Jaipur (// (listen)) is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. As of 2011, the city had a population of 3.1 million, making it the tenth most populous city in the country. Jaipur is also known as the Pink City, due to the dominant color scheme of its buildings. It is located 268 km (167 miles) from the national capital New Delhi.
|Founded by||Jai Singh II|
|Named for||Jai Singh II|
|• Mayor||Vishnu Laata|
|• Total||467 km2 (180 sq mi)|
|Area rank||1st in Rajasthan|
|Elevation||431 m (1,414 ft)|
|• Rank||10th India|
|• Density||6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)|
|• Additional official||English|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||RJ-14 (Jaipur South) |
RJ-45 (Jaipur North)
|Official name||Jaipur City, Rajasthan|
|Criteria||Cultural: (ii), (iv), (vi)|
|Designated||2019 (43rd session)|
Jaipur was founded in 1727 by the Rajput ruler Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amer, after whom the city is named. It was one of the earliest planned cities of modern India, designed by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya. During the British Colonial period, the city served as the capital of Jaipur State. After independence in 1947, Jaipur was made capital of the newly-formed state of Rajasthan.
Jaipur is a popular tourist destination in India and forms a part of the west Golden Triangle tourist circuit along with Delhi and Agra (240 km, 149 mi). It is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites - the Jantar Mantar and the Amer Fort. It also serves as a gateway to other tourist destinations in Rajasthan such as Jodhpur (348 km, 216 mi), Jaisalmer (571 km, 355 mi), Udaipur (421 km, 262 mi), Kota (252 km, 156 mi) and Mount Abu (520 km, 323 mi). Jaipur is located 616 km from Shimla.
On 6 July 2019, UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Jaipur the ‘Pink City of India’ among its World Heritage Sites. An announcement about Jaipur’s inclusion in the UNESCO list was made on 6 July after the 43rd meet of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee at Baku, Azerbaijan where the Committee had to examine 35 nominations for inscription and inspected by ICOMOS (The International Council on Monuments and Sites) last year. The historic city met the inspection standards and was thus included in the final list as well. The city is also home to two prominent UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India - Amber Fort and Jantar Mantar. The Committee has given one year time to city representative to hold this title for the city as they need to keep developing the city in different terms.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Administration and politics
- 5 Tourism
- 6 Culture
- 7 Economy and infrastructure
- 8 Transport
- 9 Education
- 10 Sports
- 11 In popular culture
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
The city of Jaipur was founded in 1727 by Jai Singh II, the Raja of Amer who ruled from 1699 to 1743. He planned to shift his capital from Amer, 11 kilometres (7 mi) to Jaipur to accommodate the growing population and increasing scarcity of water. Jai Singh consulted several books on architecture and architects while planning the layout of Jaipur. Under the architectural guidance of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, Jaipur was planned based on the principles of Vastu shastra and Shilpa Shastra. The construction of the city began in 1726 and took four years to complete the major roads, offices, and palaces. The city was divided into nine blocks, two of which contained the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge ramparts were built, pierced by seven fortified gates.
During the rule of Sawai Ram Singh I, the city was painted pink to welcome H.R.H. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (who later became King Edward VII, Emperor of India), in 1876. Many of the avenues remained painted in pink, giving Jaipur a distinctive appearance and the epithet Pink city. In the 19th century, the city grew rapidly and by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The wide boulevards were paved and its chief industries were the working of metals and marble, fostered by a school of art founded in 1868. The city had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls' school (1867) opened during the reign of the Maharaja Ram Singh II.
Large areas of the city including the airport were flooded in August 1981, resulting in the death of eight people and much damage to the city's Dravyavati River. The floods were caused by three days of cloud burst that produced more rain than the annual average.
