Jaipur State

Jaipur State was a princely state in India during East India Company rule and thereafter under the British Raj. It signed a treaty creating a subsidiary alliance with the Company in 1818. It acceded to independent India in 1947 and was integrated into India by 1949.[1][2] Upon integration, the ruler was granted a pension (privy purse), certain privileges, and the use of the title Maharaja of Jaipur by the Government of India.[3] However, the pension, privileges, and the use of the title were ended in 1971 by the 26th Amendment to the Constitution of India.[4][5]

Jaipur State
1128–1949
Flag of Jaipur
Flag (c. 1699–1818)
Coat of arms of Jaipur
Coat of arms
Jaipur State in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
Jaipur State in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
CapitalJaipur
Common languagesDhundari,
Hindi
GovernmentMonarchy
(1128–1818; 1947–1949)
Princely state
(1818–1947)
Maharaja Sawai 
• 1128
Dūlaha Rāya (first)
• 1922–1949
Man Singh II (last)
History 
• Established
1128
• Acceded to India
1949
CurrencyIndian Rupee
Succeeded by
Dominion of India
Today part ofRajasthan,
Republic of India
Raja Man Singh (1550–1614) was a trusted general of the Mughal emperor Akbar, who included him among the Navaratnas, or the nine gems of the royal court of Akbar.
Jai Singh II (1688–1743) founded the fortified city of Jaipur and made it his capital.
"First interview with the Maharajah of Jeypore," from 'India and its Native Princes' by Louis Rousselet, 1878
Gayatri Devi, Maharani of Jaipur, born as Princess Gayatri of Cooch Behar, with her husband Man Singh II, the last ruling Maharaja of Jaipur State.

HistoryEdit

Jaipur's predecessor state was the Kingdom of Dhundhar or Dausa, founded in 1093 by Dullah Rai, also known as Dulha Rao. The state was known as Amber between the fourteenth century and 1727. In that year, a new capital was built and named Jayapura, when the kingdom was renamed as Jaipur.[6]

Dhundhar KingdomEdit

The Kachwahas claim descent from Kusha, son of the legendary Rama. Their ancestors allegedly migrated from Rama's kingdom of Kosala and established a new dynasty at Gwalior.[7] After 31 generations, they moved to Rajputana and created a kingdom at Dhundhar. Dullah Rai, one of the ancestors of the Kachwaha rulers, defeated the Meenas of Manchi and Amber and later completed the conquest of Dhundhar by defeating the Bargurjars of Dausa and Deoti.[8]

Amber KingdomEdit

The rulers of Amber fought as generals in the army of Prithviraj Chauhan and later under the banner of Rana Sanga against the Mughals under Babur. The small kingdom of Amber was later conquered by Maldev Rathore and became feudatories of Marwar until the 16th century, Bharmal Kachwaha, sought alliance with Akbar to gain his political and military support against the Rathores of Marwar and his own divided clansmen.[9][10] He was formally recognised as a Raja by the Mughals and was invested into the Mughal nobility in return for his daughter's marriage to Emperor Akbar. Raja Bharmal's daughter, Mariam-uz-Zamani, who married Akbar, later became the mother of the fourth Mughal emperor Jahangir. She gained prestige in the Mughal court both during the reign of her husband and that of her son as Empress and Queen mother respectively. By this relation, the Rajas of Amer also gained significant prominence in the Mughal court.

A governor was appointed to oversee Bharmal's territory and a tribute arrangement saw Bharmal given a salaried rank, paid for from a share of the area's revenue.[11][12]

The ruling dynasty of Amber prospered under Mughal rule and provided the Mughal Empire with some distinguished generals.[13] Among them were Bhagwant Das, Man Singh I and Jai Singh I.[13]

Jaipur KingdomEdit

Jai Singh I was succeeded by Ram Singh I, Bishan Singh and Jai Singh II. Jai Singh II, also known as Sawai Jai Singh, ruled the state from 1699 to 1743 and was a famous mathematician and astronomer. During his rule, the new capital city of Jaipur was founded[13] in 1727.

