Steel Authority of India

Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is a central public sector undertaking based in New Delhi, India. It is under the ownership of Ministry of Steel, Government of India with an annual turnover of INR 1,03,480 Crore (US$13 billion) for fiscal year 2021–22. Incorporated on 24 January 1973, SAIL has 60,766 employees (as of 1 October 2022). With an annual production of 16.30 million metric tons, It is the largest government owned steel producer.[3] The hot metal production capacity of the psu will further increase and is expected to reach a level of 50 million tonnes per annum by 2025.[4]

Steel Authority of India Limited
Native name
TypeCentral Public Sector Undertaking
Founded19 January 1954; 68 years ago (19 January 1954)
HeadquartersNew Delhi, India
Key people
Soma Mondal (Chairman)[1]
ProductsSteel, flat steel products, long steel products, wire products, Wheel & axle for indian railways, plates
RevenueIncrease 103,480 crore (US$13 billion) (2022)[2]
Increase 17,060 crore (US$2.1 billion) (2022)[2]
Increase 12,250 crore (US$1.5 billion) (2022)[2]
Total assetsIncrease 126,927 crore (US$16 billion) (2020)[2]
OwnerMinistry of Steel, Government of India
Number of employees
60,766 (1 October 2022)

SAIL operates and owns five integrated steel plants at Bhilai, Rourkela, Durgapur, Bokaro and Burnpur (Asansol) and three special steel plants at Salem, Durgapur and Bhadravathi. It also owns a Ferro Alloy plant at Chandrapur. As a part of its global ambition, the psu is undergoing a massive expansion and modernisation programme involving upgrading and building new facilities with emphasis on state of the art green technology. According to a recent survey, SAIL is one of India's fastest growing Public Sector Units. The psu also has an R&D Centre for Iron & Steel (RDCIS) and a Centre for Engineering in Ranchi, Jharkhand.[5]



SAIL traces its origin to the Hindustan Steel Limited (HSL) which was set up on 19 January 1954. It was initially designed to manage only one plant that was coming up at Rourkela.

For Bhilai and Durgapur Steel Plants, the preliminary work was done by the Iron and Steel Ministry. From April 1957, the supervision and control of these two steel plants were also transferred to Hindustan Steel. The registered office was originally in New Delhi. It moved to Calcutta in July 1956, and ultimately to Ranchi in December 1959.

A new steel company, Bokaro Steel Limited (Bokaro Steel Plant), was incorporated on 29 January 1964[6][7] to construct and operate the steel plant at Bokaro. The 1 MT phases of Bhilai and Rourkela Steel Plants were completed by the end of December 1961. The 1 MT phase of Durgapur Steel Plant was completed in January 1962 after commissioning of the Wheel and Axle plant. The crude steel production of HSL went up from 1.58 MT (1959–60) to 1.6 MT. The second phase of the Bhilai Steel Plant was completed in September 1967 after commissioning of the Wire Rod Mill. The last unit of the 1.8 MT phase of Rourkela – the Tandem Mill – was commissioned in February 1968, and the 1.6 MT stage of Durgapur Steel Plant was completed in August 1969 after commissioning of the Furnace in SMS. Thus, with the completion of the 2.5 MT stage at Bhilai, 1.8 MT at Rourkela, and 1.6 MT at Durgapur, the total crude steel production capacity of HSL were raised to 3.7 MT in 1968–69 and subsequently to 4 MT in 1972–73.[8] IISCO was taken over as a subsidiary in 1978 and later merged in 2006.

Holding CompanyEdit

The Ministry of Steel and Mines drafted a policy statement to evolve a new model for managing the industry. The policy statement was presented to the Parliament on 2 December 1972. On this basis, the concept of creating a holding company to manage inputs and outputs under one roof was mooted. This led to the formation of The Steel Authority of India Ltd. The company, incorporated on 24 January 1973 with an authorized capital of 2,000 crore (US$250 million), was made responsible for managing five integrated steel plants at Bhilai, Bokaro, Durgapur, Rourkela and Burnpur, the Alloy Steel Plant and the Salem Steel Plant. In 1978 SAIL was restructured as an operating company.[8]