Jaipur has a monsoon influenced hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification Bsh) with long, extremely hot summers and short, mild to warm winters. Annual precipitation is over 63 cm, falling mostly in July and August due to monsoon, causing the average temperatures in these two months to be lower compared to drier May and June. During the monsoon, there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common. The highest temperature ever recorded was 48.5 °C, in May. The city's average temperature remains below 20 °C between December and February. These months are mild, dry and pleasant, sometimes chilly. The lowest temperature ever recorded was -2.2 °C. Jaipur, like many other major cities of the world, is a significant urban heat island zone with surrounding rural temperatures occasionally falling below freezing in winters.
|Climate data for Jaipur (Jaipur Airport)|
|Record high °C (°F)||31.7
|Average high °C (°F)||22.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||15.4
|Average low °C (°F)||8.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−2.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||7.0
|Average rainy days||0.6||1.0||0.4||0.7||1.4||3.9||11.2||10.0||3.8||1.3||0.4||0.4||35.2|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
According to provisional report of 2011 census, Jaipur city had a population of 3,073,350. The overall literacy rate for the city is 84.34%. 90.61% males and 77.41% females were literate. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males. The child sex ratio stood at 854. According to the 2011 census, Hindus form the majority religious group comprising 77.9% of the city's population, followed by Muslims (18.6%), Jains (2.4%) and others (1.2%).
|Population Growth of Jaipur City|
|Source:Census of India|
Administration and politicsEdit
Jaipur Municipal Corporation is responsible for maintaining the city's civic infrastructure and carrying out associated administrative duties. The Municipal Corporation is headed by a mayor. There are 91 wards and each ward is represented by an elected member. Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) is the nodal government agency responsible for the planning and development of Jaipur. Jaipur consists of two parliamentary constituencies Jaipur and Jaipur Rural. In January 2019 Vishnu Laata was elected Mayor of Jaipur.
Jaipur is a major tourist destination in India forming a part of the Golden Triangle. In the 2008 Conde Nast Traveller Readers Choice Survey, Jaipur was ranked the 7th best place to visit in Asia. According to TripAdvisor's 2015 Traveller's Choice Awards for Destination, Jaipur ranked 1st among the Indian destinations for the year. The Presidential Suite at the Raj Palace Hotel, billed at US$45,000 per night, was listed in second place on CNN's World's 15 most expensive hotel suites in 2012.
Jaipur Exhibition & Convention Centre (JECC) is Rajasthan’s biggest convention and exhibition centre. It is famous for organising events such as Vastara, Jaipur Jewellery Show, Stonemart 2015 and Resurgent Rajasthan Partnership Summit 2015.
Visitor attractions include the Hawa Mahal, Jal Mahal, City Palace, Amer Fort, Jantar Mantar, Nahargarh Fort, Jaigarh Fort, Birla Mandir, Galtaji, Govind Dev Ji Temple, Garh Ganesh Temple, Moti Dungri Ganesh Temple, Sanghiji Jain temple and the Jaipur Zoo. The Jantar Mantar observatory and Amer Fort are one of the World Heritage Sites. Hawa Mahal is a five-storey pyramidal shaped monument with 953 windows that rises 15 metres (50 ft) from its high base. Sisodiya Rani Bagh and Kanak Vrindavan are the major parks in Jaipur. Raj Mandir is a notable cinema hall in Jaipur.
Jaipur has many cultural sites like Jawahar Kala Kendra formed by Architect Charles Correa and Ravindra Manch. Government Central Museum hosts several arts and antiquities. There is a government museum at Hawa Mahal and an art gallery at Viratnagar. There are statues depicting Rajasthani culture around the city. Jaipur has many traditional shops selling antiques and handicrafts. The prior rulers of Jaipur patronised a number of arts and crafts. They invited skilled artisans, artists and craftsmen from India and abroad who settled in the city. Some of the crafts include bandhani, block printing, stone carving and sculpture, tarkashi, zari, gota-patti, kinari and zardozi, silver jewellery, gems, kundan, meenakari and jewellery, Lakh ki Chudiya, miniature paintings, blue pottery, ivory carving, shellac work and leather ware.
With a wonderful combination of ancient royal heritage and ultra-modern life method, Jaipur displays a cool presentation of urban lifestyle.
Jaipur has its own performing arts. The Jaipur Gharana for Kathak is one of the three gharanas of the major north Indian classical dance form of Kathak. The Jaipur Gharana of Kathak is known for its rapid intricate dance forms, vivacious body movements and subtle Abhinaya. The Ghoomar is a popular folk dance style. Tamasha is an art form where Kathputli puppet dance is shown in play form. Major festivals celebrated in Jaipur include Elephant Festival, Gangaur, Makar Sankranti, Holi, Diwali, Vijayadashami, Teej, Eid, Mahavir Jayanti and Christmas. Jaipur is also famous for the Jaipur Literature Festival, the world's largest free literature festival in which country-wide authors, writers and literature lovers participate.
The city was planned according to Indian Vastu shastra by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya in 1727. There are three gates facing east, west, and north. The eastern gate is called Suraj pol (sun gate), the western gate is called Chand pol (moon gate) and the northern gate faces the ancestral capital of Amer.
The city is unusual among pre-modern Indian cities in the regularity of its streets, and the division of the city into six sectors by broad streets 34 m (111 ft) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses the Hawa Mahal palace complex, formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort, which was the residence of the King Sawai Jai Singh II, crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city.
Typical dishes include Dal Baati Churma, Missi Roti, Gatte ki Sabzi, Ker Sangri, Makke ki Ghat, Bajre ki Ghat, Bajre ki Roti and Laal Maans. Jaipur is also known for its sweets which include Ghevar, Feeni, Mawa Kachori, Gajak, Meethi thuli, Chauguni ke laddu, and Moong Thal.
The official language of Jaipur is Hindi and the additional official language is English. The native and main dialect of the city is Dhundari. The Marwari and Standard Hindi dialects are also spoken, along with English.
Economy and infrastructureEdit
In addition to its role as the provincial capital, educational, and administrative centre, the economy of Jaipur is fuelled by tourism, gemstone cutting, the manufacture of jewellery and luxury textiles, and information technology. Three major trade promotion organisations have their offices in Jaipur. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional offices here. In 2008, Jaipur was ranked 31 among the 50 Emerging Global Outsourcing cities. Jaipur Stock Exchange is one of the regional stock exchanges in India and was founded in 1989. Jaipur is a major hub for arts and crafts. It has many traditional shops selling antiques, jewellery, handicrafts, gems, bangles, pottery, carpets, textiles, leather and metal products. Jaipur is one of India's largest manufacturers of hand-knotted rugs. Jaipur leg, a rubber-based prosthetic leg for people with below-knee amputations, was designed and is produced in Jaipur.
Jaipur has offices of companies like Airtel, Vodafone, Jio, Reliance, Idea, BSNL, V-Guard and Tata which are providing mobile telephony and there are also various internet service providers in the city. Government of Rajasthan has started free WiFi at various public places like Central Park, Jantar Mantar among others.
Major daily newspapers in Jaipur include Amar Ujala, Rajasthan Patrika, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Navajyoti and The Times of India. The state-owned All India Radio is broadcast both on the medium wave and FM band in the city. Private FM stations include Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Radio City (91.1 MHz), My FM (94.3 MHz), FM Tadka 95 FM (95.0 MHz), Red FM 93.5 (93.5 MHz) and Gyan Vani (105.6 MHz). The city has a community FM channel in FM Radio 7 (90.4 MHz) by India International School Institutional Network. The public broadcaster Doordarshan (Prasar Bharati) provides a regional channel in addition to the private broadcasters.
Jaipur is located on National Highway No.8 connecting Delhi and Mumbai. National Highway 12 links Jaipur with Kota and National Highway 11 links Bikaner with Agra passing through Jaipur. RSRTC operates bus service to major cities in Rajasthan, New Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab and Gujarat. City buses are operated by Jaipur City Transport Services Limited (JCTSL) of RSRTC. The service operates more than 400 regular and low-floor buses. Major bus depots are located at Vaishali Nagar, Vidyadhar Nagar and Sanganer.
