2004 Indian general election

General elections were held in India in four phases between 20 April and 10 May 2004. Over 670 million people were eligible to vote, electing 543 members of the 14th Lok Sabha. Seven states also held assembly elections to elect state governments.

2004 Indian general election

← 1999 20 April, 26 April, 5 and 10 May 2004 2009 →

543 of the 545 seats in the Lok Sabha
272 seats needed for a majority
Turnout58.07% (Decrease1.92%)[1]
  First party Second party
  Sonia Gandhi (cropped).jpg Atal Bihari Vajpayee.jpg
Leader Sonia Gandhi Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Party INC BJP
Alliance UPA NDA
Leader since 19 March 1998 16 May 1996
Leader's seat Raebareli Lucknow
Last election 28.30%, 114 seats 23.75%, 182 seats
Seats won 145 138
Seat change Increase 31 Decrease 44
Popular vote 103,408,949 86,371,561
Percentage 26.53% 22.16%
Swing Decrease 1.77pp Decrease 1.59pp

Wahlergebnisse Indien 2004.svg

Prime Minister before election

Atal Bihari Vajpayee
BJP

Subsequent Prime Minister

Manmohan Singh
INC

Polling dates

On 13 May the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the lead party of the National Democratic Alliance conceded defeat. The Indian National Congress, which had governed India for all but five years from independence until 1996, returned to power after a record eight years out of office. It was able to put together a comfortable majority of more than 335 members out of 543 with the help of its allies. The 335 members included both the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, the governing coalition formed after the election, as well as external support from the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Samajwadi Party (SP), Kerala Congress (KC) and the Left Front[disambiguation needed].

After facing criticism from her own party and from the country Congress President Sonia Gandhi asked the 22nd Finance Minister Manmohan Singh, an economist, to head the new government. Singh had previously served in the Congress government of Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao in the early 1990s, when he was seen as one of the architects of India's first economic liberalisation plan, which staved off an impending monetary crisis. Despite the fact that Singh had never won a Lok Sabha seat, his considerable goodwill and Sonia Gandhi's nomination won him the support of the UPA allies and the Left Front.

The elections saw the evolution of a Two-party system with political competition primarily concentrated between the UPA and NDA.

BackgroundEdit

Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee had recommended premature dissolution of the 13th Lok Sabha (in accordance with a provision of the Constitution) to pave the way for early elections apparently in view of the recent good showing of the BJP in the Assembly elections in four states.[citation needed]

OrganisationEdit

The election dates for the parliamentary elections were:

  • 20 April – 141 constituencies
  • 26 April – 137 constituencies
  • 5 May – 83 constituencies
  • 10 May – 182 constituencies

Counting began simultaneously on 13 May. Over 370 million of the 675 million eligible citizens voted, with election violence claiming 48 lives, less than half the number killed during the 1999 election. The Indian elections were held in phases in order to maintain law and order. A few states considered sensitive areas required deployment of the armed forces. The average enrolment of voters in each constituency is 1.2 million, although the largest constituency has 3.1 million.

The Election Commission of India is responsible for deciding the dates and conducting elections according to constitutional provisions. The Election Commission employed more than a million electronic voting machines for these elections.

According to the magazine India Today, 115.62 billion rupees (approx US$2.6 billion) were expected to have been spent in campaigning for the elections by all political parties combined. Most of the money was spent on the people involved in the election. The Election Commission limited poll expenses to Rs. 2.5 million ($57,000 approx.) per constituency. Thus, the actual spending is expected to have been approximately 10 times the limit. About 6.5 billion rupees (approx. $150 million) are estimated to have been spent on mobilising 150,000 vehicles. About a billion rupees are estimated to have been spent on helicopters and aircraft.

Pre-poll alliancesEdit

In these elections, compared to all the Lok Sabha elections of the 1990s, the battle was more of a head-to-head contest in the sense that there was no viable third front alternative. Largely the contest was between BJP and its allies on one hand and Congress and its allies on the other. The situation did, however, show large regional differences.

The BJP fought the elections as part of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), although some of its seat-sharing agreements were made with strong regional parties outside of the NDA such as Telugu Desam Party (TDP) in Andhra Pradesh and All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) in Tamil Nadu.