Major UnitEdit

Durgapur Steel plant

SAIL Integrated Steel Plants

  1. Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) in Odisha set up with German collaboration (The first integrated steel plant in the Public Sector in India, 1959)
  2. Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) in Chhattisgarh set up with Soviet collaboration (1959)
  3. Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) at Durgapur, West Bengal set up with British collaboration (1965)
  4. Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) in Jharkhand (1965) set up with Soviet collaboration (The Plant is hailed as the country's first Swadeshi steel plant, built with maximum indigenous content in terms of equipment, material and know-how)
  5. IISCO Steel Plant (ISP) at Burnpur in Asansol, West Bengal (Plant equipped with Largest Blast Furnace of country, Modernized in 2015 with investment of 16000 crore which will yield total production of 2.9 Million Ton annually )[9]

Special Steel Plants

  1. Alloy Steel Plant (ASP), Durgapur, West Bengal supplies to the Indian Ordnance Factories[10][11]
  2. Salem Steel Plant (SSP), Maramangalathupatti, at Salem, Tamil Nadu
  3. Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited (VISL), at Bhadravathi, Karnataka

Ferro Alloy Plant

  1. Chandrapur Ferro Alloy Plant (CFP) in Maharashtra

Refractory Plants - SAIL Refractory Unit (SRU)

  1. SAIL Refractory Unit, Bhandaridah in Jharkhand
  2. SAIL Refractory Unit, Bhilai in Chhattisgarh
  3. SAIL Refractory Unit, IFICO, Ramgarh in Jharkhand
  4. SAIL Refractory Unit, Ranchi Road in Jharkhand

Central UnitsEdit

  1. Central Marketing Organisation
  2. Centre for Engineering and Technology
  3. Research and Development Centre for Iron and Steel
  4. SAIL Consultancy Organisation[12]
  5. Environment Management Division[13]
  6. Management Training Institute, Ranchi

Joint venturesEdit

NTPC SAIL Power Company Limited (NSPCL)Edit

A 50:50 joint venture between Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) and National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd. (NTPC Ltd.). It manages the captive power plants at Rourkela, Durgapur and Bhilai with a combined capacity of 314 MW. It has installed additional capacity by implementation of 500 MW (2 x 250 MW Units) power plant at Bhilai. The commercial generation of Unit 1 commenced in April 2009 and the Unit 2 in October 2009.

  • NSPCL, Rourkela (2 x 60 MW)
  • NSPCL, Durgapur (2 x 60 MW)
  • NSPCL, Bhilai (2 x 30 MW + 1 x 14 MW)

During FY2013-14, NSPCL generated 6156.091 MU of electricity with a PLF of 86.33%

Bokaro Power Supply Company Pvt. Ltd. (BPSCL)Edit

Established in 2001, A 50:50 joint venture between Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) and Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) and is engaged in power and steam generation and supplies power and steam (at various pressures) to SAIL's Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) located at Bokaro for meeting the process requirement of BSL.

The plant has 9 boilers (5 boilers each of 220 TPH, 3 boilers each of 260 TPH capacity and 1 boiler of 300 TPH) and 7 turbine generators (one 12 MW back Pressure Turbine Generator (TG), 2 TGs each of 55MW capacity, 3 TGs each of 60 MW capacity and one 36 MW back Pressure Turbine Generator. Gg

1 220 17.04.1972 Kransy Kotelsic, Russia Tπ-156
2 220 14.07.1972
3 220 06.04.1974
4 220 15.07.1980
5 220 23.06.1980
TOTAL 1100
CPP 6 260 14.11.1985 Rafaco, Poland OPG-260
7 260 30.07.1988
8 260 19.02.1989
UNIT 9 9 300 02.09.2014 Alstom India PCSM00 6071
TOTAL 2180
1 12 (BPTG) 31.12.1974 Kaluga Russia P-12-90-37
2 55 13.07.1972 LMZ Russia K-50-90-4
3 55 13.10.1973
CPP 6 60 25.01.1986 Zamech Poland 9K-66
7 60 16.09.1988
8 60 31.03.1889
UNIT 9 9 36 (BPTG) 02.09.2014 Skoda, Czech Rep. PCSM006 071
TOTAL 338 With 660 TPH (Steam to BSL)

