NTPC Limited, formerly known as National Thermal Power Corporation Limited, is an Indian Public Sector Undertaking, engaged in the business of generation of electricity and allied activities. It is a company incorporated under the Companies Act 1956 and is promoted by the Government of India. The headquarters of the company is situated at New Delhi. NTPC's core business is generation and sale of electricity to state-owned power distribution companies and State Electricity Boards in India. The company also undertake consultancy and turnkey project contracts that involve engineering, project management, construction management and operation and management of power plants.
|National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd.|
|Traded as||BSE: 532555|
BSE SENSEX Constituent
CNX Nifty Constituent
|Founded||7 November 1975|
|Gurdeep Singh (Chairman & MD)|
|Services||Electricity generation and distribution|
natural gas exploration, production, transportation and distribution
|Revenue||₹92,179 crore (US$13 billion) (2019)|
|₹22,771 crore (US$3.3 billion) (2019)|
|₹11,749 crore (US$1.7 billion) (2019)|
|Total assets||₹242,609 crore (US$35 billion) (2019)|
|Owner||Indian Government (56.41%)|
Number of employees
The company has also ventured into oil and gas exploration and coal mining activities. It is the largest power company in India with an electric power generating capacity of 55,786 MW. Although the company has approx. 16% of the total national capacity it contributes to over 25% of total power generation due to its focus on operating its power plants at higher efficiency levels (approx. 80.2% against the national PLF rate of 64.5%).NTPC currently produces 25 billion units of electricity per month.
NTPC currently operates 53 power stations (22 Coal, 7 combined cycle gas/liquid fuel, 2 Hydro, 1 Wind and 11 solar projects). Further, it has 9 coal and 1 gas station, owned by joint ventures or subsidiaries.
It was founded by Government of India in 1975, which now holds 54.74% of its equity shares on 30.06.2016  (after divestment of its stake in 2004, 2010, 2013, 2014, 2016, & 2017)
In May 2010, NTPC was conferred Maharatna status by the Union Government of India,one of the only four companies to be awarded this status. It is ranked 400th in the Forbes Global 2000 for 2016.
- 1 History
- 2 Operations
- 3 NTPC plants and their capacity
- 4 Future goals
- 5 Listings and shareholding
- 6 Employees
- 7 Criticism
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
1975 to 1994Edit
The company was founded on 7 November 1975 as "National Thermal Power Corporation Private Limited". It started work on its first thermal power project in 1976 at Shaktinagar (named National Thermal Power Corporation Private Limited Singrauli) in Uttar Pradesh. In the same year, its name was changed to "National Thermal Power Corporation Limited". In 1983, NTPC began commercial operations (of selling power) and earned profits of INR 4.5 crores in FY 1982-83. By the end of 1985, it had achieved power generation capacity of 2000 MW.
In 1986, it completed synchronisation of its first 500 MW unit at Singrauli. In 1988, it commissioned two 500 MW units, one each in Rihand and Ramagundam. In 1989, it started a consultancy division. In 1992, it acquired Feroze Gandhi Unchahar Thermal Power Station (with from Uttar Pradesh Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam of Uttar Pradesh. By the end of 1994, its installed capacity crossed 15,000 MW.
1995 to 2004Edit
In 1995, it took over the Talcher Thermal Power Station from Orissa State Electricity Board.
In the year 1997, Government of India conferred it with "Navratna" status. In the same year it achieved a milestone of generation of 100 billion units of electricity in a year. In 1998, it commissioned its first naptha-based plant at Kayamkulam with a capacity of 350 MW. In 1999, its plant in Dadri, which had the highest plant load factor (PLF) in India of 96%, was certified with ISO-14001. During 2000, it commenced construction of its first hydro-electric power project, with 800 MW capacity, in Himachal Pradesh.
In 2002, it incorporated 3 subsidiary companies: "NTPC Electric Supply Company Limited" for forward integration by entering into the business of distribution and trading of power; "NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Limited" for meeting the expected rise in energy trading; "NTPC Hydro Limited" to carry out the business of implementing and operating small and medium hydro-power projects. In the same year its installed capacity crossed 20,000 MW.
Listing: NTPC got listed on BSE and NSE on 5 November 2004. Against the issue price of INR 62 per share, it closed the first day of listing with INR 75.55 per share. On the day of listing, it became the third largest company in India in terms of market capitalisation.
2005 to presentEdit
In October 2005, the company's name was changed from "National Thermal Power Corporation Limited" to "NTPC Limited". The primary reason for this change was the company's foray into hydro and nuclear based power generation along with backward integration by coal mining. In 2006, it entered into an agreement with Government of Sri Lanka to set up two units of 250 MW each in Trincomalee in Sri Lanka. During 2008 and 2011, NTPC entered into Joint Ventures with BHEL, Bharat Forge, NHPC, Coal India, SAIL, NMDC and NPCIL to expand its business of power generation. By the end of 2010, its installed capacity crossed 31,000 MW.