Ahead of the elections there were attempts to form a Congress-led national level joint opposition front. In the end, an agreement could not be reached, but on regional level alliances between Congress and regional parties were made in several states. This was the first time that Congress contested with that type of alliances in a parliamentary election.

The left parties, most notably the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and the Communist Party of India, contested on their own in their strongholds West Bengal, Tripura and Kerala, confronting both Congress and NDA forces. In several other states, such as Punjab and Andhra Pradesh, they took part in seat sharings with Congress. In Tamil Nadu they were part of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK)-led Democratic Progressive Alliance.

Two parties refused to go along with either Congress or BJP, Bahujan Samaj Party and Samajwadi Party. Both are based in Uttar Pradesh, the largest state of India (in terms of population). Congress made several attempts to form alliances with them, but in vain. Many believed that they would become the 'spoilers' that would rob Congress of an electoral victory. The result was a four-cornered contest in UP, which didn't really hurt or benefit Congress or BJP significantly.

Forecast and campaignsEdit

Most analysts believed the NDA would win the elections. This assessment was also supported by opinion polls. The economy had shown steady growth in the last few months and the disinvestment of government owned production units (a continuation of India's liberalisation policies initiated in the early 1990s) had been on track. The Foreign Exchange Reserves of India stood at more than US$100 billion (7th largest in the world and a record for India). The service sector had also generated a lot of jobs. The party was supposed to have been riding on a wave of the so-called "feel good factor", typified by its promotional campaign "India Shining".

In the past, BJP has largely been seen as a hard-line Hindu party with close ties with the Hindu organisation the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). Over the years, the party has slightly distanced itself from its Hindutva policies, a change that is being questioned after the party's poor showing in the elections. These elections were marked by the campaign's emphasis on economic gains. From the last few elections, BJP had realised that its voter base had reached a ceiling and had concentrated on pre-poll rather than post-poll alliances. The foreign origin of Sonia Gandhi also constituted part of the NDA's campaign.

