Giridih is headquarters of the Giridih district of Jharkhand state, India. The literal meaning of Giridih is the land of hills and hillocks – giri, a Hindi word, means hills and dih, another word of the local dialect, indicates land of. Before 1972, Giridih was part of Hazaribagh district.
from the top:
Shikharji Parasnath, Usri Falls
|Named for||Surrounded by mountains(giri)|
|• Total||87.4 km2 (33.7 sq mi)|
|Elevation||289 m (948 ft)|
|• Density||1,600/km2 (4,300/sq mi)|
|Languages (*For language details see Giridih block#Language and religion)|
|• Official||Hindi, Urdu|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
Giridih district was a part of Kharagdiha estate till the late 18th century. During the British Raj Giridih became a part of Jungle Terry. After Kol Uprising in 1831, the parganas of Ramgarh, Kharagdiha, Kendi and Kunda became parts of the South-West Frontier Agency and were formed into a division named Hazaribag as the administrative headquarters. The Kharagdiha Rajas were settled as Rajas of Raj Dhanwar in 1809, and the Kharagdiha gadis were separately settled as zamindari estates. Some of the notable Kharagdiha Zamindari Estates were Koderma, Gadi Palganj, Ledo Gadi, Gande Gadi, Ghoranji Gadi and Gadi Sirsia. The town of Giridih was under the rule of the Khargdiha Zamindari Estate of Salimpur and the temporarily settled estate of Karharbari.
Land of Giridih is rich in coal, and once Giridih was boomed by mica industry which exported mainly to Japan. There are many small and big mines of coal found in Giridih.
Giridih is located at  It has an average elevation of 289 metres (948 ft). Śrī Sammed Shikharji also known as the Parasnath Hills, located in Giridih is the highest mountain peak in Jharkhand. It is a conical granite peak located 4,477 feet (1,365 metres) above the sea level..
Note: The map alongside presents some of the notable locations in the district. All places marked in the map are linked in the larger full screen map.
The climate of Giridih is generally dry. It is pleasant during the winter season between October and March. Summer season starting April, is generally hot, with May being hottest when the temperature rises up to 47C. Often high temperature is accompanied by high humidity levels, especially during June when premonsoon rainfalls. It rains maximum during July and August, and rainy season continues up to mid-October.
Government and politicsEdit
Nageshwar Prasad Sinha was the first MP from Giridih when the town declared as a separate district from Hazaribagh. Ravindra Kumar Pandey from the Bharatiya Janata Party won the 2014 Indian general election from Giridih (Lok Sabha constituency) and Chandra Prakash Choudhary is the present Member of Parliament. Giridih city forms the Giridih (Vidhan Sabha constituency).Sudivya Kumar from Jharkhand Mukti Morcha is the current MLA from Giridih legislative seat.
Giridih is connected by Road and Rail link.
Giridih railway station (GRD) is connected to Madhupur Junction (MDP) located 38 km to the east by a single broad gauge railway line. There is a single passenger train which runs five times a day between the two stations and takes about an hour to reach Giridih. Giridih is under the administration of the Asansol division of the Eastern Railway zone of Indian Railways. There is also a direct train (Boggie Attach) service from Giridih to Kolkata and Patna.
New Giridih railway station (NGRH) lies to the north of Giridih city in Gadi. It became operational after the railway line between Koderma Junction (KQR) and Maheshmunda (MMD) was completed, and is under the administration of the Dhanbad division of the Eastern Central Railway zone. Presently train is ferrying once between Koderma and Maheshmunda and once between Koderma and Madhupur via New Giridih.
Parasnath railway station (PNME), on the Howrah-Delhi grand chord line, is 48 km from Giridih towards south-west in Isri and is under the administration of the Dhanbad division of the Eastern Central Railway zone.
One new rail line is proposed between New Giridih and Parasnath via Madhuban which will cater to the needs of locals and Jain Tourists coming to Madhuban, Parasnath. There are other proposals as well to connect New Giridih with Dhanbad Junction via Tundi and Govindpur, and with Jhajha via Bengabad, Chakai and Sono.
Giridih has a bus terminus in the centre of the town. The bus stand is divided into platforms for private buses. A government bus terminus is just adjacent to the main bus terminus. There are regular bus services from the city to other parts in the district. Bus service to Dhanbad, Bokaro, Hazaribagh, Deoghar, Asansol, Durgapur, Kolkata, Howrah, Patna, Ranchi and Jamshedpur is available.
By air, there is a landing airstrip known as Boro aerodrome at the district headquarters of Giridih. Giridih is well connected to some of the popular airports of Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal and they are :
|Population of Giridih|
As of 2011[update] India census, Giridih Urban Agglomeration had a population of 143,529, it is the 8th largest city of Jharkhand. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Giridih has an average literacy rate of 69%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; male literacy is 74%, and female literacy is 63%. In Giridih, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. The language spoken is known as Khortha.
