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Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) (Hindi: आयुध निर्माणी बोर्ड; IAST: Āyudh nirmāṇī borḍ) consisting of the Indian Ordnance Factories (भारतीय आयुध निर्माणियाँ; Bhāratīya āyudh nirmāṇiyān), is an industrial organisation, functioning under the Department of Defence Production of Ministry of Defence, Government of India. It is engaged in research, development, production, testing, marketing and logistics of a comprehensive product range in the areas of air, land and sea systems. OFB comprises forty-one Ordnance Factories, nine Training Institutes, three Regional Marketing Centres and four Regional Controllerates of Safety, which are spread all across the country.[8][9]

Ordnance Factory Board
Government Organisation
Founded1712 [1]
Ayudh Bhawan, Kolkata
Area served
Key people
Saurabh Kumar, IOFS
(Director General Ordnance Factories & Chairman, OFB)[2]
ProductsSmall arms, aircraft weapons, anti-aircraft warfare, naval weapons, anti-ship warfare, anti-submarine warfare, anti-tank warfare, missiles, missile launchers, rockets, rocket launchers, bombs, grenades, mortars, mines, metals, alloys, machine tools, military vehicles, engines, armoured vehicles, parachutes, optoelectronics, chemicals, clothing, artillery, ammunition, propellants, explosives
Revenue$3.5 billion (23687.22 crores)
(2017–'18) [3][4][5][6]
Number of employees

OFB is the world's largest government-operated production organisation,[10] and the oldest organisation run by the Government of India.[11][12] It has a total workforce of about 84,000.[7] It is often called the "Fourth Arm of Defence",[13][14][15] and the "Force Behind the Armed Forces" of India.[16][17]OFB is the 37th largest defence equipment manufacturer in the world, 2nd largest in Asia, and the largest in India.[18][5][19] Its total sales were at $3.5 billion (23687.22 crores) in the year 2017–'18.[3][4] Every year, 18 March is celebrated as the Ordnance Factory Day in India.[20][21]



Ordnance Factory Board predates all the other organisations like the Indian Army and the Indian Railways by over a century. The first Indian ordnance factory can trace its origins back to the year 1712 when the Dutch Ostend Company established a Gun Powder Factory in Ichhapur. In 1787, another gunpowder factory was established at Ichapore; it began production in 1791, and the site was later used as a rifle factory, beginning in 1904. In 1801, Gun Carriage Agency (now known as Gun & Shell Factory, Cossipore) was established at Cossipore, Calcutta, and production began on 18 March 1802. This is the oldest ordnance factory in India still in existence.[22]


The Indian Ordnance Factories have not only supported India through the wars, but played an important role in building India with the advancement of technology and have ushered the Industrial Revolution in India starting with the first modern steel plant of India much before Tata Steel,[23] first modern electric textile mill of India, first chemical industries such as smokeless propellant plants of India,[24] established the first engineering colleges of India as its training schools,[25] played key role in the founding of research and industrial organisations like ISRO, DRDO, BDL, BEL, BEML, SAIL, etc.[23]


  • 1712 – Establishment of the Dutch Ostend Company's Gun Powder Factory at Ichhapur.[1]
  • 1775 – Establishment of the Board of Ordnance at Fort William, Kolkata.
  • 1787 – Establishment of the Gun Powder Factory at Ishapore.
  • 1791 – Production of Gun Powder begins at Ishapore.
  • 1801 – Establishment of Gun Carriage Agency at Cossipore, Kolkata.
  • 1802 – Production begins at Cossipore on 18 March.
  • 1935 – Indian Ordnance Service was introduced to administer the whole Defence Production Industry of India.
  • 1954 – Indian Ordnance Service (IOS) renamed to Indian Ordnance Factories Service (IOFS).
  • 1979 – Ordnance Factory Board is established on 2 April.

