Dhanbad (Santali: ᱫᱦᱟᱱᱵᱟᱫ Hindi: धनबाद Urdu: دھنباد) is a major city in Jharkhand, India.[7] It is the second-most populated city in the Indian state of Jharkhand after Jamshedpur.[8] The city ranks as the 42nd largest city in India and is the 34th largest million-plus urban agglomeration in India.[9] Dhanbad shares its land borders with Paschim Bardhaman district and Purulia district of West Bengal and Bokaro, Giridih and Jamtara districts of Jharkhand.[10] The city is called the Coal Capital of India' for housing one of the largest coal mines of India.[11] The prestigious institute, Indian School of Mines (now IIT Dhanbad) is situated in Dhanbad.[12]

Dhanbad
Dhanbad modern skyline.png
Dhanbad intersection.png
Vivana 2.jpg
Combined Building More.png
Ozone1.jpg
Sign DBD 2.jpg
New Academic Complex at IIT Dhanbad.jpg
Prabhatam mall.jpg
Clockwise from the top :- Dhanbad skyline, Vivana Hotel, Ozone Plaza, IIT Dhanbad, Prabhatam Grand Mall, Welcome to Dhanbad, Business district and Randhir Varma Chowk
Nickname(s): 
'Coal Capital of India', 'Koylanchal'
Motto(s): 
City For All
Dhanbad is located in Jharkhand
Dhanbad
Dhanbad
Location of Dhanbad in Jharkhand
Coordinates: 23°47′59″N 86°25′50″E / 23.7998°N 86.4305°E / 23.7998; 86.4305Coordinates: 23°47′59″N 86°25′50″E / 23.7998°N 86.4305°E / 23.7998; 86.4305
CountryIndia
StateJharkhand
DistrictDhanbad
Government
 • BodyDhanbad Municipal Corporation
 • MayorChandrashekhar Agarwal (BJP)[1][2]
Area
 • Metropolis275 km2 (106 sq mi)
 • Metro577 km2 (223 sq mi)
Elevation
222 m (728 ft)
Population
 (2011)[3][5]
 • Metropolis1,162,472
 • Rank34th
 • Density4,200/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
 • Metro1,333,719
 • Metro rank
42nd
Languages
 • OfficialSantali, Hindi, Urdu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
826001
Telephone Code0326
Vehicle registrationJH-10
Metro GDP (PPP)$95 million to $110 million[6]
Websitewww.dhanbad.nic.in

Dhanbad is the 96th fastest growing city of the world by the City Mayors Foundation.[13] It is the 56th cleanest city of India, according to the 2019 Swachh Survekshan cleanliness survey.[14] The city showed a great change in the city which was considered the dirtiest city in the 2018 Swachh Survekshan.[15] Dhanbad Municipal Corporation works for increasing green cover in the city.[16] Among the rail divisions of Indian Railway, Dhanbad Rail Division is the second-largest in revenue generation after the Mumbai division.[17] Dhanbad ranked as the top city in India with the highest 4G mobile phone network availability in India by a survey of Opensignal.[18]

HistoryEdit

 
Dr. Ambedkar talking to people as the Labour Minister in the Viceroy's Executive Council at coal mines, Dhanbad

The present district used to be a part of Manbhum region and was occupied by Mundari peoples in the wilderness of South undivided Bihar.[19] In the seventh century A.D. some information is available from the account of the travels of Hieun Tsang.[20] These accounts narrate the existence of a powerful kingdom which comprised the district and adjoining areas, ruled by Sasanka.[21] Manbhum was one of the districts of the East India during the British Raj.[22]

The region has thick forests, with rich mineral resources, and had a mixed demographic profile with people from different religious and social groups, including Jharkhandis, particularly the Santals and the Mundas before the city was established.[23] After the Partition of India, the district became a part of Bihar state, and upon re-organization of the Indian states in the mid-1950s, the district became a part of the West Bengal. Purulia district was carved out of the district of Manbhum.[23]

In the Settlement Report for Manbhum (1928) it was stated that no rock inscriptions, copper plates or old coins were discovered and not a single document of copper plate or palm leaf was found, during the Survey and Settlement operations. The oldest authentic documents produced were all on paper and barely even a hundred years old.[24] Dhanbad city was in Manbhum district from 1928 up to 1956.[24] However, on 24 October 1956, the city was declared a district on the recommendation of the States Reorganization Commission vide notification 1911.[25]

This was done under the commitment and leadership of journalist, Satish Chandra. In the year 2006, Dhanbad celebrated 50 years of being an independent district and city. From 1956 to 14 November 2000, it was under Bihar. At present, it is in Jharkhand, after the creation of the state on 15 November 2000.[26] The discovery of rich deposits of coal in the region caused the city to flourish financially, but also bought notorious coal-mafia and gang wars[27] which continues to this day with areas of city like Wasseypur being most affected by the conflict.[27]