The company in 2009 joined forces with other state enterprises Rashtriya Ispat Nigam, Steel Authority of India, Coal India, National Minerals Development Corporation to invest in coal mining operations through a joint venture vehicle named International Coal Ventures Private Limited (ICVL). In July 2014 ICVL acquired a 65 percent stake in the Benga coal mine in Mozambique from the Rio Tinto Group
NTPC operates from 55 locations in India, one location in Sri Lanka and 2 locations in Bangladesh.
Headquarters: In India, it has 8 regional headquarters (HQ):
Scheduling and generation dispatch: The scheduling and dispatch of all the generating stations owned by National Thermal Power Corporation is done by respective regional load dispatch centres, which are the apex body to ensure integrated operation of the power system grid in the respective region. All these load dispatch centres come under Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO).
NTPC plants and their capacityEdit
The total installed capacity of the company is 49,943 MW (including JVs) with own 18 coal-based and 7 gas-based stations and 6 coal-based and 1 gas-based in JV/subsidiary companies, located across the country. Also 1 hydro-based station and 1 wind-based station. Nine joint venture stations are coal-based and 11 solar PV projects.
Coal-based thermal power plantsEdit
|Sr. No.||Project||State||Capacity in MW||Units in MW||Status|
|1||Singrauli Super Thermal Power Station||Uttar Pradesh||2,000||5x200, 2x500||All units functional|
|2||NTPC Korba||Chhattisgarh||2,600||3x200, 4x500||All units functional|
|3||NTPC Ramagundam||Telangana||2,600||3x200, 4x500||All units functional.|
|4.||Farakka Super Thermal Power Station||West Bengal||2,100||3x200, 3x500||All units functional|
|5||Vindhyachal Super Thermal Power Station||Madhya Pradesh||4,760||6x210, 7x500||All units functional. Largest Thermal Power Station of India|
|6||Rihand Thermal Power Station||Uttar Pradesh||3,000||6x500||All units functional|
|7||Kahalgaon Super Thermal Power Station||Bihar||2,340||4x210, 3x500||All units functional|
|8||NTPC Dadri||Uttar Pradesh||1,820||4x210, 2x490||All units functional|
|9||Talcher Super Thermal Power Station||Odisha||3,000||6x500||All units functional|
|10||Feroze Gandhi Unchahar Thermal Power Station||Uttar Pradesh||1,550||5x210, 1×500||All units functional|
|11||Talcher Thermal Power Station||Odisha||460||2x110, 4x60||All units functional|
|12||Simhadri Super Thermal Power Station||Andhra Pradesh||2,000||4x500||All units functional|
|13||Tanda Thermal Power Station||Uttar Pradesh||1,760||4x110, 2×660||4x110 MW Units functional, 2×660 MW Unit Under Construction|
|14||Badarpur Thermal Power Station||Delhi||705||2x210, 3x95||All units retired.|
|15||Sipat Thermal Power Station||Chhattisgarh||2,980||2x500, 3x660||All units functional|
|16||Mauda Super Thermal Power Station||Maharashtra||2,320||2x500, 2x660||All units functional|
|17||Barh Super Thermal Power Station||Bihar||3,300||3×660, 2x660||2x660 MW Functional, Three more units of 660 MW under construction.|
|18||Kudgi Super Thermal Power Station||Karnataka||2,400||3x800||All Units functional.|
|19||NTPC Bongaigaon||Assam||750||3x250||All Units functional..|
|20||LARA Super Thermal Power Station||Chhattisgarh||4,000||2x800, 3x800||1x800 MW unit functional, 1x800 MW unit under construction.|
|21||Solapur Super Thermal Power Station||Maharashtra||1,320||2x660||All unit functional.|
|22||Gadarwara Super Thermal Power Station||Madhya Pradesh||3,200||2×800, 2×800||1x800 MW unit functional, 1x800 MW unit under construction.|
|23||North Karanpura Thermal Power Station||Jharkhand||1,980||3×660||Under Construction|
|24||Darlipali Super Thermal Power Station||Odisha||1,600||2×800||1x800 MW unit functional, 1x800 MW unit under construction.|
|25||Khargone Super Thermal Power Station||Madhya Pradesh||1,320||2×660||1x660 MW unit functional, 1x660 MW unit under construction.|
|26||Telangana Super Thermal Power Project||Telangana||1,600||2×800||Under construction|
|27||Barauni Thermal Power Station||Bihar||720||2×110, 2×250||1×110 MW, 2×250 MW.unit. All unit functional|
28 Farakka super Thermal power station W.B. 2100
Coal-based (owned through JVs)Edit
|Sr. No.||Name of the JV||Location||State||Inst. capacity in megawatts|
|1||NSPCL. Joint venture with SAIL.||Durgapur||West Bengal||120|
|2||NSPCL. Joint venture with SAIL.||Rourkela||Odisha||120|
|3||NSPCL. Joint venture with SAIL.||Bhilai||Chhattisgarh||574|
|4||NPGC. Joint venture with Bihar State Electricity Board.||Aurangabad||Bihar||4380|
|5||Muzaffarpur Thermal Power Station (MTPS). Joint venture with Bihar State Electricity Board.||Kanti||Bihar||610|
|6||BRBCL Joint venture with Indian Railways.||Nabinagar||Bihar||1000|
|7||Aravali Power CPL JV with HPGCL & IPGCL||Jhajjar||Haryana||1500|
|8||NTECL JV with NTPC & TNEB||Chennai||Tamil Nadu||1500|
|9||Meja Thermal Power Station JV with NTPC & UPRVUNL||Allahabad||Uttar Pradesh||1320|
|10||PUVNL(Patratu) Joint venture with Jharkhand State Electricity Board.||Patratu||Jharkhand||4000|
Gas-based thermal power plantsEdit
|Sr.No.||Power project||State||Capacity MW|
Gas-based (owned through JVs)Edit
- Ratnagiri Gas and Power Private Limited (RGPPL) is joint venture project with GAIL in Indian state of Maharashtra. Its installed capacity is 1967.08 MW.
