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Ranchi (// pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement, which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas.
|Nickname(s): City of waterfalls|
|• Body||Ranchi Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Asha Lakra|
|• Deputy mayor||Sanjeev Vijayvargiya|
|• Metropolis||655 km2 (253 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,179 km2 (455 sq mi)|
|Elevation||651 m (2,136 ft)|
|• Density||1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,126,741 (39th)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||JH-01 (earlier BR 14)|
|Sex ratio(per 1000 male)||950|
The name Ranchi is derived from the previous name of the Oraon village at the same site, Archi. "Archi" derives from the Oraon word for bamboo grove or stave. According to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave. The spirit shouted archi, archi, archi and vanished. Archi became Rachi, which became Ranchi. One of the historically significant neighbourhoods of Rachi is Doranda (duran "दुरङ" means song and daah "दअः" means water in the Mundari language). Doranda lies between the Hinoo (Bhusur) & Harmoo Rivers, where the civil station, treasury, and church established by the British Raj were destroyed by rebel forces during the Sepoy Mutiny.
Ranchi is located in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau, which is the eastern section of the Deccan plateau.
Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a relatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the uncontrolled deforestation, and development of the city, the average temperature has increased.
Although Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Climate Classification: Cwa), its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which it's known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to 42 degrees, winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees. December and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas(Kanke). The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm.
|Climate data for Ranchi|
|Average high °C (°F)||23.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.7
|Average low °C (°F)||9.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||16.7
As of 2011[update] India census, Ranchi municipal corporation has a population of 1,120,374, making it the 46th largest urban city in India. Males constitute 51.3% of the population and females 48.7%. Ranchi city has an average literacy rate of 87.68% (census 2011).
The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants. As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was one of the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Mangalore and Mysore.
Birsa Munda Airport (Airport Code IXR) of Ranchi has direct flights from Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Patna, Hyderabad, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Port Blair, Ahmedabad, Guwahati, Visakhapatnam, Jaipur, Lucknow. Major airlines like Air India, GoAir, Indigo, SpiceJet, Vistara and Air Asia do connect Ranchi. Plans are underway to connect Ranchi directly with cities like Chennai and Ahmedabad directly. The new domestic terminal, now operational 24 hours, is spread over 19,676 square meters of land furnished with imported equipment and has the capacity to handle 500 domestic passengers.
In addition, domestic cargo complex at Birsa Munda International Airport was inaugurated by Chief Minister Raghubar Das with a daily capacity of 50 MT, catering to 14 flights that operate in and out of Ranchi now.
Ranchi Railway Station (Station Code RNC) is well connected with direct trains from Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and other major cities.  It consists of six platforms with all standard necessities. It is well connected to Ranchi Airport and Bus Terminals. The Ranchi Railway station caters to 36 halting trains, 27 originating trains and 27 terminating trains.
Ranchi is home to many Research Institutions. Major among them, are:
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- ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region. Research Centre, Ranchi 
- Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums (IINRG), Namkum (Formerly, called Indian Lac Research Institute)
- Indian Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Gharkhatanga 
- Central Tasar Research and Training Institute Ranchi,
- Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research , regional center , namkum Ranchi.
Higher educational institutionsEdit
- Central University of Jharkhand
- Ranchi University
- Birla Institute of Technology
- Indian Institute of Management Ranchi
- Institute of Management Studies, Ranchi
- Jharkhand Rai University
- National University of Study and Research in Law
- National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology
- Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences
- Xavier Institute of Social Service
- Birsa Agricultural University
- Sai Nath University
- Amity University, Jharkhand
- Kendriya Vidyalaya
An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. So far, this stadium has hosted three One day International matches and one T20 International match. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for Kolkata Knight Riders, three champions league 2013 matches and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A tennis academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the cricket stadium.
Stadiums in RanchiEdit
Points of InterestEdit
Ranchi has the following FM radio stations: (Listed in increasing order of frequency)
- Radio City: 91.9 FM
- Big FM: 92.7 FM
- AIR FM Rainbow 100.5 FM
- Vividh Bharati (All India Radio): 103.3 FM.
- Radio Dhamaal 106.4 FM
Internet service providersEdit
People from RanchiEdit
- Rajesh Chauhan, former Indian cricketer, was born in Ranchi
- Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Ex-Captain of Indian Cricket Team, famous for winning Cricket World Cup in 2011
- Carl Haeberlin, German physician, was born in Ranchi
- Deepika Kumari, International Level Archer
- Peter Mansfield, British journalist and historian, was born in Ranchi
- Kariya Munda, Deputy Speaker of the 15th Lok Sabha(2009–14) and Member of Parliament from Khunti, Jharkhand
- Vinay Pathak, actor schooled at Vikas Vidyalaya, Ranchi
- Pat Reid MBE MC, escapee from Colditz Castle, was born in Ranchi
- Tapen Sen, Former Judge Calcutta High Court, Punjab & Haryana High Court and Jharkhand High Court.
- Telesphore Toppo, Cardinal-Archbishop of Ranchi in the Roman Catholic Church.
- Anjana Om Kashyap, Indian journalist and news presenter.
- "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Jharkhand Movement". Country Studies. Retrieved 2009-05-07.[dead link]
- Cultural Configuration of Ranchi, Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, Rajendra Behari Lal, India. Planning Commission. Research Programmes Committee, 1969, pg 306.
- Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society Of Bengal, Volume 4, No. 11, 1927, "The Etymology of Ranchi", pg 601.
- Kaye's and Malleson's history of the Indian mutiny of 1857–8, Volume 4, By Sir John William Kaye, George Bruce Malleson, W.H. Allen, 1889, pg 95.
- "Only 98 cities instead of 100 announced: All questions answered about the smart cities project". Firstpost. 2015-08-28. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
- "Sultry weather likely to continue in city, for now - Times of India". Retrieved 2016-06-24.
- "Ranchi, India Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)".
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- Assocham report, 2010 Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- India, Press Trust of India (February 10, 2017). "Ranchi-Hyderabad & Ranchi-Chennai flight soon: Sinha". www.india.com.
- "Ranchi ready with state-of-the-art airport". The Times Of India. 2012-04-04.
- Bisoee, Animesh (11 February 2017). "Summit push with cargo hub". Telegraph India – via telegraphindia.com.
- "Ranchi Station Code". mapsofindia.
- Jain, Rahul Kr. "RNC/Ranchi Junction Station - 64 Train Departures SER/South Eastern Zone - Railway Enquiry".
- Ranchi to get its first Metro ride in 2019
- All major highways linking Ranchi to come under patrol
- "ICAR RCER". Retrieved 29 June 2018.
- "IINRG". Retrieved 29 June 2018.
- "IIAB". Retrieved 29 June 2018.
- "CTRTI". Retrieved 29 June 2018.
- http://cimfr.nic.in/campuseslocationandaccess.html. Missing or empty
- "Central Institute of Psychiatry,Ranchi". cipranchi.nic.in. Retrieved 2018-09-30.
- "Sania and Shoaib in Ranchi".
- "Ranchi franchise becomes third team in Hockey India League". The Times Of India. 2012-09-14.
- "Jharkhand Zoo Authority".
- "Rajesh Chauhan". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 January 2015.