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Sadri (Nagpuri) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Odisha. It is sometimes considered a Hindi dialect.[6] It is the native language of the Sadan.[2] It is used as lingua franca by many tribal groups such as Kharia, Munda, Bhumij and Kurukh, and a number of speakers of these tribal groups have adopted it as their first language.[6] It is also used as a lingua franca among Tea-tribes of Assam, West Bengal and Bangladesh. According to the 2011 Census, there were approximately 5,130,000 native speakers of the Nagpuri language, including 19,100 identifying as Gawari, 4,350,000 as "Sadan/Sadri" and 763,000 as "Nagpuria".[1][3]

Sadri
Nagpuri
Sadani
Native toIndia
RegionJharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha
EthnicityNagpuri people
Native speakers
5.1 million(Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi) (2011 census)[1][2]
L2 speakers: 7.0 million (2011)[3]
Early form
Devanagari, Kaithi, Bengali, Latin
Official status
Official language in
 India (Jharkhand)[4]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
sck – Sadri
sdr – Oraon Sadri
Glottologsada1242[5]

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The origin of Sadani/Sadri and other related terms is somewhat obscure. Probably the term "Sadan" derive from nisaada, referring to an ethnic group of North India. [6] The name Nagpur is probably taken from Nagvanshi, who ruled in this part of the country.[7]

ClassificationEdit

Nagpuri belongs to Bihari group of Indo-Aryan languages. Sometimes it considered a hindi dialect.[6][8]

Geographical DistributionEdit

Nagpuri language is mainly spoken in western Chota Nagpur Plateau region of west-central Jharkhand in districts such as Latehar, Lohardaga, Chatra, Palamu, Garhwa, Gumla, Simdega, Ranchi, Khunti, West Singhbhum, North-east Chhattisgarh in district of Jashpur, Surguja, Balrampur, south-west Bihar in Aurangabad district and Northern Odisha in Sundargarh, Sambalpur, Jharsuguda and Debagarh district.[3][2]

StatusEdit

Historically Nagpuri was official language during reign of Nagvanshi dynasty.[9] Nagpuri is accorded as second official language in Indian state of Jharkhand.[10] There is demand to include Nagpuri in Eighth schedule.[11][12][13] Some academics oppose inclusion of hindi dialects in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution as full-fledged Indian languages. According to them recogniton of hindi dialects as separate languages would deprive Hindi of millions of its speakers and eventually no hindi will be left.[14]

LiteratureEdit

During reign of Nagvanshi Kings and kings of Ramgarh several Nagpuri poems written in Devanagari and Kaithi script.[9] Nagvanshi king Raghunath Shah and King of Ramgarh Dalel Singh were great poet. "Nagvanshawali" written by Beniram Mehta is a historical work in Nagpuri language. Great poet Ghasiram Mahli had written several works including Vanshawali, Durgasaptasati, Barahamasa, Vivha Parichhan etc. There were also great writer like Pradumn Das and Rudra Singh.[15]

Nagpuri, taught at Ranchi University and other universities of Jharkhand.[16] Monthly Nagpuri magazines Gotiya and Johar Sahiya have been published in Ranchi.[17][18] Several magazines also have been published in Assam, West Bengal’s Tarai and Dooars district.[19][2]

Sample phrasesEdit

Phrases Transliteration English Translation
मोर नाव महेश हेके। Mor naaw Mahesh heke My name is Mahesh.
तोयं कैसन आहीस्? Toen kaisan aahis? How are you ?
मोएं ठीक आहों। Moen thik aahon I am fine.
का? Ka? What?
के? Ke? Who?
काकरे? Kakare? Why?
कैसन? Kaisan? How?
कोन? Kon? Which?
हीयां आओ Hian aao Come here
मोएं घर जात हों। Moen ghar jat hon I am going to home.
मोएं खा हों। Moen kha hon I have eaten.
मोएं जामु। Moen Jamu I will go.
हामे जाइल। Hame jaeil We go.
तोयं जाइस्। Toen jais You go.
तोयं लिखतहिस्। Toen likhothis You are writing.
तोयं आबे। Toen aabe You will come.
हामे लीखत हि। Hame likhot hi We are writing.
हामे लीख हि। Hame likh hi We have written.
उ आवेला। Oo aawela He/She come.
उ जात हे। Oo jat he He/She is going.
उ आवत रेहे। Oo aawot rehe He/She was coming.
उ खेली। Oo kheli He/She will play.
उमन रोटी खा हैं। Ooman roti kha hain They have eaten bread.
उमन गेलैं। Ooman gelain They went.
उमन घर जाबैं। Ooman ghar jabain They will go home.

Alternate namesEdit

Alternate names of dialects include: Sadani, Sadana, Sadati, Sadari, Sadhan, Sadna, Sadrik, Santri, Siddri, Sradri, Sadhari, Sadan, Nagpuria, Nagpuri, Chota Nagpuri, Dikku Kaji, Gawari, Ganwari, Goari, Gauuari, Jharkhandhi.[20][21][22]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ a b c d "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ a b c "Sadri". Ethnologue.
  4. ^ "Jharkhand gives second language status to Magahi, Angika, Bhojpuri and Maithili". www.avenuemail.in.
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sadani". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  6. ^ a b c d "Sadani / Sadri". www.southasiabibliography.de.
  7. ^ Sir John Houlton, Bihar, the Heart of India, pp. 127–128, Orient Longmans, 1949.
  8. ^ "Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Sasay to Zorgot". books.google.co.in.
  9. ^ a b "Giant new chapter for Nagpuri poetry". www.telegraphindia.com.
  10. ^ "Jharkhand gives second language status to Magahi, Angika, Bhojpuri and Maithili". www.avenuemail.in.
  11. ^ "Requests to include 38 languages in Constitution pending: Govt". www.thehindu.com.
  12. ^ "38 languages stake claim to be in Eighth schedule". www.dailyexcelsior.com.
  13. ^ "'नागपुरी पझरा' संवाद कार्यक्रम में उठी नागपुरी भाषा को 8वीं अनुसूची में शामिल करने की मांग". www.prabhatkhabar.com.
  14. ^ "Don't add Hindi dialects in Eighth Schedule, say academics". www.thehindu.com.
  15. ^ "Jharkhand Samanya Gyan". books.google.co.in.
  16. ^ "RU gold medallist to promote Nagpuri lang". m.timesofindia.com.
  17. ^ "Nagpuri call for culture". www.telegraphindia.com.
  18. ^ "JOHAR SAHIYA". www.newspapers.in.
  19. ^ "New insight into tea community of Assam". www.thethumbprintmag.com.
  20. ^ "Sadri (Language code 'sck')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 2012-05-13. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  21. ^ "Oraon Sadri (Language code 'sdr')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  22. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: sck". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2012-08-25.

External linksEdit