ResultsEdit

 
PartyVotes%Seats
Indian National Congress103,408,94926.53145
Bharatiya Janata Party86,371,56122.16138
Communist Party of India (Marxist)22,070,6145.6643
Bahujan Samaj Party20,765,2295.3319
Samajwadi Party16,824,0724.3236
Telugu Desam Party11,844,8113.045
Rashtriya Janata Dal9,384,1472.4124
Janata Dal (United)9,144,9632.358
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam8,547,0142.190
All India Trinamool Congress8,071,8672.072
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam7,064,3931.8116
Shiv Sena7,056,2551.8112
Nationalist Congress Party7,023,1751.809
Janata Dal (Secular)5,732,2961.473
Communist Party of India5,484,1111.4110
Biju Janata Dal5,082,8491.3011
Shiromani Akali Dal3,506,6810.908
Lok Janshakti Party2,771,4270.714
Rashtriya Lok Dal2,463,6070.633
Telangana Rashtra Samithi2,441,4050.635
Pattali Makkal Katchi2,169,0200.566
Asom Gana Parishad2,069,6000.532
Indian National Lok Dal1,936,7030.500
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha1,846,8430.475
Revolutionary Socialist Party1,689,7940.433
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam1,679,8700.434
All India Forward Bloc1,365,0550.353
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation1,281,6880.330
Apna Dal844,0530.220
Muslim League Kerala State Committee770,0980.201
Gondwana Ganatantra Party720,1890.180
Naga People's Front715,3660.181
Janata Party517,6830.130
Haryana Vikas Party506,1220.130
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference493,0670.132
Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh428,5660.110
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen417,2480.111
Shiromani Akali Dal (Simranjit Singh Mann)387,6820.100
Republican Party of India (Athawale)367,5100.091
National Loktantrik Party367,0490.091
Kerala Congress353,9050.091
Kannada Nadu Party349,1830.090
Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya)337,3860.091
Peasants and Workers Party of India319,5720.080
Republican Party of India295,5450.080
Suheldev Bharatiya Samaj Party275,2670.070
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party267,4570.071
Peoples Republican Party261,2190.070
Indian Federal Democratic Party256,4110.071
Kerala Congress (M)209,8800.050
Rashtriya Samanta Dal209,6940.050
Samta Party201,2760.050
Lok Bhalai Party187,7870.050
Mizo National Front182,8640.051
Bharatiya Navshakti Party171,0800.041
All Jharkhand Students Union157,9300.040
Sikkim Democratic Front153,4090.041
Marxist Co-ordination Committee147,4700.040
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha146,5710.040
Rashtriya Parivartan Dal139,1450.040
Jharkhand Disom Party135,6850.030
Pyramid Party of India130,3620.030
Ekta Shakti126,9240.030
Autonomous State Demand Committee101,8080.030
Akhil Bharatiya Sena92,2100.020
Hindu Mahasabha88,2140.020
Federal Party of Manipur88,1790.020
Bihar People's Party86,4180.020
Party of Democratic Socialism81,9990.020
Samata Samaj Party78,7910.020
Mahabharat People's Party77,0550.020
Arunachal Congress76,5270.020
Jharkhand Party74,3640.020
Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party70,0780.020
Indian Justice Party67,9140.020
Jharkhand Party (Naren)67,7820.020
United Minorities Front, Assam64,6570.020
Labour Party (Secular)63,9890.020
Rashtriya Swabhimaan Party58,2960.010
Pragatisheel Manav Samaj Party54,7460.010
Lok Rajya Party54,0970.010
Bahujan Kisan Dal52,6690.010
Majlis Bachao Tahreek47,5600.010
Peoples Democratic Party45,7200.010
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal43,8990.010
Marxist Communist Party of India (S.S. Srivastava)38,7660.010
Amra Bangali38,1070.010
Vidharbha Rajya Party36,9740.010
Urs Samyuktha Paksha33,1280.010
Ambedkarist Republican Party31,4670.010
Prabuddha Republican Party29,7920.010
Rashtravadi Communist Party28,7570.010
Rashtriya Samajik Nayak Paksha27,5940.010
Sampurna Vikas Dal27,1350.010
Tamil Desiyak Katchi25,3480.010
Kosi Vikas Party25,2580.010
Chhattisgarhi Samaj Party24,6960.010
Bharatiya Manavata Vikas Party24,1760.010
Loktantrik Samajwadi Party22,8110.010
Savarn Samaj Party21,2460.010
Ambedkar Samaj Party20,7670.010
Indian National League20,1590.010
Bharatiya Gaon Taj Dal19,9090.010