Mjunction services limitedEdit

Mjunction services limited operating in Information Technology and the Internet, is a 50:50 venture promoted by SAIL and TATA Steel. Founded in February 2001, it is today not only India's largest eCommerce company (having eTransacted worth over Rs. 900 billion till date) but also runs the world's largest eMarketplace for steel.[14]

Bhilai JP Cement LtdEdit

SAIL has incorporated a joint venture company with M/s Jaiprakash Associates Ltd to set up a 2.2 MT slag based cement plant at Bhilai. The company shall commence cement production at Bhilai by March'2010, whereas clinker production at Satna shall start within 2009.

Bokaro JP Cement LtdEdit

SAIL has incorporated another joint venture company with M/s JaiPrakash Associates Ltd to set up a 2.1 MT cement plant at Bokaro utilising slag from BSL. The project implementation is under progress with commencement of cement production likely by July 2011. Bokaro Jaypee cement plant opening ceremony was held by the chief minister of Jharkhand shri. Arjun Munda in 2012.

SAIL&MOIL Ferro Alloys (Pvt.) LimitedEdit

SAIL has incorporated a joint venture company with Manganese Ore (India) Ltd on 50:50 basis to produce ferro-manganese and silico-manganese required for production of steel.

S&T Mining Company Pvt. LtdEdit

SAIL has incorporated a joint venture company with TATA Steel for joint acquisition and development of coal blocks/mines. New indigenous opportunities for coking coal development are being explored by the joint venture company for securing coking coal supplies.

International Coal Ventures Pvt. LimitedEdit

International Coal Ventures Private Limited is a special purpose vehicle set up to achieve the target of making steel PSUs self-reliant in the area of coking coal, a joint venture company has been incorporated composed of five central PSU companies i.e. SAIL, Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited (RINL), Coal India Limited and other target countries.

Development of Hajigak iron ore mines in AfghanistanEdit

A consortium comprising state-owned NMDC and RINL and private sector steel players—JSW, JSW Ispat, Jindal Steel and Power, and Monnet Ispat and Energy and led by SAIL, plan to invest US$75 million in first phase for the development of Hajigak iron ore mines in Afghanistan. The consortium, in November 2011, had won the mining rights for three iron ore mines which are said to contain 1.28 billion tonnes of rich reserves.[15]

Development of mines through outsourcingEdit

SAIL has decided to outsource development of two virgin iron ore mines at Rowghat in Chhattisgarh and Chiria in Jharkhand with an annual capacity of 14 and 15 million tonnes, respectively. The development of each mine is likely to cost between 1,000 crore (US$130 million) – 1,200 crore (US$150 million).[16]

SAIL SCL LimitedEdit

A 50:50 JV with Government of Kerala where SAIL has management control to revive the existing facilities at Steel Complex Ltd, Calicut and also to set up, develop and manage a TMT rolling mill of 65,000 MT capacity along with balancing facilities and auxiliaries.[17]

International Coal Ventures Private LimitedEdit

ICVL is a joint venture of five companies owned by the Indian government. Aside from Steel Authority of India Limited, the other venturers are Coal India, Rashtriya Ispat Nigam, National Minerals Development Corporation and National Thermal Power Corporation. ICVL acquired a 65 percent stake in the Benga coal mine from the Rio Tinto Group in July 2014.[18]

SAIL RITES Bengal Alloy Casting Pvt. LimitedEdit

SAIL has signed a 50:50 joint venture with Burn Standard Company Limited for setting up a wagon components manufacturing facility at Jellingham in West Bengal's Purba Medinipur district. The total investment for this project would be 210 crore (US$26 million) in West Bengal, and commercial production would begin from 2014.[19][20][21] It will manufacture, sell, market, distribute and export railway wagons, including high-end specialised wagons, wagon prototypes, fabricated components/parts of railway vehicles, rehabilitation of industrial locomotives, etc., for the domestic market.[17]

Ownership and managementEdit

The Government of India owns about 65% of SAIL's equity and retains voting control of the company. However, SAIL, by virtue of its Maharatna status in May 2010, enjoys significant operational and financial autonomy.