Hinduism is the prominent religion of giridih city followed by 67.66% of the population. Islam is the dominant minority religion in the city followed by 30.31% of the people. Other minorities are Christians 0.84%, Sikhs 0.55%, Jains 0.47%, Buddhists 0.04%, and others 0.07%.
According to the District Census Handbook 2011, Giridih, Giriidh covered an area of 9.75 km2. Among the civic amenities, it had 41 km roads with both open and closed drains, the protected water supply involved tapwater from treated sources, uncovered well, overhead tank. It had 17,381 domestic electric connections, 1,410 road light points. Among the medical facilities, it had 4 hospitals (allopathic and others), 53 dispensaries, 53 health centres, 1 family welfare centre, 5 maternity and child welfare centres, 7 maternity homes, 1 TB hospital/ clinic, 16 nursing homes, 3 chairtable hospital/ nursing homes, 2 veterinary hospitals, 25 medicine shops. Among the educational facilities it had 28 primary schools, 15 middle schools, 7 secondary schools, 8 senior secondary schools, 3 general degree colleges. It had 2 recognised shorthand, type-writing and vocational training centre,1 non-formal education centre (Sarva Siksha Abhiyan), 1 special school for disabled. Among the social, cultural and recreational facilities, it had 1 working womens hostel, 1 stadium, 4 cinema theatres, 1 auditorium/ community hall, 1 public library and reading room. Three important commodities it produced were lac, coal, mica. It had the branch offices of 14 nationalised banks, 7 private commercial banks, 2 cooperative banks, 1 agricultural credit society, 1 non-agricultural credit society.
It has a growing economy. This town used to bustle with economic activity in the period from the 1960s to 1980s when the mineral mica processing and export community reaped tremendous gains through exports to the USSR. However, since the decline of the USSR and its split into twelve CIS countries, the industry has slowly declined and is currently ailing.
On the southern side of Giridih, in Beniadih, are the coal mines of Central Coalfields Limited, a subsidiary of Coal India Limited (a Maharatna and the world's largest coal miner). It is the largest industry in the Giridih district and major contributor to the economy of the town. Central Coalfields Limited itself is a Miniratna.
The Data Processing Center of Data Processing Division (DPD) of National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) provides complete IT solution from sample selection, software development to processing and tabulation of data canvassed through various socio-economic surveys of National Sample Survey Organisation.
Mica business also contribute a lot in the trade data, mainly mica is exported to China, Europe, Japan, Taiwan, US the total value of mica exports is US$ 100 million, the leading mica exporters are Jalan Mica Exports, Ratan Mica Exports, Jai Mica, Mount Hill Etc.
In 2006 the Indian government named Giridh one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 21 districts in Jharkhand currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
Presently, there are more than a dozen Sponge Iron and Rolling Mill Factories in Giridih. The name of few are Mongia Steel, SriBir, Siscon, Baba, Salasar, SriRam, Lal Steel, Saluja Gold, Gouri Shanker etc.
There is an Industrial Area adjacent to the city, which is full of small, medium and large Factories, these units provide employment to the locals and also to people from different parts of the country. These are namely Mongia Steel, Saluja Steel & Power, and Shivam Group of Companies.
However, pollution remains a critical issue in the surroundings of the Industrial Area which needs to be addressed by Municipal Corporation of Giridih, Chamber of Industries & Commerce and other authorities.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)
Kheer Kadam, Kalakand, Rajbhog (rasgullah), Tilkut, Ghewar and Piau are popular sweet here.
Shivratri, Durga Puja, Chhath, Deepawali, Holi, Guru Purnima, Ram Navami, Eid ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Adha, Moharram, Vishwakarma Puja, Saraswati Puja, Raksha bandhan, Karma Mahavir Jayanti, Shyam Mahotsav, Sarhool, and Christmas are among the long list of festivals celebrated in Giridih. After Chhath puja, a local village fair held is at Pachamba known as Gaushala (cow shed) fair.
Giridih has many prestigious schools and colleges.
The prominent colleges in this town include:
- Giridih College affiliated to the Vinoba Bhave University
- Sri Ram Krishna Mahila College affiliated to Vinoba Bhave University.
- Langta Baba College affiliated to the Vinoba Bhave University
- Vananchal College affiliated to Vinoba Bhave University.