Akhil Bharatiya Congress Dal (Ambedkar)19,5480.010
Socialist Party (Lohia)18,6280.000
Shivrajya Party18,3740.000
Samajwadi Jan Parishad17,7170.000
Hindustan Janata Party17,4100.000
Revolutionary Communist Party of India (Rasik Bhatt)16,6910.000
Bharatiya Republican Paksha16,5460.000
Rashtriya Vikas Party15,1590.000
Trinamool Gana Parishad14,9330.000
Manuvadi Party14,2330.000
Bharat Kranti Rakshak Party12,5470.000
Rashtriya Hamara Dal12,3460.000
Parivartan Samaj Party12,2730.000
Bharatiya Eklavya Party12,1970.000
Proutist Sarva Samaj Party11,5610.000
Bharatiya Rashtravadi Paksha11,4590.000
Pachim Banga Rajya Muslim League10,4460.000
Rajasthan Vikash Party10,0320.000
Lokpriya Samaj Party9,9130.000
Bharatiya Jana Sangh9,7070.000
Rashtriya Krantikari Samajwadi Party9,1450.000
Vidarbha Janata Congress9,0970.000
Shoshit Samaj Dal8,8620.000
Jai Hind Party8,6450.000
Bharatiya Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh8,2000.000
Akhil Bharatiya Desh Bhakt Morcha7,6960.000
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party7,5840.000
Rashtriya Sawarn Dal7,3740.000
Navbharat Nirman Party7,1690.000
Krantikari Samyavadi Party6,9480.000
Democratic Bharatiya Samaj Party6,7170.000
Youth and Students Party6,5800.000
Ephraim Union6,5120.000
Akhil Bharatiya Lok Tantrik Alp-Sankhyak Jan Morcha6,0030.000
United Goans Democratic Party5,8810.000
Pichhra Samaj Party5,6720.000
All India Momin Conference5,1130.000
Labour Party of India (V.V. Prasad)4,9770.000
All India Minorities Front4,8740.000
Republican Party of India (Khobragade)4,7900.000
Naari Shakti Party4,6490.000
Bahujan Vikas Party4,5330.000
Bharatiya Ekta Dal4,3120.000
Shikshit Berozgar Sena4,3030.000
Yuva Gantantra Party4,1400.000
Rashtravadi Janata Party3,7370.000
Kranti Kari Jai Hind Sena3,3930.000
Mudiraj Rashtriya Samithi3,3450.000
Sikkim Sangram Parishad3,2160.000
Janata Vikas Party3,1730.000
National Students Party3,0690.000
Secular Party of India3,0410.000
Vikas Party2,9980.000
Social Action Party2,9870.000
Akhil Bharatiya Rashtriya Azad Hind Party2,8010.000
Loktantrik Chetna Party2,7760.000
Sikkim Himali Rajya Parishad2,7650.000
Janmangal Paksh2,6840.000
Sanatan Samaj Party2,6790.000
Lok Sewa Dal2,6460.000
Jana Unnayan Mancha2,5920.000
Rashtriya Lok Seva Morcha2,4760.000
Republican Party of India (Democratic)2,3700.000
Bhartiya Lok Kalyan Dal2,2420.000
Panchayat Raj Party2,1650.000
Bharatiya Backward Party2,1620.000
All Kerala M.G.R. Dravida Munnetra Party2,1580.000
Akhil Bhartiya Rajarya Sabha2,0800.000
Bharat Ki Lok Jimmedar Party2,0550.000
Rashtriya Garima Party2,0430.000
Rashtriya Garib Dal1,9770.000
Ekta Krandi Dal U.P.1,9390.000
Bharatiya Labour Party1,7580.000
Phule Bharti Lok Party1,6900.000
Bharatiya Prajatantrik Shudh Gandhiwadi Krishak Dal1,6890.000
Mool Bharati (S) Party1,6750.000
Bharatiya Nagrik Party1,5800.000
Jammu and Kashmir Awami League1,5190.000
Hind Morcha1,4590.000
Jharkhand People's Party1,4490.000
Maharashtra Rajiv Congress1,3990.000
Janhit Samaj Party1,3100.000
Vijeta Party1,3040.000
Socialistic Democratic Party1,2650.000
Jansatta Party1,1890.000
Federal Congress of India1,0370.000
Nidaya Malik (N) Party1,0300.000
Indian Bahujan Samajwadi Party9720.000
Desh Bhakt Party9120.000
Ambedkar National Congress8250.000
NTR Telugu Desam Party (Lakshmi Parvathi)7590.000
Akhil Bhartiya Loktantra Party7540.000
Jebamani Janata7340.000
Niswarth Sewa Party7300.000
Jan Chetna Party6710.000
Hindu Ekta Andolan Party6200.000
Krantikari Manuwadi Morcha5970.000
Bharatiya Prajatantra Party5730.000
Bharatiya Muhabbat Party (All India)5660.000
Manav Jagriti Manch5520.000
Bharatiya Janvadi Party5430.000
Bharatiya Surajya Manch5150.000
Rashtriya Janadhikar Party4870.000
Praja Party4850.000
Bharti Sarvadarshi Parishad4270.000
Shoshit Samaj Party3950.000
Rashtriya Sakar Party3790.000
Bharatiya Sarvkalyan Krantidal3650.000
Awami Party3270.000
Swaraj Dal2980.000
Akhand Bharti1380.000
Parmarth Party1260.000
Independents16,549,9004.255
Nominated Anglo-Indians2
Total389,779,784100.00545
Valid votes389,779,78499.96
Invalid/blank votes168,5460.04
Total votes389,948,330100.00
Registered voters/turnout671,487,93058.07
Source: ECI

Region-wise resultsEdit

Region Total seats Indian National Congress Bharatiya Janata Party Others
South India 131 48   14 18   1 65   13
West India 78 27   10 28   7 23   3
Hindi-Heartland 225 46   12 78   34 101   22
North-East India 25 11   3 4   2 13   4
East India 63 8   3 7   4 48   1
Union Territories 22 5   5 3   14   5
Total 543 145 +31 138 -44 264 +17
Source: Times of India[2]

By states and territoriesEdit

StatesEdit

States Party Seats won % of Votes Alliance
Andhra Pradesh Indian National Congress 29 41.56 United Progressive Alliance
Telugu Desam Party 5 33.12 National Democratic Alliance
Telangana Rashtra Samithi 5 6.83 United Progressive Alliance
Communist Party of India 1 1.34 Left Front
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 1 1.04 Left Front
Others 1 7.7 None
Arunachal Pradesh Bharatiya Janata Party 2 53.85 National Democratic Alliance
Arunachal Congress 0 19.88 INC affiliated parties
Independent 0 12.14 United Progressive Alliance
Indian National Congress 0 9.96 United Progressive Alliance
Others 0 4.16 None
Assam Indian National Congress 9 35.07 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 2 22.94 National Democratic Alliance
Asom Gana Parishad 2 19.95 None
Independent 1 13.41 None
Others 0 8.63 None
Bihar Rashtriya Janata Dal 22 30.67 United Progressive Alliance
Janata Dal (United) 6 22.36 National Democratic Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 5 14.57 National Democratic Alliance
Lok Janshakti Party 4 8.19 United Progressive Alliance
Indian National Congress 3 4.49 United Progressive Alliance
Others 0 17.92 None
Chhattisgarh Bharatiya Janata Party 10 47.78 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 1 40.16 United Progressive Alliance
Bahujan Samaj Party 0 4.54 None
Independent 0 3.86 None
Others 0 3.66 None
Goa Bharatiya Janata Party 1 46.83 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 1 29.76 United Progressive Alliance
National Congress Party 0 16.04 United Progressive Alliance
Communist Party of India 0 2.17 Left Front
Others 0 5.20 None
Gujarat Bharatiya Janata Party 14 47.37 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 12 43.86 United Progressive Alliance
Independent 0 3.45 None
Bahujan Samaj Party 0 1.48 None
Others 0 3.84 None
Haryana Indian National Congress 9 42.13 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 1 17.21 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Lok Dal 0 22.43 None
Haryana Vikas Party 0 6.25 None
Others 0 11.98 None
Himachal Pradesh Indian National Congress 3 51.81 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 1 44.25 National Democratic Alliance
Bahujan Samaj Party 0 1.74 None
Independent 0 1.66 None
Jammu & Kashmir Indian National Congress 2 27.83 United Progressive Alliance
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference 2 22.02 None
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party 1 11.94 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 0 23.04 National Democratic Alliance
Independent 1 15.17 None
Jharkhand Indian National Congress 6 21.44 United Progressive Alliance
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha 4 16.28 United Progressive Alliance
Rashtriya Janata Dal 2 n/a United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 1 33.01 National Democratic Alliance
Communist Party of India 1 n/a Left Front
Independent 0 6.89 None
Karnataka Bharatiya Janata Party 18 34.77 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 8 36.82 United Progressive Alliance
Janata Dal (Secular) 2 20.45 None
Independent 0 2.34 None
Others 0 5.62 None
Kerala Communist Party of India (Marxist) 12 31.52 Left Front
Communist Party of India 3 7.89 Left Front
Indian Union Muslim League 1 4.86 United Progressive Alliance
Indian National Congress 0 32.13 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 0 5.1 National Democratic Alliance
Others 4 18.5 None
Madhya Pradesh Bharatiya Janata Party 25 48.13 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 4 34.07 United Progressive Alliance
Bahujan Samaj Party 0 4.75 None
Independent 0 4.02 None
Others 0 9.03 None
Maharashtra Indian National Congress 13 23.77 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 13 22.61 National Democratic Alliance
Shiv Sena 12 20.11 National Democratic Alliance
Nationalist Congress Party 9 18.31 United Progressive Alliance
Others 1 15.20 United Progressive Alliance
Manipur Independent 1 22.46 None
Indian National Congress 1 14.88 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 0 20.65 National Democratic Alliance
Nationalist Congress Party 0 10.37 United Progressive Alliance
Others 0 31.64 None
Meghalaya Indian National Congress 1 45.55 United Progressive Alliance
All India Trinamool Congress 1 28.27 National Democratic Alliance
Independent (politician) 0 17.55 None
Bharatiya Janata Party 0 8.63 National Democratic Alliance
Mizoram Mizo National Front 1 52.46 None
Independent 0 45.67 None
Ephraim Union 0 1.87 None
Nagaland Nagaland People's Front 1 73.12 None
Indian National Congress 0 25.78 United Progressive Alliance
Independent 0 0.56 None
Janata Dal (Secular) 0 0.54 None
Orissa Biju Janata Dal 11 30.02 National Democratic Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 7 19.30 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 2 40.43 United Progressive Alliance
Independent 0 4.50 None
Others 1 5.75 United Progressive Alliance
Punjab Shiromani Akali Dal 8 34.28 National Democratic Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 3 10.48 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 2 34.17 United Progressive Alliance
Bahujan Samaj Party 0 7.67 None
Others 0 13.40 None
Rajasthan Bharatiya Janata Party 21 49.01 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 4 41.42 United Progressive Alliance
Bahujan Samaj Party 0 3.16 None
Independent 0 2.72 None
Others 0 3.69 None
Sikkim Sikkim Democratic Front 1 69.84 None
Indian National Congress 0 27.43 United Progressive Alliance
Sikkim Sangram Parishad 0 1.46 None
Sikkim Himali Rajya Parishad 0 1.26 None
Tamil Nadu Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 16 24.60 United Progressive Alliance
Indian National Congress 10 14.40 United Progressive Alliance
Pattali Makkal Katchi 5 6.71 United Progressive Alliance
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 4 5.85 United Progressive Alliance
Communist Party of India 2 2.97 Left Front
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 2 2.87 Left Front
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 0 29.77 National Democratic Alliance
Others 0 12.83 National Democratic Alliance (BJP)
Tripura Communist Party of India (Marxist) 2 68.80 Left Front
Indian National Congress 0 14.28 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 0 7.82 National Democratic Alliance
All India Trinamool Congress 0 5.09 National Democratic Alliance
Uttar Pradesh Samajwadi Party 35 26.74 None
BSP 19 24.67 None
Bharatiya Janata Party 10 22.17 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 9 12.04 United Progressive Alliance
Others 7 14.38 National Democratic Alliance (1)
Uttarakhand Bharatiya Janata Party 3 40.98 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 1 38.31 United Progressive Alliance
Samajwadi Party 1 7.93 None
Bahujan Samaj Party 0 6.77 None
Others 0 6.01 None
West Bengal Communist Party of India (Marxist) 26 38.57 Left Front
Indian National Congress 6 14.56 United Progressive Alliance
Communist Party of India 3 4.01 Left Front
All India Forward Bloc 3 3.66 Left Front
Revolutionary Socialist Party 3 4.48 Left Front
All India Trinamool Congress 1 21.04 National Democratic Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 0 8.06 National Democratic Alliance
Others 0 5.62 None

TerritoriesEdit

Territories Party Seats won % of Votes Alliance
Andaman & Nicobar Islands Indian National Congress 1 55.77 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 0 35.95 National Democratic Alliance
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 0 2.71 Left Front
Independent 0 1.72 None
Others 0 3.85 None
Chandigarh Indian National Congress 1 52.06 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 0 35.22 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Lok Dal 0 6.61 None
Independent 0 3.42 None
Others 0 2.69 None
National Capital Territory of Delhi Indian National Congress 6 54.81 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 1 40.67 National Democratic Alliance
Bahujan Samaj Party 0 2.48 None
Independent 0 1.27 None
Lakshadweep Janata Dal (United) 1 49.02 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 0 48.79 United Progressive Alliance
Janata Party 0 1.47 None
Samajwadi Party 0 0.72 None

AnalysisEdit

Though pre-poll predictions were for an overwhelming majority for the BJP, the exit polls (immediately after the elections and before the counting began) predicted a hung parliament. However, even the exit polls could only indicate the general trend and nowhere close to the final figures. There is also the general perception that as soon as the BJP started realising that events might not proceed entirely in its favour, it changed the focus of its campaign from India Shining to issues of stability. The Congress, who was regarded as "old-fashioned" by the ruling BJP, was largely backed by poor, rural, lower-caste and minority voters that did not participate in the economic boom of previous years that created a large wealthy middle class and thus achieved its overwhelming victory. Another reason which was not mentioned much but still spoken of in the public was that BJP supporters are working-class people, and the poll surveys predicted BJP win, and therefore they did not reach the ballot. Whereas the Congress support base, the weaker sections of the society, don't miss voting at all.[citation needed]