Soma Mondal is the current chairman.[22]


As of 31 March 2015, SAIL has 93,352 employees, as compared to 170,368 (as of 31 March 2002). There has been a continuous reduction of headcount over the past few years due to enhanced productivity and rationalised manpower.

The total requirement of its main raw material, iron ore, is met through its captive mines. To meet its growing requirement, capacities of existing iron ore mines are being expanded and new iron ore mines are being developed. In addition, new iron ore deposits in the states of Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha and Karnataka are being explored. Around 24% of its coking coal requirements are met from domestic sources, the remaining through imports. For improving coking coal security, the company is also making efforts for development of new coking coal blocks at Tasra and Sitanalla.[23] SAIL is also India's largest miner of minerals that are involved in the steel making process, such as iron ore and coking coal.[24] During FY 2019-2020, the company mined 32.406 million tonnes of steel making minerals.[24]

SAIL produced 13.9 million tonnes of crude steel by operating at 103% of its installed capacity, which is an increase of 1% over the previous year. It also generated 710 MW of electricity during FY2014-15.[2]

SAIL records turnover of over Rs 1 lakh crore. Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) produced 18.733 million tonnes of hot metal and 17.366 million tonnes of crude steel during 2021-22, its best ever production performance. The increase in turnover coupled with improved operational performance, helped the company achieve its highest-ever numbers in terms of profitability. [25]



  • "Best of all" Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award in 1993, 2006, and 2007 for their Bhilai and Bokaro plants[27]
  • Quality Summit New York Gold Trophy 2007 (International Award for Excellence & Business Prestige) and Award of Excellence Maintenance for Sumitomo Heavy Industry & TSUBKIMOTO-KOGIO, Japan won by Alloy Steel Plant, Durgapur.
  • SAIL was featured in the 2008 list of Forbes Global 2000 companies at position 647.[28]
  • Golden Peacock Award for Combating Climate Change – 2008 for BSP, Occupational Health and Safety- 2008 for BSL
  • National Safety Award to Bhilai Steel Plant announced by the Ministry of Labour & Employment, Government of India – 2008
  • Durgapur Steel Plant won the 2nd Prize in the Association of Business Communicators of India Awards – 2008.
  • Ispat Bhasha Bharati. the Rajbhasha Journal of SAIL has been awarded with the first prize under the All India House Journal Award Scheme – 2008–09
  • Salem Steel Plant received the Greentech Gold Award in Metal and Mining Sector – 2008–09.
  • Golden Peacock Award for Corporate Social Responsibility won by Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) for the third year in a row – 2009.
  • Rourkela Steel Plant collected the Srishti Good Green Governance (G-Cube) Award – 2009.
  • Greentech HR Excellence Award secured by the Durgapur Steel Plant – 2009
  • The steel township of Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) has been ranked 14th in sanitation and cleanliness by Union Urban Development Ministry – 2009–10
  • Greentech Safety Gold Award was given to Bhilai Steel Plant – 2010
  • The HR Excellence Award by the Greentech Foundation won by Bhilai Steel Plant – 2010
  • SSP has won the Greentech Silver Award in Training Category of Greentech HR Excellence Awards – 2010.
  • Award for financial and operational strength by Indian Institute of Industrial Engineering (IIIE)- 2009–10
  • Golden Peacock Environment Management Award – 2011
  • Randstad Award for HR Practices and Employer Branding under 'Manufacturing Industries' category – 2011
  • Maiden Wockhardt Shining Star CSR Award in the Iron & Steel Sector category – 2011.
  • Salem Steel Plant (SSP) has won the National Sustainability Award for the 6th time in succession and 13th time since inception of the award from Indian Institute of Metals (IIM)- 2011

[29] Of the 33 Prime Minister's Shram Awards announced for 2010 by the Ministry of Labour, Government of India, 17 of which went to PSUs, SAIL employees won 11 awards. Of the total number of 76 awardees for the year, 45 belong to SAIL – a remarkable distinction for any organisation. Maharatna SAIL has received the Golden Peacock Environment Management Award for the year 2011. The award, in recognition of SAIL's initiatives and achievements in the field of environment management, was presented by Union Minister for Home Affairs Shri P. Chidambaram on 24 June 2011

74 of a total of 128 awardees who have won the Vishwakarma Rashtriya Puraskar (VRP) are from SAIL. The 15 out of 28 awards won by SAIL went to our 74 employees for the performance year 2008. Bhilai Steel Plant won 7 such awards involving 36 employees, Bokaro Steel Plant won 6 awards involving 29 employees. Durgapur Steel Plant and Salem Steel Plant both won 1 award each involving five and four employees respectively. SAIL employees have won 4 out of 5 awards of Class A, which is the highest number of A Class awards won by any PSU in India.