- GD Bagaria institute of management affiliated to the Vinoba Bhave University
- Khandoli Institute of Technology affiliated to AICTE
- Carmel Convent School, Giridih
- BNS DAV Public School, Giridih
- Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Gandey, Giridih
- DAV Public School, CCL, Beniadih, Giridih
- Saraswati Shishu Vidya Mandir, Barganda, Giridih
- St. Joseph School, Giridih
- Subhash Public School, Koldiha, Giridih
- Candy Floss S Goenka School, Giridih
- Kiran Public School, Giridih
- Birla School, Giridih
- Honey Holy Trinity School, Giridih
- Shri Guru Nanak Vidhyalaya, Giridih
- Holy Cross, Giridih
- Sigmon Mission School, Giridih
- Rani Laxmi Bai Middle school, Giridih
- Sir JC Bose Girls High school, Giridih
- Delhi Public School, Giridih
Giridih has several religious and scenic tourist spots, including the following:
- Sri Sammeta Shikharji (Hindi: श्री सम्मेत शिखरजी), also known as the Parasnath Hills, with the highest mountain peak in Jharkhand, 4480 feet above sea level, is a major Jain pilgrimage destination and one of the most sacred places for Jains in the world. According to Jain belief, twenty of the twenty-four Tirthankaras (teachers of the Jains), (including Parshanath) attained Moksha (Nirvana) from this place.
- Rajdah Dham, Sabalpur, उत्तरवाहिनी गंगा (प्रकृति की अनुपम भेंट ) also known as Rajdaha, is a temple of Lord Shiva. It is situated approximately 60 km Giridih and 5 km from Suriya. (Near Nimatand Sabalpur). It is situated on the bank of the Barakar River.
- Langta Baba Samadhi Sthal This is located in Kharagdiha, about 30 km North West of the town on road towards Jamua. Langta Baba is revered both by the Hindus and the Muslims alike. People offer chadar to his samadhi as a ritual, and it is believed the wish made here by a true devotee always get fulfilled.
- Usri Falls 13 km from town, on the Tundi road, it s picnic spot. The Usri river falls a 40 feet steep gorge in three separate streams. The place is surrounded by dense forest of Parasnath Hills.
- Khandoli Dam located 10 km North-East of Giridih headquarters towards Bengabad block, is a scenic water reservoir and a dam. The place has been developed as a tourism attraction. It has water-related adventure sports and bird-watching. A watchtower and 600 feet high hillock offers a panoramic view of Khandoli site. A number of other amusement facilities are available there including boating, Rock-climbing, Parasailing and Kayaking.
- Sri Kabir Gyan Mandir in Sihodih, some 2 km from Giridih headquarters, Founded in 1985, a motivational institution is headed by Sadguru Maa Gyan which spreads the message of Sant Kabir and Sanatan Dharma. It has a sacred temple Guru Govind Dham with an idol of Sant Kabir and Lord Vishnu. It also has Kabir Gyan Darshan with worth to watch murals and paintings based on life of Sant Kabir, Vedas, Morality and paintings of saints of India.
- Surya Mandir is located in Mirzaganj, 33 km from Giridih Town. It is built in the middle of a lake in the shape of a Lotus flower. Pilgrims can visit here while returning from Langta Baba Samadhi. The temple has been declared Monument of National importance and is maintained by Archaeological Survey of India.
- Anurag Anand - Born in Giridih | Director & Producer who has produced various documentaries and tale shows for international giants like BBC, Channel 4, National Geographic & Discovery. He also owns a production house known as Inkingenious Media which is headquartered in London.
- Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose spent his last days in Giridih and the Sir J.C. Bose Girl's High School is named in his honour. He died in Giridih. His then residence is now known as "Vigyan Kendra" run by "Bihar Council of Science and Technology".
- Jnan Chandra Ghosh was born in Purulia and studied at the Giridih High School, from where he passed the Entrance Examination of Calcutta University in 1909. He was a scientist and played an important role in shaping science and engineering education in India. He was the first Director of Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Director of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, and Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University.
- The literary figure and the Nobel Laureate, Rabindranath Tagore also spent some time in Giridih. He wrote his Shivaji Utsav in 1904 while residing in Giridih. The house in which he resided, Dawasika Bhawan, still exists in Giridih.
- The film maker Satyajit Ray who is one of the Oscar recipients from India, spent his childhood in Giridih. He sketched his fictional character (appearing in a series of science fiction books), scientist Professor Shonku as residing in Giridih beside the Usri river.
- Krishna Ballabh Sahay was the elected member of Bihar Legislative Assembly from Giridih Constituency for several terms, including the one in which he served as the chief minister of Undivided Bihar during 1963 – 67.
- Babulal Marandi was born in a remote Kodia Bank village under Tisri block of Giridih district. He was the first Chief Minister of Jharkhand and the founder of the political party Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Prajatantrik).
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- Vigyan Kendro