamshedpur Lok Sabha by-election in September 2007. Mahato defeated her nearest rival, Dinesh Sarangi of the Bharatiya Janata Party, by a margin of 58,816 votes.[27]

EconomyEdit

Jharkhand has several towns and innumerable villages with civic amenities. Urbanization ratio is 24.1% and the per capita annual income is US$726.8.[31] Jharkhand also has immense mineral resources: minerals ranging from (ranking in the country within bracket) from iron ore (1st), coal(3rd), copper ore (1st), mica (1st), bauxite (3rd), Manganese, limestone, china clay, fire clay, graphite (8th), kainite (1st), chromite (2nd), asbestos (1st), thorium (3rd), sillimanite, uranium (Jaduguda mines, Narwa Pahar) (1st) and even gold (Rakha Mines) (6th) and silver and several other minerals. Large deposits of coal and iron ore support concentration of industry, in centres like Jamshedpur,Dhanbad, Bokaro and Ranchi. Tata Steel, a S&P CNX 500 conglomerate has its corporate office in Jharkhand. It reported a gross income of . 204,910 million for 2005. NTPC will start coal production from its captive mine in state in 2011–12, for which the company will be investing about Rs 1,800 crore.[32]

EducationEdit

As per the 2011 census conducted by Government of India the official literacy rate for the state was 67.63% (Male: 78.45%; Female: 56.21%) with 9 districts above the average literacy rate:[33][34]

  1. Ranchi: 77.13% (Male: 85.53%; Female: 68.20%)
  2. East Singhbhum : 76.13% (Male: 84.51%; Female: 67.33%)
  3. Dhanbad: 75.71% (Male: 85.68%; Female: 64.70%)
  4. Ramgarh: 73.92% (Male: 83.51%; Female: 63.49%)
  5. Bokaro: 78.48% (Male: 84.50%; Female: 61.46%)
  6. Hazaribagh: 70.48% (Male: 81.15%; Female: 59.25%)
  7. Saraikela Khasawan: 68.85% (Male: 81.01%; Female: 56.19%)
  8. Kodarma: 68.35% (Male: 81.25%; Female: 54.77%)
  9. Lohardaga: 68.29% (Male: 78.62%; Female: 57.86%)
  10. Deoghar: 66.34% (Male: 79.13%; Female: 53.39%)

After formation of new state, Jharkhand Education Project Council (JEPC) has been implementing four projects for spread of elementary education namely DPEP, SSA, NPEGEL, KGBV. Hence works have been accomplished in the state towards achieving the goal of UEE but due to slow pace, the target of hundred percent enrolment and retention of children in schools is not yet attained.[35]

Jharkhand has made primary education so accessible that 95% of children of ages 6–11 are enrolled in school, as opposed to 56% in 1993–94, so this will likely to improve literacy a great deal. Some of the better known schools which operate chain of school nationally and regionally are Vikas Vidyalaya, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, DAV Hehal, St. Thomas School, Delhi Public School, Oxford Public School, De Nobili School, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Chinmaya Public School, Loyola school, Sacred Heart School, St. Xavier's, Shishu Mandir, Surendranath centenary School, etc. Students from Jharkhand have proved themselves on national as well as international level. Students from the state have always ranked well in almost all the national level competitive exams.[36]

SchoolsEdit

Loyola School, Jamshedpur is one of the oldest schools in Jharkhand. The institution was established in 1947 by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), a Roman Catholic religious order founded by St. Ignatius Loyola in 1540.

The medium of instruction in schools is Hindi/English with English/Hindi/Sanskrit/Bengali/Odia as second language. After 10 years of schooling, students can join 2 years of Intermediate course (or +2 courses) in Arts, Science and Commerce. This is followed by 3 years of degree courses (graduation)or 4 years of Engineering/Agriculture/Medicine degree. On May 2008, Jharkhand became the first in India to introduce free haircuts for poor students. 40,000 barbers will be employed with a monthly salary of 1000 rupees (25 US dollars) which will cost the state government 40 million rupees (1 million US dollars).[37]

Universities and collegesEdit

AutonomousEdit

AgricltureEdit

Deemed UniversityEdit

EngineeringEdit

ManagementEdit

Medical CollegesEdit

PsychiatryEdit

HealthEdit

On account of salubrious climate, Jharkhand, particularly its capital Ranchi, has been like a health resort. As far back as 1918, facilities were set up for treatment of mentally challenged.[38][not in citation given] European Mental Hospital was established along with Indian Mental Hospital. Today they are called Central Institute of Psychiatry and Ranchi Institute of Neuro-psychiatry and Allied Sciences respectively. In certain areas of Jharkhand, poverty and consequent malnutrition have given rise to diseases like tuberculosis (TB). In fact, TB has assumed epidemic proportions in certain areas of the state. For management and treatment of such TB, Itki TB Sanatorium, Ranchi, established in 1928 has been doing exemplary work as a premier institute for clinical and programmatic management of TB. The Itki TB Sanatorium is well equipped and accredited by the Indian government for quality assurance and Culture and Drug Sensitivity Testing for M.TB. It provides free of cost treatment for TB as well as Drug resistant TB. Likewise, in the field of treatment of cancer, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur,[39] is rendering pioneering work. In the same way Bokaro General Hospital equipped with modern facilities for the treatment Cancer and heart related problems with capacity of 1100 beds one of the largest in eastern India.