Another more prominent reason came from checking the RSS contribution, RSS cadres reached Vajpayee over the killing of 4 RSS workers in Tripura (August 1999), and Vajpayee disappointed them. RSS backed off, and results were evident.[citation needed]

Other possible reasons that have been given for the NDA defeat are[citation needed]:

  • People were more concerned about issues of their immediate environment such as water scarcity, drought, etc., than national issues.[citation needed]
  • The anti-incumbency factor was at work for the BJP allies.[citation needed]
  • It is also believed that voters, regardless of which country they are in, are enthused by negative messages and are indifferent to positive messages.[citation needed]
  • It is generally believed that RSS plays an important role in mobilising the BJP supporters, the results were not for the win for Congress led UPA, but more for the defeat of BJP led NDA. And, the reason was that RSS did not mobilise the voters and BJP cadres.[citation needed]

ImpactEdit

The rout of the ruling parties in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in the general elections led to calls for the dissolution of the governments of these states.

The stock market (Bombay Stock Exchange) fell in the week prior to the announcement of the results due to fears of an unstable coalition. As soon as counting began, however, it became clear that the Congress coalition was headed for a sizeable lead over the NDA and the market surged, only to crash the following day when the left parties, whose support would be required for government formation, announced that it was their intention to do away with the disinvestment ministry. Following this, Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister (in office 2004–14) and the prime architect of the economic liberalisation of the early 1990s, hurried to reassure investors that the new government would strive to create a business-friendly climate.

EventsEdit

  • 13 May - The Congress and allies win a plurality of seats in the Lok Sabha (219 seats against 188 for the BJP).
  • 13 May - Counting of votes in the parliamentary elections begins.
  • 11 May - Congress wins the Assembly elections in Andhra Pradesh by 2/3 majority.
  • 10 May - The fourth and final phase of elections comes to an end. Results will come out for 542 of the 543 parliament seats with elections to be held again in Chhapra.
  • 5 May - Third phase of polling comes to an end with the ruling coalition government gaining seats according to exit polls but still off the victory target. Reports of booth capturing in Chhapra capture headlines.
  • 26 April - Second phase of elections sees 55-60% polling. This is the final phase for assembly elections. Polling covers 136 parliamentary constituencies in 11 states. The share market starts to crash as it becomes evident that the NDA government may find it hard to come back to power—raising doubts about the continuation of economic reforms initiated by the NDA government.
  • 22 April - Tripura, where polling was delayed because of a local holiday, votes for its two MPs. A turnout of close to 60% is reported, despite calls for abstention made by separatist militants.
  • 20 April - The first phase of the vote is held, with average turnouts of between 50% and 55%. Voting is reported as brisk, and the day unfolds relatively smoothly, albeit with some glitches reported with the electronic voting machines. Isolated violent incidents take place in Kashmir, Jammu, Manipur, and Jharkhand.
  • 8 April - The NDA's top leaders meet in New Delhi to adopt its manifesto for the elections, "Agenda for Development and Good Governance".
  • 7 April - Ram Jethmalani says he will contest the elections against Prime Minister Vajpayee as an independent candidate from Lucknow. He claims he will be supported by the Congress and some other parties.
  • 6 April - The BJP and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) tell the Election Commission that they will not stop raising the issue of the foreign origin of Congress president Sonia Gandhi.
  • 4 April - A First Information Report is lodged against external affairs minister Yashwant Sinha for alleged violation of election code of conduct during a poll meeting in Ranchi. Besides Sinha, FIRs were lodged against three other BJP leaders who participated in the meeting.

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Shastri, Sandeep, K.C. Suri & Yogendra Yadav (2009) (ed.). Electoral Politics in Indian States : Lok Sabha Elections in 2004 and Beyond, New Delhi : Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-806329-6

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Lok Sabha Results Constituency Map: Lok Sabha Election Result with constituencies details along electoral map". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 July 2021.

External linksEdit