Jaipur BRTS was approved by the government in August 2006. Jaipur BRTS is managed by JCSTL, a special purpose vehicle formed by Jaipur Development Authority and Jaipur Nagar Nigam. In Phase I, two corridors have been proposed: a "North-South Corridor" from Sikar Road to Tonk Road and an "East-West Corridor" from Ajmer Road to Delhi Road. A section of the North-South Corridor from bypass near Harmada to Pani Pech became operational in 2010.
Jaipur Ring Road is a project of Jaipur Development Authority to reduce increasing traffic of Jaipur city which connects NH-11 (Agra Road), NH-8 (Ajmer Road), NH-12 (Tonk Road), and NH-12 (Malpura Road) having length of 150 km. The 57 km out of 150 km long six-lane Jaipur Ring Road has been completed at a cost of Rs 1217 crore which was inaugurated by Sushma Swaraj, Arun Jaitley and Nitin Gadkari.
Jaipur is the headquarters of North Western Zone of Indian Railways. Jaipur Junction railway station is well connected to all major cities of India like Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Indore, Lucknow and Ahmedabad. Other stations include Gandhinagar, Durgapura, Jagatpura, Ninad Benad and Sanganer.
Jaipur Metro commenced commercial operation on 3 June 2015. Phase-1A is operational between Mansarovar and Chandpole consisting of nine stations namely Mansarovar, New Aatish Market, Vivek Vihar, Shayam Nagar, Ram Nagar, Civil Line, Railway Station, Sindhi Camp and Chandpole. Phase-1B is under construction. The estimated cost of the project is ₹550 crore (US$80 million) and it is expected to be completed by 2020.
Jaipur International Airport is in Sanganer, 12.2 km (8 miles) from the centre. The airport handled 363,899 international and 2,540,451 domestic passengers in 2015–2016. Jaipur Airport also provides air cargo services. During winter, sometimes flights towards Indira Gandhi International Airport are diverted to Jaipur Airport due to heavy fog in Delhi. The airport operates regular domestic services to major Indian cities including Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Chandigarh, Raipur, Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Indore, Kolkata, Lucknow, Mumbai, Pune, Surat, Udaipur and Varanasi. International destinations served include Dubai, Muscat, Bangkok, Sharjah and Kuala Lumpur.
Public and private schools in Jaipur are governed by the Central Board of Secondary Education or Rajasthan Board of Secondary Education, International Board of education and follow a "10+2" plan. This plan entails eight years of primary education and four years of secondary education. Secondary school includes two years of upper secondary education, which is more specific and diverse than the two years of lower secondary education prior to it. Languages of instruction include English and Hindi.
Admission to graduation colleges in Jaipur, many of which are affiliated to Rajasthan Technical University, is through the RPET, now RPET has been replaced by REAP (Rajasthan Engineering Admission Process). Notable institutions include SMS Medical College, St Xavier's College, University of Rajasthan, Indian Institute of Health Management Research, Malviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Jaipur National University, Manipal University, The LNM Institute of Information Technology, IIS University, Global Institute of Technology and Suresh Gyan Vihar University
The main cricket stadium in the city, Sawai Mansingh Stadium, has a seating capacity of 23,185 and has hosted national and international cricket matches. Sawai Mansingh Indoor Stadium, Chaugan Stadium and Railway Cricket Ground are the other sporting arenas in the city. The city is represented in the IPL by Rajasthan Royals (2008-2016; 2018–present) and in Pro Kabaddi League by Jaipur Pink Panthers.
In popular cultureEdit
Paul McCartney wrote and recorded the Jaipur tribute song "Riding into Jaipur" (4:08) whose minimalist lyrics say: « riding to Jaipur, riding through the night, riding with my baby, oh what a delight, oh what a delight, it is. » The song was released on his 2001 studio album Driving Rain.
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