Ranchi (/ˈrɑːni/ About this soundpronunciation ) is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand and 4th Largest city of India by area.[2]Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement,[3] which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas. Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[4]

From top left to right :- Kanke, Ranchi Railway Station , Rajendra Chowk , Birsa Munda International Airport , JSCA International Cricket Stadium , Line tank pond , Kadru flyover-Hotel Radisson Blu , Nucleus mall , GEL church complex .
From top left to right :- Kanke, Ranchi Railway Station , Rajendra Chowk , Birsa Munda International Airport , JSCA International Cricket Stadium , Line tank pond , Kadru flyover-Hotel Radisson Blu , Nucleus mall , GEL church complex .
City of waterfalls
Ranchi is located in Jharkhand
Location in Jharkhand
Ranchi is located in India
Ranchi (India)
Coordinates: 23°22′N 85°20′E / 23.36°N 85.33°E / 23.36; 85.33Coordinates: 23°22′N 85°20′E / 23.36°N 85.33°E / 23.36; 85.33
 • BodyRanchi Municipal Corporation
 • MayorAsha Lakra (BJP)
 • Deputy mayorSanjeev Vijayvargiya
 • Metropolis652.02 km2 (251.75 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,295 km2 (500 sq mi)
651 m (2,136 ft)
 • Metropolis1,456,528
 • Rank25th
 • Density2,200/km2 (5,800/sq mi)
 • OfficialHindi, English
 • RegionalNagpuri
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
834001(83 xxxx)
Telephone code0651
Vehicle registrationJH-01 (earlier BR 14)
Sex ratio(per 1000 male)950
Websitewww.ranchi.nic.in www.ranchimunicipal.com
Ranchi city from a hill


According to one popular tale, Captain choose "Archi" a Oraon tribal village as head quarter. "Archi" means Bamboo forest in local Nagpuri dialect. The British inadvertently named "Archi" as "Ranchi".[5][6][7]

According to another local story, the name of Ranchi comes from local bird named "Rici" which was mostly found in the "pahadi mandir premise". Up to 1927, the place was known as Rachi.[8] 'Rici' is name for Black Kite (Milvus migrans) in Mundari, the modern day landmark of Ranchi city, the Pahari Mandir, is also known as Rici Buru (रिचि बुरु) - the hill of the kites,[9] and the city originated on the foothills of Rici Buru with the construction of bada talaab by Commissioner Thomas Wilkinson at the same site.


The early evidence of use of several iron slag, pot sheds, iron tools found in Chota Nagpur region around 1400 BCE. [10]Magadha Empire exercised indirect control over the territory, which lasted until the reign of the Ashoka. Armies of Samudra Gupta passed through the region on their expedition to the Deccan. Nagvanshi king Raja Pratap Rai choose Chutia as his capital which is now a place in Ranchi. Few ruins of Chutia trace back to 2nd Century CE.[5][11][12][13] With the expansion of the Mughal Empire, the sovereign status of the Nagvanshi dynasty was technically affected, but they continued to rule and administer independently. King of Barkagarh Jagannathpur Thakur Ani Nath Shahdeo built Jagannath Temple in 1691.[14][15]

Jagannath Temple in 19th century

After Battle of Buxar, Nagvanshi became vassal of East India Company. British reduced Nagvanshi rulers to Jamindar in 1817.[16] In 1833, Captain Wilkinson established head quarter of the South-West Frontier agency in the neighborhood of the present day "Chutia" village.[5][17] Thakur Vishwanath Shahdeo, Pandey Ganpat Rai, Tikait Umrao Singh and Sheikh Bhikhari played a pivotal role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.[18][19] British made Ranchi as municipality in 1869. Freedom fighter Birsa Munda died in the Ranchi jail on 9 June 1900.[20] Last ruler of the Nagvanshi dynasty was Lal Chintamani Sharan Nath Shahdeo (1931 – 2014).[21] After the formation of the state of Jharkhand, Ranchi became its capital.