Future plansEdit

SAIL is in the process of modernising and expanding its production units, raw material resources and other facilities to maintain its dominant position in the Indian steel market. The aim is to increase the production capacity from the base level production of 14.6 MT per annum (2006–07) to 26.2 MT per annum of hot metal.

The following table shows the increased production of various items prior to and post expansion.[30]

On 25 May 2012, Steel Authority of India Limited entered into a Memorandum of Understanding with the Government of West Bengal and Burn Standard Company Ltd. for setting up of a Railway Wagon factory of approximately 210 crore (US$26 million). This project will create an approximate 75,300 jobs. [20][21][31]

The company also looking to establish one full capacity integrated plant in Andhra Pradesh or Telangana and surveying the possibilities to set up the plant. The plant, which was proposed to be the first steel plant of such scale in the state, was estimated to get an investment of Rs. 4,400 crore.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Soma Mondal takes charge as SAIL chairman". Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e "SAIL Financial Statements". CNBC TV18. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  3. ^ India on its way to be the second largest producer of steel. "India on its way to be the second largest producer of steel". The Economic Times. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  4. ^ "SAIL to increase hot metal production capacity".
  5. ^ "R&D Centre for Iron and Steel | SAIL". Archived from the original on 28 September 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  6. ^ History of India’s Steel Industry
  7. ^ Bokaro Steel Plant - Bokaro District Archived 25 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ a b "Background & History". Steel Authority of India Ltd. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  9. ^ "'Modernisation of SAIL's IISCO steel plant by March'". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 6 October 2013.
  10. ^ Mazumdar, Rakhi. "ASP organises meet on need for special steel products for defence sector". The Economic Times.
  11. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Steel Authority of India Limited". SAIL. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
  13. ^ others_unit_environment Archived 2 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. (28 May 2013). Retrieved on 29 July 2013.
  14. ^ "mjunction – About Us". Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  15. ^ "SAIL-led consortium to invest $75mn on Afghan mines in Phase-I". The Times of India. 7 August 2012.
  16. ^ "SAIL to outsource development of 2 virgin mines". The Hindu. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  17. ^ a b "About Us". SAIL. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  18. ^ "Indian JV to acquire Rio Tinto's Riversdale coal assets in Mozambique". India Gazette. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  19. ^ "SAIL to invest Rs 21,000 crore in West Bengal". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  20. ^ a b "SAIL inks JV pact with Burn Standard". The Hindu. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  21. ^ a b "Sail, Burn Standard sign JV to produce wagon components". Economic Times of India. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  22. ^ Bhavya Dilipkumar; Satish John (11 April 2021). "sail: For SAIL, good times are ahead: Soma Mondal, Chairperson". The Economic Times. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  23. ^ "Lanco Infratech to develop SAIL's Tasra coal mine in India". 2 August 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  24. ^ a b ET Bureau (1 May 2020). "SAIL emerges as largest miner for steel making inputs in FY20". The Economic Times. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  25. ^ Business, ZEE. "SAIL".
  26. ^ Awards & Accolades Archived 21 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine. (28 May 2013). Retrieved on 29 July 2013.
  27. ^ SHRAWAN (29 May 2013). "ANNEX IV: LIST OF AWARD WINNERS OF RAJIV GANDHI NATIONAL QUALITY AWARDS" (PDF). New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  28. ^ "The Forbes 2000". 2 April 2008. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
  29. ^ "Awards & Accolades". Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
  30. ^ "SAIL- Into the Future". Archived from the original on 2 June 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  31. ^ "Sail to invest 2100 crore in West Bengal". 25 May 2012. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.

External linksEdit