Hydro-electric power plantsEdit
The company has also stepped up its hydroelectric power (hydel) projects implementation. Some of these projects are:
- Loharinag Pala Hydro Power Project by NTPC Ltd: Loharinag Pala Hydro Power Project (600 MW i.e.150 MW x 4 Units) is located on river Bhagirathi (a tributary of the Ganges) in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand state. This is the first project downstream from the origin of the Ganges at Gangotri. Project was at advance stage of construction when it was discontinued by Government of India in August 2010.
- Tapovan Vishnugad 520MW Hydro Power Project by NTPC Ltd: In Joshimath town. The project is under construction.
- Lata Tapovan 130MW Hydro Power Project by NTPC Ltd: is further upstream to Joshimath. This project is under environmental revision.
- Koldam Dam Hydro Power Project 800 MW in Himachal Pradesh (130 km from Chandigarh ).All unit of this project are under commercial operation w.e.f. 18 July 2015.
- Rupasiyabagar Khasiabara HPP, 261 MW in Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand State, near China Border. This project is yet to be given investment approval.
- Singrauli CW Discharge (Small Hydro) 8 MW is under construction on discharge canal of Singrauli Super Thermal Power Station in Uttar Pradesh.
- Rammam Hydro 120 MW run of the river is under construction project on Rammam river at approx 150 km from Bagdogra / Siliguri in Distt. Darjeeling in West Bengal.The Darjeeling town is 50 km from the project.
Solar photovoltaic power plantsEdit
NTPC has drafted its business plan of capacity addition of about 1,000 MW through renewable resources by 2017. In this endeavour, NTPC has already commissioned 845 MW Solar PV Projects.
|1||Dadri Solar PV||Uttar Pradesh||05 MW|
|2||Portblair Solar PV||Andaman & Nicobar Island||05 MW|
|3||Ramagundam Solar PV||Telangana||10 MW|
|4||Talcher Kaniha||Odisha||10 MW|
|5||Faridabad Solar PV||Haryana||05 MW|
|6||Unchahar Solar PV||Uttar Pradesh||10 MW|
|7||Rajgarh Solar PV||Madhya Pradesh||50 MW|
|8||Singrauli Solar PV||Uttar Pradesh||15 MW|
|9||Ananthpuram Solar PV||Andhra Pradesh||250 MW|
|10||Bhadla-Solar PV||Rajasthan||260 MW|
|11||Mandsaur-Solar PV||Madhya Pradesh||250 MW|
NTPC has installed a 50 MW wind power project at Rajmol in Gujarat state.
The company has developed a long term plan to become 128000 MW company by the year 2032. NTPC Limited is on an expansion spree to meet the power requirements of the country – it has targeted to add 14,058 MW in 12th Plan (From FY13 to FY 17) of which it had already added 4,170 MW in the year 2012-13, 1835 MW in the year 2013-14 1290 MW in the year 2014-15 and 1150 MW from April 2015 to 30 November 2015.
As on 30 November 2015, the company has 23004 MW under construction. NTPC is diversifying its capacity mix with lots of emphasis on renewable energy. As on 30.11.2015, NTPC has 110 MW Solar PV capacity under operation, 250 MW under construction and 1260 MW under tendering. The company intends to add 10000 MW of Solar PV capacity in next 5 years. On 18.07.2015, NTPC declared commercial its first Hydro Power plant at Koldam in the State of Himachal Pradesh. By the year 2032, Company has a long term plan to reduce its fossil fuel capacity mix to 56%.
NTPC also plans to go global. The public sector company has signed a memorandum of agreement with the Government of Sri Lanka and Ceylon Electricity Board for setting up a 500 MW (2x250) coal-based thermal power plant in the island nation. An MoU has also been signed with Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Japan, for establishing an alliance for exchange of information and experts from different areas of the business. The company is also in the process of finalising an MoU with Nigeria for setting up power plants against allocation of LNG on long-term basis for NTPC plants in India. NTPC also developing a joint-venture coal-based power plant 1,320 MW (2x660) with Bangladesh Power Development Board known as Bangladesh India Friendship Power Company in Rampal, Bangladesh which is facing tremendous opposition from the people of Bangladesh owing to the plant's dangerously close proximity to the Sundarbans. 
NTPC has also been allotted coal blocks namely, Pakri Barwadih, Chatti Bariatu and Kerandari in Jharkhand, Talipalli, Chhattisgarh and Dulanga, Odisha. Except Pakri Barwadih all other blocks were cancelled by a decision of Supreme Court of India on 24 September 2014. However, the company was again allotted cancelled block under Section 5 of Coal Mines (Special Provision Act 2015)  Besides these blocks, Ministry of Coal has vide its press release dated 3 July 2013 has allotted 4 more blocks namely, Banai and Bhalmuda in Chhattisgarh, Chandrabila and Kudanli Laburi in Odisha. Two more blocks namely Mandakini- II and Banhardih are expected to be allotted to NTPC soon. All these mines are having estimated Geological Reserves of 6.7 Billion Tonnes. NTPC has appointed Mining Cum Development Operator (MDO) for its Pakri Barwadih mine.
The equity shares of NTPC are listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the BSE SENSEX index, and the National Stock Exchange of India, where it is a constituent of the S&P CNX Nifty.
In Sep. 2015, Government of India held around 74.96% equity shares in NTPC. Over 680,000 individual shareholders hold approx. 1.92% of its shares. Life Insurance Corporation of India is the largest non-promoter shareholder in the company with 10.03% shareholding.
In August 2017, the GOI divested further its 5% stake in NTPC through OFS (Stock Exchange Mechanism) and reduced the holding of GOI in NTPC to 5,76,83,41,760 shares i.e. 64.96% out of total 8,24,54,64,400 shares.
The balance is held by public, FIIs, Mutual Funds and Banks.
|Promoters: Government of India||64.74%|
|Foreign Institutional Investors||16.13%|
As of 31 March 2015, the company had 24,067 employees. The attrition rate for the FY 2014-15, including the trainee employees and employees working for subsidiaries and JVs, was 1.35%. Man MW Ratio of the company has fallen from 0.77 in the FY11 to 0.61 in FY 15. NTPC has been awarded continuously as great places to work for in PSUs category. And now they provide government job in the Railway Department. To know more check Exam Duty post. 
Land acquisition in tribal areas: The company (and other PSUs in India) has been allotted land for setting p power plants and related infrastructure in rural/tribal areas across the country by Central Government and various state governments. Some of these lands have been allotted to NTPC (and other PSUs in India) through Land Acquisition Acts passed by Central/State Governments. Wherever a land acquisition law is enacted, it also places a liability on the PSUs/governments to take actions for proper rehabilitation of displaced residents of that rural/tribal area. Governments/PSUs are criticised if they do not fulfill their liability towards displaced residents. In many areas where land acquisition is proposed through land acquisition laws, local residents oppose the forcible acquisition as they are not sure of proper rehabilitation.
Future growth: Draft National Electricity Plan, 2016 prepared by GoI states that India does not need additional coal fired power plants till 2027 with the commissioning of various coal based power plants which are presently under construction. India is no more facing regular power shortages to purchase electricity at high prices offering higher profit margins to the power generating companies. With the help of assured power purchase agreements (PPA) from the state owned DisComs, earlier NTPC was able to sell its power at higher margins on the deployed capital and higher overhead costs. Moreover, its main expertise of generating power from coal fired stations is becoming obsolete in terms of technology and economics against non conventional power generation like wind, solar, etc. In future, for the satisfactory growth mainly from wind and solar power projects, NTPC shall be ready to slash all its extra profit margins on capital deployed to bring down the power sale price at par with the IPPs to secure the projects in open competitive bidding.
Government has decided to scrap the coal fired power stations which are more than 25 years old to reduce the pollution. Instead of scrapping old pulverised coal fired units, NTPC should replace coal with torrefied crops waste/biomass as fuel in these units (nearly 11,000 MW) to make them profitable and productive assets without contributing to pollution.
To utilise its proven O&M expertise, NTPC may venture on major scale to implement the solar thermal storage power as they can offer clean and cheaper electricity than fossil fuel fired power generation plants
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