GeographyEdit

Dhanbad
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
17
 
 
25
11
 
 
18
 
 
28
14
 
 
18
 
 
33
18
 
 
22
 
 
38
23
 
 
49
 
 
39
25
 
 
192
 
 
35
25
 
 
342
 
 
31
24
 
 
311
 
 
31
24
 
 
282
 
 
31
23
 
 
105
 
 
31
20
 
 
7
 
 
28
16
 
 
5
 
 
25
11
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: IMD

Dhanbad has an average elevation of 227 m (745 ft).[7] Its geographical length (extending from north to south) is 15 miles (24 km) and the breadth (stretching across east to West) is 10 miles (16 km).[28] It shares its boundaries with West Bengal in the eastern and southern part, Dumka and Giridih in the North and Bokaro District in the west.[29] Dhanbad comes under the Chota Nagpur Plateau.[30]

Rivers and LakesEdit

The Damodar is a major river of the Chota Nagpur Plateau. It rises in Palamu and flows eastward between the plateaus of Ranchi and Hazaribag. It is joined by the Bokaro, the Konar and the Barakar rivers.[31] The Damodar enters Dhanbad district at its confluence with the Jamuria, a stream which marks the western boundary of Dhanbad with Hazaribagh District. Further east, the Damodar is joined by the Katri River which rises in the foothills below Parasnath and traverses through the coal-field area.[32] The Barakar, which forms the northern boundary of the district, traverses about 77 km. It flows in south westerly direction up to Durgapur and then south till it joins the Damodar near Chirkunda.

ClimateEdit

Dhanbad features a climate that is transitional between a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cwa) and a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw).[33] Summer starts from the last week of March and ends in mid-June. The peak temperature in summer can reach 48 °C. Dhanbad also receives heavy rainfall. In winter, the minimum temperature remains around 10 °C with a maximum of 22 °C.

Climate data for Dhanbad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 25
(77)
28
(82)
33
(91)
38
(100)
39
(102)
35
(95)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
28
(82)
25
(77)
31
(88)
Average low °C (°F) 11
(52)
14
(57)
18
(64)
23
(73)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
20
(68)
16
(61)
11
(52)
20
(67)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17
(0.7)
18
(0.7)
18
(0.7)
22
(0.9)
49
(1.9)
192
(7.6)
342
(13.5)
311
(12.2)
282
(11.1)
105
(4.1)
7
(0.3)
5
(0.2)
1,368
(53.9)
Source: IMD

DemographicsEdit

PopulationEdit

As of 2011 census, Dhanbad City had a population of 1,162,472.[5] Males (614,722) constitute 53% of the population and females (547,750) 47%. It has a sex ratio of 891. Dhanbad has an average literacy rate of 79.47%, higher than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 86.14% and female literacy is 71.96%.[5] 10.57% of the population is under 5 years of age.

ReligionEdit

Religions Dhanbad City (2011)[5]
Hinduism
81.22%
Islam
17.10%
Christianity
1.43%
Sikhism
0.65%
Jainism
0.09%
Buddhism
0.02%
Others
0.45%
Distribution of religions

Hinduism is the dominant religion with over 81% adherents. The minority religions are Islam, Sikhism and Christianity.[5]

EconomyEdit

Dhanbad has one of the oldest and largest markets in the region and is also a centre of large scale industries. It is known for its coal mines and industrial establishments; the city is surrounded by about 112 coal mines[34] with a total production of 27.5 million tonnes and an annual income of 7,000 million rupees through coal business. There are a number of coal washeries there.

EducationEdit

Universities and collegesEdit

 
BIT Sindri at Sindri, Dhanbad

SchoolsEdit

PoliticsEdit

Dhanbad city and district is considered a BJP stronghold with majority of its MPs MLA's being of the party since the 1990s. Chandra Shekhar Agrawal of BJP is the mayor, otherwise known as the first citizen, of Dhanbad Municipal Corporation. He won by the margin of 42,525 votes.[43][44][45]

Raj Sinha of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) won in the 40-Dhanbad assembly constituency defeating Mannan Malick of the Indian National Congress in 2014.[46] Pashupati Nath Singh of BJP defeated Mannan Mallik of Congress in 2005, Prasadi Sao of RJD in 2000, and Ramadhar Yadav of JD in 1995. Surendra Prasad Roy of Congress defeated S.K. Shriva of JD in 1990 and Ram Chander Singh of Janata Party in 1985. Yogeshwar Prasad Yogesh of Congress defeated Gopi Kant Bakshi of CPI(M) in 1980 and Kalawati Devi of Janata Party.[47][48]

Dhanbad assembly constituency is part of Dhanbad (Lok Sabha constituency).[49]