Ranchi lies at 23°22′N 85°20′E / 23.36°N 85.33°E / 23.36; 85.33 near to the Tropic of Cancer. Its municipal area is 652.02 km2 (251.75 sq mi), and its average elevation is 651 m above sea level.

Ranchi is surrounded by lush agriculturally fertile land.

Ranchi is located in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau, which is the eastern section of the Deccan plateau.

Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a relatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the uncontrolled deforestation, and development of the city, the average temperature has increased.[22]


Although Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Climate Classification: Cwa), its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which it's known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to 42 degrees, winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees. December and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas (Kanke). The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm.[23]

Climate data for Ranchi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 23.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.7
Average low °C (°F) 9.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 16.7
Source: IMD



As of 2011 India census,[24] Ranchi municipal corporation has a population of 1,126,741,[citation needed] making it the 46th largest urban city in India. Males constitute 51.3% of the population and females 48.7%. Ranchi has an average literacy rate of 87.68%.

The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants. As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was one of the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Mangalore and Mysore.[25]


Hindi is the official language of Ranchi. The populace of Ranchi converse mainly in Hindi. Nagpuri is regional language of the region. A number of other dialects and language spoken are Khortha and Kurmali. Tribal language Mundari is also spoken by the Munda tribe.


Religion in Ranchi
Religion Percent
Sarnaism or Animism

Hinduism is the prominent religion of Ranchi followed by 64.31% of the population. Islam is the second most followed religion in the city by 16.42% of the people. Minorities are Christians 8.52%, Sikhism 0.39%, Jains 0.22%, Buddhists 0.06%, those that did not state a religion are 0.35%, and others are 9.72%.[citation needed]


Ranchi is one of the major industrial cities of Eastern India and located in the region called 'Ruhr of India' (Chota Nagpur) making it an ideal place for mineral based industries.

Ranchi have presence of many well known govt. and private organisations in the vicinity of city. SAIL-R&D, MECON.Ltd, Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers (Marine Diesel Engine Project), Central Coalfields, CMPDI.Ltd, Subarnarekha Hydel Project (JSEB), Usha Martin.Ltd (Wire Rope Division),[26] DVC, STPI-Ranchi,[27] Heavy Engineering Corp., Palriwal Industries, Pensol India, Waxpol Industries, Jharkhand Mega Food Park,etc. are the prominent industries here.

The Federation of Jharkhand Chamber of Commerce & Industries (FJCCI),[28] ASSOCHAM, MSME-DI and JIADA[29] are major apex industrial bodies present here. JIADA consists many industrial areas in Ranchi, e.g. - Kokar, Tatisilwai, Namkum,etc. are among them.

As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi is the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India followed by Mangalore and Mysore.[30]



Ranchi is a centre for numerous sports activities, including cricket, hockey, football, and many others.[35] The 34th National Games were successfully held in Ranchi in February 2011.

Ranchi Rhinos field hockey team is based in the city
JSCA Cricket Stadium Entrance

An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. So far, this stadium has hosted three One day International matches and one T20 International match. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for Kolkata Knight Riders, three champions league 2013 matches and Celebrity Cricket League matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A tennis academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the cricket stadium.[36]

The Ranchi franchise for Hockey India League was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named the Ranchi Rhinos.[37]