Infrastructure and leadershipEdit


OFB's office at Esplanade, Kolkata [26][27][28]
  • Armoured Vehicles Headquarters, Chennai (AVHQ)
  • Ordnance Equipment Factories Headquarters, Kanpur (OEFHQ)
  • Ordnance Factory Board, New Delhi Office (OFBNDO)
  • Ordnance Factory Cell, Mumbai (OFBMUM)
  • Ordnance Factories Recruitment Centre, Nagpur (OFRC)
  • Ordnance Factory Board, Kolkata (OFBHQ)

Apex BoardEdit

The Apex Board is headed by the director general of ordnance factories (DGOF), who acts as the chairman of the board (ex officio secretary to Government of India) and consists of nine other Members, who each hold the rank of Additional DGOF. Ordnance factories are divided into five operating divisions, depending upon the type of the main products/technologies employed. These are:

  • Ammunition and Explosives (A&E)
  • Weapons, Vehicles & Equipment (WV&E)
  • Materials and Components (M&C)
  • Armoured Vehicles (AV)
  • Ordnance Equipment Group of Factories (OEF)

Each of the above group of factories is headed by a Member/Additional DGOF who is in the rank of Special Secretary to Government of India. The four remaining members are responsible for staff functions, viz personnel (Per), finance (Fin), planning & material management (P&MM), and technical services (TS), and they operate from Kolkata.

Ordnance factoriesEdit

Factory Location State Product
Ammunition Factory Khadki (AFK) Pune Maharashtra
Cordite Factory (CFA) Aruvankadu Tamil Nadu
Engine Factory Avadi (EFA) Chennai Tamil Nadu
Field Gun Factory, Kanpur (FGK) Kanpur Uttar Pradesh
Gun Carriage Factory Jabalpur (GCF) Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh
Grey Iron Foundry (GIF) Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh
Gun and Shell Factory (GSF) Kolkata West Bengal
Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project (HAPP) Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu
High Explosives Factory (HEF) Pune Maharashtra
Heavy Vehicles Factory, Chennai (HVF) Chennai Tamil Nadu
Machine Tool Prototype Factory (MPF) Mumbai Maharashtra
Metal and Steel Factory (MSF) Kolkata West Bengal
Ordnance Clothing Factory Avadi (OCFAV) Chennai Tamil Nadu
Ordnance Cable Factory Chandigarh (OCFC) Chandigarh Chandigarh
Ordnance Clothing Factory (OCFS) Shahjahanpur Uttar Pradesh
Ordnance Equipment Factory Kanpur (OEFC) Kanpur Uttar Pradesh
Ordnance Equipment Factory Hazratpur (OEFHZ) Hazratpur Uttar Pradesh
Ordnance Factory Ambarnath (OFA) Ambarnath Maharashtra
Ordnance Factory Ambajhari (OFAJ) Nagpur Maharashtra
Ordnance Factory Bhandara (OFBA) Bhandara Maharashtra
Ordnance Factory Bhusawal (OFBH) Bhusawal Maharashtra
Ordnance Factory Bolangir (OFBOL) Bolangir Odisha
Ordnance Factory Kanpur (OFC) Kanpur Uttar Pradesh
Ordnance Factory Chandrapur (OFCH) Chandrapur Maharashtra
Ordnance Factory Dumdum (OFDC) Kolkata West Bengal
Ordnance Factory Dehu Road (OFDR) Pune Maharashtra
Ordnance Factory Dehradun (OFDUN) Dehradun Uttarakhand
Ordnance Factory Itarsi (OFI) Itarsi Madhya Pradesh
Ordnance Factory Khamaria (OFK) Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh
Ordnance Factory Katni (OFKAT) Katni Madhya Pradesh
Ordnance Factory Muradnagar (OFM) Muradnagar Uttar Pradesh
Ordnance Factory Project (OFN) Nalanda Bihar
Ordnance Factory Project Korwa (OFPKR) Korwa Uttar Pradesh
Ordnance Factory Project Medak (OFPM) Hyderabad Telangana
Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli (OFT) Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu
Ordnance Factory Varangaon (OFV) Varangaon Maharashtra
Opto Electronics Factory (OLF) Dehradun Uttarakhand
Ordnance Parachute Factory (OPF) Kanpur Uttar Pradesh
Rifle Factory Ishapore (RFI) Kolkata West Bengal
Small Arms Factory (SAF) Kanpur Uttar Pradesh
Vehicle Factory Jabalpur (VFJ) Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh

Each ordnance factory is headed by a general manager who is in the rank of Additional Secretary to the Government of India.

Training institutesEdit

  • National Academy of Defence Production, Nagpur (NADP)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ambajhari, Nagpur (OFILAJ)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ambernath, Mumbai (OFILAM)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Avadi, Chennai (OFILAV)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Dehradun (OFILDD)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ishapore, Kolkata (OFILIS)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Khamaria, Jabalpur (OFILKH)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Kanpur (OFILKN)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Medak (OFILMK)

Each OFIL is headed by a principal director, and NADP by a senior principal director. NADP provides training to Group A officers, whilst the other eight institutes impart training to Group B and Group C employees of the ordnance factories.

Regional marketing centresEdit

  • Regional Marketing Centre, Avadi, Chennai (RMCAV)
  • Regional Marketing Centre, Delhi (RMCDL)
  • Regional Marketing Centre, Pune (RMCPU)

Each regional marketing centre is headed by a regional director.

Regional controllerates of safetyEdit

  • Regional Controllerate of Safety Ambajhari, Nagpur (RCSAJ)
  • Regional Controllerate of Safety Avadi, Chennai (RCSAV)
  • Regional Controllerate of Safety, Kanpur (RCSKN)
  • Regional Controllerate of Safety, Pune (RCSPU)

Each regional controllerate of safety is headed by a regional controller of safety.

Indian Ordnance Factories Service (IOFS)Edit

The Indian Ordnance Factories Service (IOFS) (Hindi: भारतीय आयुध निर्माणी सेवा) is a civil service of the Government of India. IOFS officers are Gazetted (Group A) defence-civilian officers under the Ministry of Defence.

IOFS is a multi-disciplinary composite cadre consisting of technical – engineers (Civil, Electrical, Mechanical, Electronics), technologists (Aerospace, Automotive, Marine, Industrial / Product design, Computer, Nuclear, Optical, Chemical, Metallurgical, Textile, Leather) and non-technical/administrative (Science, Law, Commerce, Management and Arts graduates). Technical posts comprise about 87% of the total cadre. The doctors (Surgeons and Physicians) serving in OFB belong to a separate service known as the Indian Ordnance Factories Health Service (IOFHS). IOFHS officers are responsible for the maintenance of health of the employees, and the hospitals of OFB. They report directly to the IOFS officers. IOFS and IOFHS are the only two civil services under the Department of Defence Production.[29]


The recruitment in the Indian Ordnance Factories as a Group A officer is done by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) based on the performance in the rigorous and prestigious Engineering Services Examination (ESE) and the Civil Services Examination (CSE).[30] Engineering posts are filled through the Engineering Services Examination, while technologists are selected through interviews by UPSC. Posts in the non-technical streams are filled through the Civil Services Examination. IOFS is the only cadre in which candidates are selected by all four means – CSE, ESE, interviews and promotions. IOFHS officers are selected through the Combined Medical Services Examination, conducted by UPSC.[31][32][33] All appointments to the Group A Civil Services are made by the President of India.[34]


The type of ordnance material produced is very diverse, including various small arms to missiles, rockets, bombs, grenades, military vehicles, armoured vehicles, chemicals, optical devices, parachutes, mortars, artillery pieces plus all associated ammunition, propellants, explosives and fuses.[35]

Products available to civiliansEdit

Civilians are required to hold an Arms License (issued only for non-prohibited bore category weapons) in order to buy firearms in India. The following products of the Indian Ordnance Factories Board are available for civilians:



  • Cartridge Rimfire .22" Ball
  • Cartridge SA .32" Revolver
  • Cartridge SA .315" and 30 06 Ball
  • Cartridge SA 12 Bore 70mm
  • Cartridge SA 12 Bore 65 mm Special

Products not available to civiliansEdit

These products are exclusively manufactured for use by the armed forces and are not sold to civilians.


Armed ForcesEdit

The prime customers of Indian Ordnance Factories are the Indian Armed Forces viz. Indian Army, Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force.[36][37] Apart from supplying armaments to the Armed Forces, Ordnance Factories also meet the requirements of other customers viz. the Central Armed Police Forces, State Armed Police Forces, Paramilitary Forces of India and the Special Forces of India in respect of arms, ammunition, clothing, bullet proof vehicles, mine protected vehicles etc.[38][39]

Civil tradeEdit

Customers are in the civil sector, central/state government organisations and departments such as Indian Railways, Indian Space Research Organisation, Defence Research and Development Organisation, Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, Nuclear Fuel Complex, Aeronautical Development Agency, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Telecommunications, and State Electricity Boards.[40][41][42][43] Public Sector Undertakings in India (PSUs) such as HMT Limited, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Bharat Dynamics Limited,[44] private companies and individuals etc. who purchase industrial chemicals, explosives, arms, ammunition, brass ingots, aluminium alloy products for aircraft, steel castings and forgings, vehicles, clothing and leather goods, cables and opto-electronic instruments.[45]


Arms and ammunition, weapon spares, chemicals and explosives, parachutes, leather and clothing items are exported to more than 30 countries worldwide.


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