Jaipur State was a kachwaha Rajput princely state of India, centred on Jaipur town. It existed from the 12th century and was in a subsidiary alliance with the British from 1818 until their withdrawal from India in August 1947. It was then fully independent until its ruler acceded to India in April 1949, and retained some internal self-government for a period after that.
Kingdom of Jaipur
Jaipur State in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
|Common languages||Rajasthani and Sanskrit|
|Government||Princely state alongside British India (1818-1947), then fully independent 1947–1949|
|Dūlaha Rāya (first)|
|Man Singh II (last)|
• Acceded to India
|1931||40,407 km2 (15,601 sq mi)|
|Today part of||Rajasthan, India|
In different periods of history, it was also known as the kingdom of Jaipur, Amber, Dhundhar, and Kachwaha.
Jaipur's predecessor state was the kingdom of Dhundhar or Dausa, founded in 1093 by Duleh Rai, also known as Dulha Rao. The state was known as Amber between the fourteenth century and 1727. In that year, a new capital was built and named Jayapura, when the kingdom was renamed as Jaipur.
The Kachwahas of Dhundhar claim to be descendants of Raja Dhola of Narwar. After 31 generations they migrated to Rajputana. Dulha Rao, one of the ancestors of the Kachwaha rulers defeated the Meenas of Manchi and Amber and later completed the conquest of Dhundhar by defeating the Bargurjars of Dausa and Deoti.
The rulers of Amber fought as generals in the army of Prithviraj Chauhan and later under the banner of Rana Sanga against the Mughals under Babur. However, due to the aggressive expansion of Maldev Rathore and Amber's vulnerability due to its close proximity to Delhi, Bharmal Kachwaha, sought alliance with Akbar, the Mughal emperor. He was formally recognised as a Raja by the Mughals and was invested into the Mughal nobility in return for his daughter's marriage to Akbar. Raja Bharmal's daughter, Harkha Bai, who married Akbar, later became the mother of the fourth Mughal emperor Jahangir, she gained prestige in Mughal court during Jahangir's reign as the emperor's mother. By this relation, the Rajas of Amer gained significant prominence in the Mughal court.
The ruling dynasty of Amber prospered under Mughal rule and provided the Mughal Empire with some distinguished generals. Among them were Bhagwant Das, Man Singh I, who fought and governed from Kabul to Orissa and Assam and Jai Singh I.
Jai Singh I was succeeded by Ram Singh I, Bishan Singh and Jai Singh II. Jai Singh II, also known as Sawai Jai Singh, ruled the state from 1699 to 1743 and was a famous mathematician and astronomer. During his rule, the new capital city of Jaipur was founded. in 1727.
Throughout the disintegration of the Mughal Empire, the armies of Jaipur were in a constant state of warfare. Towards the end of the 18th century, the Jats of Bharatpur and the Kachwaha chief of Alwar declared themselves independent from Jaipur and each annexed the eastern portion of Jaipur's territory. This period of Jaipur's history is characterised by internal power-struggles and constant military conflicts with the Marathas, Jats, other Rajput states, as well as the British and the Pindaris. Jaipur suffered against the Rathors of Marwar in the Battle of Gangwana with appalling losses. The kingdom again suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the Maratha forces of Mahadji Scindia in the Battle of Patan in 1790, forcing the rulers of Jaipur to pay heavy tributes. Nevertheless, enough wealth remained in Jaipur for the patronage of fine temples/palaces, continuity of its courtly traditions and the well-being of its citizens and merchant communities. Jaipurs last attempt to gain freedom from Gwalior ended in a defeat at the Battle of Malpura. A treaty was initially made by Maharaja Sawai Jagat Singh and the British under Governor General Marquis Wellesley in 1803, however the treaty was dissolved shortly afterwards by Wellesley's successor, Lord Cornwallis. In this event, Jaipur's Ambassador to Lord Lake observed that "This was the first time, since the English government was established in India, that it had been known to make its faith subservient to its convenience".
In 1818 Jaipur became a British protectorate by entering into a subsidiary alliance. In 1835 there was a serious disturbance in the city because of a false rumour that the British had murdered the infant raja to ensure the annexation, after which the British government intervened. The state later became well-governed and prosperous. During the Indian rebellion of 1857, when the British invoked the treaty to request assistance in the suppression of rebellious sepoys, the Maharaja opted to preserve his treaty, and thus sent in troops to help to subdue the uprisings in the area around Gurgaon.
- Dūlaha Rāya
- Bhau Singh
- Jai Singh I
- Ram Singh I
- Bishan Singh
- 1699 – 21 Sep 1743: Jai Singh II (b. 1688 – d. 1743)
- 1743 – 12 Dec 1750: Ishwari Singh (b. 1721 – d. 1750)
- 1750 – 5 Mar 1768: Madho Singh I (b. 1728 – d. 1768)
- 1768 – 13 Apr 1778: Prithvi Singh II (b. c. 1762 – d. 1778)
- 1778 – 1803: Pratap Singh (b. 1764 – d. 1803)
- 1803 – 21 Nov 1818: Jagat Singh II (b. ... – d. 1818)
- 22 Dec 1818 – 25 Apr 1819: Mohan Singh (regent) (b. c. 1809 – d. ...)
- 25 Apr 1819 – 6 Feb 1835: Jai Singh III (b. 1819 – d. 1835)
- Feb 1835 – 18 Sep 1880: Ram Singh II (b. 1835 – d. 1880)
- 18 Sep 1880 – 7 Sep 1922: Madho Singh II (b. 1861 – d. 1922)
- 7 Sep 1922 – 15 Aug 1947 (subsidiary): Sawai Man Singh II (b. 1912 – d. 1970)
- 15 Aug 1947 – 7 April 1949 (independent): Sawai Man Singh II (b. 1912 – d. 1970)
- 24 June 1970 – 17 April 2011: Sawai Bhawani Singh (b. 1931 – d. 2011)
- Princely States of India
- A History of Jaipur: C. 1503-1938 By Jadunath Sarkar pg.23-24
- A History of Jaipur: C. 1503-1938 pg. 34 by Jadunath Sarkar
- Wadley, Susan Snow (2004). Raja Nal and the Goddess: The North Indian Epic Dhola in Performance. Indiana University Press. pp. 110–111. ISBN 9780253217240.
- Sadasivan, Balaji (2011). The Dancing Girl: A History of Early India. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 233–234. ISBN 9789814311670.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 128–129.
- History of Jaipur by Jadunath Sarkar pg. 209
- History of Jaipur by Jadunath Sarkar pg. 289
- A History of Jaipur By Jadunath Sarkar pg.315
- Giles Tillotson, Jaipur Nama: Tales from the Pink City.
- Rajasthan Through the Ages By R.K. Gupta, S.R. Bakshi, pg.287
- Sarkar, Jadunath (1994). A history of Jaipur : c. 1503-1938 (Rev. ed.). Hyderabad: Orient Longman. ISBN 9788125003335.
- Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 156.
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