Although several public and private health facilities are available in the state, overall infrastructure for dispensing health related services require improvements. An exception is the famous Tata Motors Hospital which is an example of an ISO 14001 and 18001 certified hospital with DNB teaching facilities.

Ranchi, the capital, has witnessed a sharp growth in the number of hospitals. Hospitals like Orchid Medical Centre have introduced world class healthcare services to the people of the state. However, in rural areas facilities are still scarce and reliant on foreign aid projects (such as Traditional Healthcare in Datom) for the establishment of clinics

Fluoride in groundwater presents a public health problem in Jharkhand. A recent survey led by the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi in collaboration with UNICEF in the northwest districts of Palamau and Garhwa found fluoride levels above the drinking WHO drinking water guidelines.[40] Excessive amounts of fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental fluorosis, prevalent bone fractures, and skeletal fluorosis, an irreversible disabling condition.[41] Some work has focused on combating fluorosis through increased calcium intake by consuming local plants.[42] Researchers at Princeton University and the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi are currently investigating defluoridation options, while performing an epidemiological survey to assess the extent of fluoride linked health problems and the impact of future interventions.[43][44]

Almost 80% of Jharkhand's people are farmers, although it contains 40% of India's mineral reserves it has some of India's poorest people, in Summer 2009 the state was threatened by drought, with people criticising the government for not providing food aid or assistance.[45]

VeterinaryEdit

Jharkhand has a diverse domestic animal population, including local and crossbred cattle, black Bengal goat, chhotanagpuri sheep, murrah and local buffalo, broilers and ducks of many varieties. The state Veterinary department runs Veterinary Dispensaries located throughout Jharkhand and posts Touring Veterinary officers, Block Animal Husbandry Officers, Touring Veterinary officers (mobile), Assistant Poultry Officers and Veterinary Surgeons to support the agricultural industry.

The state has a Veterinary College located at Kanke, Ranchi.

SportsEdit

Cricket, Hockey and football are popular games with the people of Jharkhand. Jharkhand has given some brilliant players like Jaipal Singh, a former Indian hockey captain and Olympian and Manohar Topno, Birendra Lakra and his brother Bimal Lakra, currently playing for the Indian Hockey team. Jaipal Singh was the captain of the hockey team that won the first gold medal for India in the 1924 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. Mahendra Singh Dhoni who was the captain of Indian cricket team and led the Indian cricket team to ICC Cricket World Cup Glory on 2 April 2011, ending a 28-year wait to repeat the feat achieved by former Indian captain Kapil Dev in 1983 at Lords, England. Another rising cricketer from Jharkhand is Varun Aaron, India's fastest bowler and Saurabh Tiwary, left hand hard hitting batsman of India who represented Mumbai Indians from the 2008 Indian Premier League and currently playing for Delhi Daredevils in 2015. He was one of the key batsmen in the Indian team that won the 2008 U/19 Cricket World Cup in Malaysia. Ashunta Lakra, sister of Vimal Lakra is the Indian Hockey Captain currently.And one of the emerging sport personality is Deepika Kumari, a young Indian athlete who competes in the event of Archery. She won gold medal in the 2010 Commonwealth games in the women's individual recurve event. Some of major stadiums in Ranchi are:

  • JSCA International Cricket Stadium, Ranchi - Cricket
  • Birsa Munda Athletics Stadium Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Athletics
  • Shiekh Bhikhari Administrative Block, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Fencing, Karate- Do
  • Veer Budhu Bhagat Aquatic Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Aquatics
  • Harivansh Tana Bhagat Indoor Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Volleyball, Basketball, Wrestling
  • Astroturf Hockey Stadium, Morhabadi, Ranchi - Hockey (Men & Women)
  • Birsa Munda Football Stadium, Morhabadi, Ranchi - Football (Men), Rugby 7s
  • Thakur Vishwanath Shahdeo Indoor Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Wushu, Badminton, Table Tennis
  • R. K. Anand Lawn Bowl Greens, Namkum, Ranchi - Lawn Bowls, Judo
  • Ganpat Rai Indoor Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Taekwondo, Gymnastics, Handball
  • Albert Ekka Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Kabbadi, Kho-Kho
  • Sidho Kanhu Velodrome Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Cycling
  • Tikait Umrao Shooting Range, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Shooting
  • Tennis Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Tennis

An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. This international stadium has hosted an International Match between India and England on 19 January 2013.[46] Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for KKR and qualifier 2 of IPL 8 between CSK and RCB and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A Tennis Academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the Cricket stadium.[47] Ranchi is among six cities in Hockey India League to be played in January 2013. Ranchi franchise was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named Ranchi Rhinos which is now being co-hosted by Mahendra Singh Dhoni and named as Ranchi Rays.[48] Ranchi is also famous for being the hometown of World Cup winning Captain of Indian Cricket team, Mahendra Singh Dhoni. India's ace archer Deepika Kumari, gold medal winner of Commonwealth Games 2010 and current world no.1 rank holder, also hails from Ranchi.