Sports teams

Stadiums in Ranchi

Points of Interest

People from Ranchi

See also


  1. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Netarhat: Jharkhand's Secret Hill Station". Outlook.
  3. ^ "Jharkhand Movement". Country Studies. Archived from the original on 18 March 2005. Retrieved 7 May 2009.
  4. ^ "Only 98 cities instead of 100 announced: All questions answered about the smart cities project". Firstpost. 28 August 2015. Archived from the original on 19 January 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  5. ^ a b c "1800s: When British Developed Ranchi As Summer Capital". focusmagazine. 13 August 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  6. ^ Cultural Configuration of Ranchi, Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, Rajendra Behari Lal, India. Planning Commission. Research Programmes Committee, 1969, pg 306.
  7. ^ Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society Of Bengal, Volume 4, No. 11, 1927, "The Etymology of Ranchi", pg 601.
  8. ^ Ranchi District: Ranchi, History of Ranchi District, Bundu, Kanke, Hatia, Rampur, Jharkhand, Churi, Ormanjhi Block, Tamar Block, Bero B. books.google.co.in. May 2010. ISBN 9781155984032.
  9. ^ Samar, Bosu Mullick (2015). Sylvan tales : stories from the Munda country. Kolkata, India. ISBN 9789384465056. OCLC 935915532.
  10. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p. 220. ISBN 9788131711200.
  11. ^ "Archaeologists uncover remains of ancient empire in Jharkhand". oneindia.com. 11 May 2009.
  12. ^ "800 years come alive in Pithoria's relics - Archaeological explorations in two hamlets yield artefacts from 12th Century to colonial times". m.telegraphindia.com.
  13. ^ "Ancient capital to open for visitors - Caves & temples at Sutiambe to offer peek into history". m.telegraphindia.com.
  14. ^ "Jagannath Temple (Ranchi)". Jharkhand Samachar. 20 May 2010. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  15. ^ "400 stalls to offer rich fare at Rath Mela". timesofindia.com.
  16. ^ "CHOTA-NAGPUR (Zamindari)". members.iinet.net.au.
  17. ^ Asha Mishra; Chittaranjan Kumar Paty (2010). Tribal Movements in Jharkhand, 1857-2007. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-81-8069-686-2.
  18. ^ Mathur Das Ustad (1997). "The Role of Bishwanath Sahi of Lohardaga district, During the Revolt of 1857 in Bihar". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 58: 493–500. JSTOR 44143953.
  19. ^ "JPCC remembers freedom fighters Tikait Umrao Singh, Sheikh Bhikari". news.webindia123.com.
  20. ^ Neeraj (January 2009). Birsa Munda. New Delhi-110 002: Ocean Books P Ltd 4/19 Asif Ali Road. pp. 3–10. ISBN 9788188322930.CS1 maint: location (link)
  21. ^ "CHOTA-NAGPUR (Zamindari)". members.iinet.net.au.
  22. ^ "Sultry weather likely to continue in city, for now - Times of India". Archived from the original on 19 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  23. ^ "Ranchi, India Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)".
  24. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  25. ^ Assocham report, 2010 Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "Ranchi, India (Wire Ropes & Speciality Products Division) | Usha Martin". Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  27. ^ "Welcome To STPI Ranchi". www.ran.stpi.in. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  28. ^ "Federation of Jharkhand Chamber of Commerce & Industries (formally Chotanagpur Chamber of Commerce & Industries)". www.fjcci.org. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  29. ^ "Jharkhand Industrial Area Development Authority". www.jiada.co.in. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  30. ^ "Ranchi tops tier-III cities in creating jobs in Q4: Report". Sify. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  31. ^ "Central Institute of Psychiatry,Ranchi". cipranchi.nic.in. Archived from the original on 30 September 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  32. ^ "Medanta Hospital Ranchi | Best Hospital in Ranchi, Jharkhand | Medanta". www.medanta.org. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  33. ^ "Best Multispecialty Hospital in Ranchi, Jharkhand | BMMSH 2019". www.medicaranchi.in. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  34. ^ "RINPAS". rinpas.nic.in. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  35. ^ "Sports". Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  36. ^ "Sania and Shoaib in Ranchi". Archived from the original on 8 April 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  37. ^ "Ranchi franchise becomes third team in Hockey India League". The Times Of India. 14 September 2012. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  38. ^ "Jharkhand Zoo Authority". Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  39. ^ "RATU ROYALS WELCOME GODDESS". www.telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  40. ^ "Rajesh Chauhan". ESPN Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2015.

External links