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Ranchi (// pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand, and is the 3rd most populous city of the state. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement, which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas.
|Nickname(s): City of waterfalls|
|• Body||Ranchi Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Asha Lakra|
|• Deputy mayor||Sanjeev Vijayvargiya|
|• Metropolis||175 km2 (68 sq mi)|
|Elevation||651 m (2,136 ft)|
|• Density||6,100/km2 (16,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,126,741 (39th)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||JH-01 (earlier BR 14)|
|Sex ratio(per 1000 male)||950|
The name Ranchi is derived from the previous name of the Oraon village at the same site, Archi. "Archi" derives from the Oraon word for bamboo grove or stave. According to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave. The spirit shouted archi, archi, archi and vanished. Archi became Rachi, which became Ranchi. One of the historically significant neighbourhoods of Rachi is Doranda (duran "दुरङ" means song and daah "दअः" means water in the Mundari language). Doranda lies between the Hinoo (Bhusur) & Harmoo Rivers, where the civil station, treasury and church established by the British Raj were destroyed by rebel forces during the Sepoy Mutiny.
Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. Ranchi is well known for being the hometown of former Indian cricket captain MS Dhoni.
Ranchi is located in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau, which is the eastern section of the Deccan plateau.
Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a relatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the uncontrolled deforestation, and development of the city, the average temperature has increased.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Although Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate, its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which it's known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to 42 degrees, winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees. December and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas. The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cwa"(Humid Subtropical Climate).
|Climate data for Ranchi|
|Average high °C (°F)||23.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.7
|Average low °C (°F)||9.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||16.7
As of 2011[update] India census, Ranchi municipal corporation has a population of 1,120,374, making it the 46th largest urban city in India. Males constitute 51.3% of the population and females 48.7%. Ranchi city has an average literacy rate of 87.68% (census 2011).
The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants. As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was one of the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Mangalore and Mysore.
Birsa Munda Airport (IXR) of Ranchi has direct flights from Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Patna, Hyderabad, Bhubaneswar. Few major airlines like Air India, GoAir, Indigo and Air Asia serve this purpose. Plans are underway to connect Ranchi directly with cities like Chennai and Ahemadabad directly. A new domestic terminal is now ready which is spread over 19,676 square metres of land furnished with imported equipment, and has the capacity to handle 500 domestic passengers.
In addition, a state-of-the-art domestic cargo complex at Birsa Munda Airport was inaugurated by Chief Minister Raghubar Das with a daily capacity of 50 MT, catering to 14 flights that operate in and out of Ranchi now.
Ranchi Railway Station is well connected with direct trains from Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and other major cities. It consists of six platforms with all standard necessities. It is also well connected to Ranchi Airport and Bus Terminals. The Ranchi Railway station cater to 36 halting trains, 27 originating trains and 27 terminating trains.
- ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region (ICAR RCER) Research Centre, Ranchi
- Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums (IINRG), Namkum]
- Indian Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Gharkhatanga
Higher educational institutions
- Central University of Jharkhand
- Ranchi University
- Birla Institute of Technology
- Indian Institute of Management Ranchi
- Institute of Management Studies, Ranchi
- Jharkhand Rai University
- National University of Study and Research in Law
- National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology
- Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences
- Xavier Institute of Social Service
- Birsa Agricultural University
- Sai Nath University
- Amity University, Jharkhand
An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. So far, this stadium has hosted three One day International matches and one T20 International match. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for Kolkata Knight Riders, three champions league 2013 matches and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A tennis academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the cricket stadium.
Stadiums in Ranchi
Points of Interest
Ranchi has the following FM radio stations: (Listed in increasing order of frequency)
- Radio City: 91.9 FM
- Big FM: 92.7 FM
- AIR FM Rainbow 100.5 FM
- Vividh Bharati (All India Radio): 103.3 FM.
- Radio Dhamaal 106.4 FM
Internet service providers
People from Ranchi
- Rajesh Chauhan, former Indian cricketer, was born in Ranchi
- Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Most successful former Indian Cricket team Captain
- Carl Haeberlin, German physician, was born in Ranchi
- Deepika Kumari, International Level Archer
- Peter Mansfield, British journalist and historian, was born in Ranchi
- Kariya Munda, Former Deputy Speaker of the 15th Lok Sabha and current Member of Parliament
- Vinay Pathak, actor schooled at Vikas Vidyalaya in Ranchi
- Pat Reid MBE MC, escapee from Colditz Castle, was born in Ranchi
- Telesphore Toppo, Cardinal-Archbishop of Ranchi in the Roman Catholic Church.
- Tapen Sen, Former Judge Calcutta High Court, Punjab & Haryana High Court and Jharkhand High Court.
- "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
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- "Jharkhand Movement". Country Studies. Retrieved 2009-05-07.[dead link]
- Cultural Configuration of Ranchi, Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, Rajendra Behari Lal, India. Planning Commission. Research Programmes Committee, 1969, pg 306.
- Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society Of Bengal, Volume 4, No. 11, 1927, "The Etymology of Ranchi", pg 601.
- Kaye's and Malleson's history of the Indian mutiny of 1857–8, Volume 4, By Sir John William Kaye, George Bruce Malleson, W.H. Allen, 1889, pg 95.
- "Only 98 cities instead of 100 announced: All questions answered about the smart cities project". Firstpost. 2015-08-28. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
- "Sultry weather likely to continue in city, for now - Times of India". Retrieved 2016-06-24.
- "Ranchi, India Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)".
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- "Ranchi District Population Census 2011, Jharkhand literacy sex ratio and density".
- Assocham report, 2010 Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- India, Press Trust of India (February 10, 2017). "Ranchi-Hyderabad & Ranchi-Chennai flight soon: Sinha". www.india.com.
- "Ranchi ready with state-of-the-art airport". The Times Of India. 2012-04-04.
- Bisoee, Animesh (11 February 2017). "Summit push with cargo hub". Telegraph India – via telegraphindia.com.
- Jain, Rahul Kr. "RNC/Ranchi Junction Station - 64 Train Departures SER/South Eastern Zone - Railway Enquiry".
- "IINRG". Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "Sania and Shoaib in Ranchi".
- "Ranchi franchise becomes third team in Hockey India League". The Times Of India. 2012-09-14.
- "Jharkhand Zoo Authority".
- "Rajesh Chauhan". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 January 2015.