MediaEdit

  • Dainik Bhaskar News
  • ETV Bihar/Jharkhand, broadcasts Jharkhand-related news on a popular program called Johar Jharkhand at 7:30 am and 7:30 pm.
  • Naxatra News Hindi is another round the clock regional channel of Jharkhand.
  • Print media include the Hindi newspapers, namely, Prabhat Khabar, Hindustan and Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar and Jharkhand Jagran published from the state capital, Ranchi and available in almost all parts of the state. English newspapers like The Pioneer,the Times of India and the Hindustan Times are published from Ranchi and are available across Jharkhand. "Hindi Hain Hum" Hindi news paper is published from New Delhi available all over Jharkhand, Other important Indian newspapers in Hindi, English and local languages are also available in bigger cities by the afternoon and after a day's delay in smaller towns. Most of the national magazines in Hindi and English are regularly available in bigger cities and at other places where supply may be arranged through newspaper vendors. The internet media like jharkhandmirror are also available.
  • Johar Disum Khabaris only fortnightly newspaper published in local tribal & regional language from Ranchi. A monthly magazine "Johar Sahiya" is also published in the state's popular regional language Nagpuri-Sadri."Jharkhandi Bhasha Sahitya Sanskriti Akhra" also a multilingual quarterly magazine in tribal & Regional languages of Jharkhand.
  • There are also many lesser known news website like BiharAndJharkhand.com and a more recent news website JHnews.co.in. These websites have been made exclusively keeping in mind the needs of Jharkhand.
  • Ranchi and Jamshedpur have around five radio stations and All India Radio is available throughout the state. In 2007, private FM Channels have also started operation in the state. Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster, is also available in almost all parts of the state. Bigger cities in Jharkhand are served by all television channels available in India and channels are received through cable. In some interior regions, channels are received via satellite dishes.
  • Landline telephone connectivity is provided by BSNL, Tata Indicom and Reliance Communications and covers almost all parts of the state. Cellular service, covering all major centres of the state, is provided by Vodafone, Airtel (GSM Service), Aircel, BSNL, Idea Cellular and Reliance Communications and also by Tata Indicom and Reliance Infocomm (CDMA Service). Internet connectivity is available in all the districts.
  • FinalJustice.in Hindi news portal running from Ranchi (Jharkhand)
  • Jamshedpur Research Review is a multi-disciplinary English Quarterly Research Journal

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ (PDF). Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India http://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/censusinfodashboard/stock/profiles/en/IND020_Jharkhand.pdf. Retrieved 13 February 2017.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  3. ^ "Jharkhand – At a Glance". 
  4. ^ "UNDP- Jharkhand: Economic and Human Development Indicators" (PDF). http://www.in.undp.org. Retrieved 20 March 2017.  External link in |website= (help)
  5. ^ Jharkhand Profile (2011). "Census India" (PDF). http://censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 20 March 2017.  External link in |website= (help)
  6. ^ Gautam Kumar Bera (2008). The unrest axle: ethno-social movements in Eastern India. Mittal Publications. pp. 32–35. ISBN 978-81-8324-145-8. 
  7. ^ "Munda Rajas". Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  8. ^ "Arjun Munda unveils ancient tribal Raja's statue in Pithoria". jharkhandstatenews. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  9. ^ J.B. Hoffmann (1984). A missionary social worker in India. Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana. p. 54. ISBN 978-88-7652-539-1. 
  10. ^ "Freedom Struggle". Wesanthals.tripod.com. 14 November 2000. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 
  11. ^ Birsa Munda and His Movement 1874–1901: A Study of a Millenarian Movement in Chotanagpur, by Kumar Suresh Singh. Oxford University Press, 1983
  12. ^ emerging jharkhand times impact awards- Advertising agencies in ranchi - public relations of jharkhand- information about jharkhand - event management companies in ranchi. Emergingjharkhand.com (12 April 2012). Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  13. ^ gigisoftsolutions. "History of Jharkhand, Jharkhand History". traveljharkhand.com. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  14. ^ "About : Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". www.jharkhand.gov.in. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 
  15. ^ a b c "State animals, birds, trees and flowers" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
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