Members of Parliament for DhanbadEdit

Election Member Party
1991 Rita Verma Bharatiya Janata Party
1996 Rita Verma Bharatiya Janata Party
1998 Rita Verma Bharatiya Janata Party
1999 Rita Verma Bharatiya Janata Party
2004 Chandra Shekhar Dubey Indian National Congress
2009 Pashupati Nath Singh Bharatiya Janata Party
2014 Pashupati Nath Singh Bharatiya Janata Party
2019 Pashupati Nath Singh Bharatiya Janata Party

TransportEdit

RailEdit

 
Dhanbad Junction is one of the largest railway stations in East India

Dhanbad has a very good rail connectivity with the other major parts of the country such as Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Kochi, Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Bangalore, Patna, Bhubaneswar and Jamshedpur.[50] Dhanbad railway division is the second largest revenue generator railway division in India after Mumbai Rail Division.[51]

Dhanbad Rail Division comes under East Central Railway zone. Grand Chord rail-line passes through Dhanbad junction, it connects Howrah and New Delhi.[52] CIC rail line starts from Dhanbad and ends at Singrauli in Madhya Pradesh.[53] There is one more rail line passing through the district, it starts at Kharagpur and ends at Gomoh, this rail line comes under South Eastern Railway. Dhanbad is connected with almost all states through rail network.[54] Each and every train through this has a stop at Dhanbad.[54] Even Sealdah and Howrah Duronto have their stoppage at Dhanbad.[54]

On 1 October 2011, India's first AC double-decker train was flagged off to connect Howrah and Dhanbad.[55] With this India joins the league of Europe and North America that run multi-deck trains.[55] As of October 2011, the train runs daily except Sunday, departing from Howrah at 8:30 am to arrive at Dhanbad at 12:45 pm, and on return trip it departs Dhanbad at 6:30 pm to arrive at Howrah at 10:40 pm.[55] It has a maximum permissible speed of 110 kilometres (68 mi)/hr with stops at Bardhaman, Durgapur, Asansol, Barakar and Kumardhubi on both legs of the route.[55] This new AC design has several features namely stainless steel body, high-speed Eurofima design bogies with air springs and other safety-features.[56][57][58]

RoadsEdit

 
Intersection at Dhanbad CBD

National Highway 19 and National Highway 18 are the major highways passing through Dhanbad.[59][60] NH 19 is part of Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) highway network; Dhanbad lies in Kolkata-Delhi link of the Golden Quadrilateral network. NH19 is being converted into six lane expressway;[61] NH 18 connects Dhanbad to Bokaro and Jamshedpur.[61] A new industrial corridor is planned to build along GovindpurSahebganj Road, which will bring industrial development over Dhanbad and the port city Sahebganj.

Private and State buses are available for inter-city traveling.[61] In terms of inter city transport infrastructure, Dhanbad lacks in it. To handle this problem, new infrastructure projects of roads, bridges and flyovers are coming up here.[62] The state's first eight lane road in currently under construction Dhanbad from Kanke Math to Gol Building.[63][64] In nearby future, the future economic development of Dhanbad will take place here.[65] A flyover is under construction from Kumardhubhi to Kalyaneshwari in Asansol, West Bengal.[66]

AirEdit

Dhanbad Airport is used for private small aircraft and helicopters, currently there is no public air-link at the airport. The nearest public airports to Dhanbad are in Durgapur, Patna, Gaya, Ranchi and Kolkata. Bokaro which is just around 30 kilometers from the city will have an airport which is ready to open by 2022. Along with that a new airport is in pipeline at Baliapur which is spread over 500 acres.

SportsEdit

Cricket is the most popular sport in Dhanbad, followed by Football. Dhanbad is one of the centres where 34th National Games[67] was organised. Cricket Stadiums at present are at Tata Steel Stadium Digwadih, Nehru Stadium Jealgora and Railway Stadium where Ranji Trophy matches are organised.[68] Women's International Cricket were also played at Railway Stadium. Football matches of national level were played at Railway Stadium but now it is converted into Cricket Stadium by the Railway management.[69] Dhanbad officially became the second town in the state to boast a cricket stadium with floodlights, with the inauguration of floodlights at Tata Digwadih Stadium.[70]

MediaEdit

Hindi newspapers are mainly published from the city, among them Hindustan Dainik is the most popular, followed by Prabhat Khabar, Dainik Jagran and Dainik Bhaskar. "Dhanbad Bokaro Live" is published from Dhanbad.

Doordarshan relay station is present in Dhanbad near Koyla Nagar. There are some local news channels in the city such as, Antarkatha which are creative media houses which broadcast on local cable on Dhanbad, Jharia, Bokaro, Chatra, Hazaribag, Koderma, Ramgarh etc.

FM radio is available as Vividh Bharti Service of All India Radio at 101.8 MHz.

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit