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Ranchi (/ˈrɑːni/ About this sound pronunciation ) is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement,[3] which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas.

From top left to right :- Kanke, Ranchi Railway Station , Rajendra Chowk , Birsa Munda Airport , JSCA International Cricket Stadium , Line tank pond , Kadru flyover-Hotel Radisson Blu , Nucleus mall , GEL church complex .
From top left to right :- Kanke, Ranchi Railway Station , Rajendra Chowk , Birsa Munda Airport , JSCA International Cricket Stadium , Line tank pond , Kadru flyover-Hotel Radisson Blu , Nucleus mall , GEL church complex .
Nickname(s): City of waterfalls
Ranchi is located in Jharkhand
Location in Jharkhand
Ranchi is located in India
Ranchi (India)
Coordinates: 23°22′N 85°20′E / 23.36°N 85.33°E / 23.36; 85.33Coordinates: 23°22′N 85°20′E / 23.36°N 85.33°E / 23.36; 85.33
Country India
State Jharkhand
District Ranchi
 • Body Ranchi Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Asha Lakra
 • Deputy mayor Sanjeev Vijayvargiya
 • Metropolis 655 km2 (253 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,179 km2 (455 sq mi)
Elevation 651 m (2,136 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Metropolis 1,073,440
 • Rank 46th
 • Density 1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
 • Metro[2] 1,126,741 (39th)
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN 834001(83 xxxx)
Telephone code 0651
Vehicle registration JH-01 (earlier BR 14)
Sex ratio(per 1000 male) 950
Literacy 87.68%

The name Ranchi is derived from the previous name of the Oraon village at the same site, Archi.[4] "Archi" derives from the Oraon word for bamboo grove or stave. According to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave. The spirit shouted archi, archi, archi and vanished. Archi became Rachi, which became Ranchi.[5] One of the historically significant neighbourhoods of Rachi is Doranda (duran "दुरङ" means song and daah "दअः" means water in the Mundari language). Doranda lies between the Hinoo (Bhusur) & Harmoo Rivers, where the civil station, treasury, and church established by the British Raj were destroyed by rebel forces during the Sepoy Mutiny.[6]

Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[7]

Ranchi skyline from a hill



Ranchi lies at 23°22′N 85°20′E / 23.36°N 85.33°E / 23.36; 85.33 near to the Tropic of Cancer . Its municipal area is 655 km2 (253 sq mi), and its average elevation is 651 m above sea level.

Ranchi is surrounded by lush agriculturally fertile land.

Ranchi is located in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau, which is the eastern section of the Deccan plateau.

Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a relatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the uncontrolled deforestation, and development of the city, the average temperature has increased.[8]


Although Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Climate Classification: Cwa), its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which it's known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to 42 degrees, winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees. December and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas(Kanke). The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm.[9]

Climate data for Ranchi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 23.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.7
Average low °C (°F) 9.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 16.7
Source: IMD


As of 2011 India census,[10] Ranchi municipal corporation has a population of 1,120,374,[11] making it the 46th largest urban city in India. Males constitute 51.3% of the population and females 48.7%. Ranchi city has an average literacy rate of 87.68% (census 2011).

The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants. As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was one of the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Mangalore and Mysore.[12]



Night View of Terminal at Ranchi Airport (IXR).

Birsa Munda Airport (Airport Code IXR) of Ranchi has direct flights from Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Patna, Hyderabad, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Port Blair, Ahmedabad, Guwahati, Visakhapatnam, Jaipur, Lucknow. Major airlines like Air India, GoAir, Indigo, SpiceJet, Vistara and Air Asia do connect Ranchi. Plans are underway to connect Ranchi directly with cities like Chennai and Ahmedabad directly.[13] The new domestic terminal, now operational 24 hours, is spread over 19,676 square meters of land furnished with imported equipment and has the capacity to handle 500 domestic passengers.[14]

In addition, domestic cargo complex at Birsa Munda International Airport was inaugurated by Chief Minister Raghubar Das with a daily capacity of 50 MT, catering to 14 flights that operate in and out of Ranchi now.[15]


Ranchi Railway Station (Station Code RNC) is well connected with direct trains from Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and other major cities. [16] It consists of six platforms with all standard necessities. It is well connected to Ranchi Airport and Bus Terminals. The Ranchi Railway station caters to 36 halting trains, 27 originating trains and 27 terminating trains.[17]

Another smaller station, Hatia railway station, also serves the city and is the originating/terminating station for most trains connecting the city.[18][19]

Ranchi MetroEdit

Ranchi Metro is rapid transit rail currently under planning.[20]


Ranchi is well linked to other major cities by a series of National Highway Roads.[21]

Research InstitutionsEdit

Ranchi is home to many Research Institutions. Major among them, are:




Public librariesEdit


Ranchi is centre for numerous sports activities, including cricket, hockey, football, and many others.[28] The 34th National Games were successfully held in Ranchi in February 2011.

Ranchi Rhinos field hockey team is based in the city
JSCA Cricket Stadium Entrance

An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. So far, this stadium has hosted three One day International matches and one T20 International match. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for Kolkata Knight Riders, three champions league 2013 matches and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A tennis academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the cricket stadium.[29]

The Ranchi franchise for Hockey India League was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named Ranchi Rhinos.[30]

Sports teamsEdit

Stadiums in RanchiEdit

Points of InterestEdit

Asian Black Bear at Jharkhand Zoo in Ranchi
Bengal Tiger at Jharkhand Zoo



Ranchi has the following FM radio stations: (Listed in increasing order of frequency)

Internet service providersEdit

People from RanchiEdit

Cricketer Mahendra Singh Dhoni is from Ranchi

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  2. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  3. ^ "Jharkhand Movement". Country Studies. Retrieved 2009-05-07.[dead link]
  4. ^ Cultural Configuration of Ranchi, Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, Rajendra Behari Lal, India. Planning Commission. Research Programmes Committee, 1969, pg 306.
  5. ^ Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society Of Bengal, Volume 4, No. 11, 1927, "The Etymology of Ranchi", pg 601.
  6. ^ Kaye's and Malleson's history of the Indian mutiny of 1857–8, Volume 4, By Sir John William Kaye, George Bruce Malleson, W.H. Allen, 1889, pg 95.
  7. ^ "Only 98 cities instead of 100 announced: All questions answered about the smart cities project". Firstpost. 2015-08-28. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
  8. ^ "Sultry weather likely to continue in city, for now - Times of India". Retrieved 2016-06-24.
  9. ^ "Ranchi, India Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)".
  10. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  11. ^ "Ranchi District Population Census 2011, Jharkhand literacy sex ratio and density".
  12. ^ Assocham report, 2010 Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ India, Press Trust of India (February 10, 2017). "Ranchi-Hyderabad & Ranchi-Chennai flight soon: Sinha".
  14. ^ "Ranchi ready with state-of-the-art airport". The Times Of India. 2012-04-04.
  15. ^ Bisoee, Animesh (11 February 2017). "Summit push with cargo hub". Telegraph India – via
  16. ^ "Ranchi Station Code". mapsofindia.
  17. ^ Jain, Rahul Kr. "RNC/Ranchi Junction Station - 64 Train Departures SER/South Eastern Zone - Railway Enquiry".
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ Ranchi to get its first Metro ride in 2019
  21. ^ All major highways linking Ranchi to come under patrol
  22. ^ "ICAR RCER". Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  23. ^ "IINRG". Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  24. ^ "IIAB". Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  25. ^ "CTRTI". Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  26. ^ Missing or empty |title= (help)
  27. ^ "Central Institute of Psychiatry,Ranchi". Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  28. ^ "Sports".
  29. ^ "Sania and Shoaib in Ranchi".
  30. ^ "Ranchi franchise becomes third team in Hockey India League". The Times Of India. 2012-09-14.
  31. ^ "Jharkhand Zoo Authority".
  32. ^ "Rajesh Chauhan". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 January 2015.

External linksEdit