Throughout the disintegration of the Mughal Empire, the armies of Jaipur were in a constant state of warfare. Towards the end of the 18th century, the Jats of Bharatpur and the Kachwaha chief of Alwar declared themselves independent from Jaipur and each annexed the eastern portion of Jaipur's territory.[13] This period of Jaipur's history is characterised by internal power-struggles and constant military conflicts with the Marathas, Jats, other Rajput states, as well as the British and the Pindaris. Jaipur suffered against the Rathors of Marwar in the Battle of Gangwana with appalling losses.[14] The kingdom again suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the Maratha forces of Mahadji Scindia in the Battle of Patan in 1790, forcing the rulers of Jaipur to pay heavy tributes.[15] Nevertheless, enough wealth remained in Jaipur for the patronage of fine temples/palaces, continuity of its courtly traditions and the well-being of its citizens and merchant communities. Jaipurs last attempt to gain freedom from Gwalior ended in a defeat at the Battle of Malpura.[16] A treaty was initially made by Maharaja Sawai Jagat Singh and the British under Governor General Marquis Wellesley in 1803, however the treaty was dissolved shortly afterwards by Wellesley's successor, Lord Cornwallis. In this event, Jaipur's Ambassador to Lord Lake observed that "This was the first time, since the English government was established in India, that it had been known to make its faith subservient to its convenience".[17]

In 1818 Jaipur became a British protectorate by entering into a subsidiary alliance. In 1835 there was a serious disturbance in the city because of a false rumour that the British had murdered the infant raja to ensure the annexation,[18] after which the British government intervened.[13] The state later became well-governed and prosperous.[13] During the Indian rebellion of 1857, when the British invoked the treaty to request assistance in the suppression of rebellious sepoys, the Maharaja opted to preserve his treaty, and thus sent in troops to help to subdue the uprisings[13] in the area around Gurgaon.[citation needed]

Jaipur state had a revenue of Rs.65,00,000 in 1901, making it the wealthiest princely state in Rajputana.[19]

Jaipur's last princely ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union on 7 April 1949.[citation needed]

Padmanabh Singh is the current head of the erstwhile royal family that once ruled Jaipur. Estimates of the royal family's wealth vary, but Singh is estimated to control a fortune of between $697 million and $2.8 billion.[20]

List of rulersEdit

The list of rulers and titular rulers are as follows:[21][22]

RulersEdit

  • 27 Dec 966 – 15 Dec 1006 Sorha Deva (d. 1006)
  • 15 Dec 1006 – 28 Nov 1036 'Dulha Rao' (d. 1036)
  • 28 Nov 1036 – 20 Apr 1039 Kakil (d. 1039)
  • 21 Apr 1039 – 28 Oct 1053 Hanu (d. 1053)
  • 28 Oct 1053 – 21 Mar 1070 Janddeo (d. 1070)
  • 22 Mar 1070 – 20 May 1094 Pajjun Rai (d. 1094)
  • 20 May 1094 – 15 Feb 1146 Malayasi (d. 1146)
  • 15 Feb 1146 – 25 Jul 1179 Vijaldeo (d. 1179)
  • 25 Jul 1179 – 16 Dec 1216 Rajdeo (d. 1216)
  • 16 Dec 1216 – 18 Oct 1276 Kilhan (d. 1276)
  • 18 Oct 1276 – 23 Jan 1317 Kuntal (d. 1317)
  • 23 Jan 1317 – 6 Nov 1366 Jonsi (d. 1366)
  • 6 Nov 1366 – 11 Feb 1388 Udaikarn (d. 1388)
  • 11 Feb 1388 – 16 Aug 1428 Narsingh (d. 1428)
  • 16 Aug 1428 – 20 Sep 1439 Banbir (d. 1439)
  • 20 Sep 1439 – 10 Dec 1467 Udharn (d. 1467)
  • 10 Dec 1467 – 17 Jan 1503 Chandrasen (d. 1503)
  • 17 Jan 1503 – 4 Nov 1527 Prithviraj Singh I (d. 1527)
  • 4 Nov 1527 – 19 Jan 1534 Puranmal (d. 1534)
  • 19 Jan 1534 – 22 Jul 1537 Bhim Singh (d. 1537)
  • 22 Jul 1537 – 15 May 1548 Ratan Singh (d. 1548)
  • 15 May 1548 – 1 June 1548 Askaran (d. 1599)
  • 1 June 1548 – 27 Jan 1574 Bharmal (d. 1574)
  • 27 Jan 1574 – 4 Dec 1589 Bhagwant Das (b. 1527 – d. 1589)
  • 4 Dec 1589 – 6 Jul 1614 Man Singh (b. 1550 – d. 1614)
  • 6 Jul 1614 – 13 Dec 1621 Bhau Singh (d. 1621)
  • 13 Dec 1621 – 28 Aug 1667 Jai Singh I (b. 1611 – d. 1667)
  • 10 Sep 1667 – 30 Apr 1688: Ram Singh I (b. 1640 – d. 1688)
  • 30 Apr 1688 – 19 Dec 1699: Bishan Singh (b. 1672 – d. 1699)
  • 19 Dec 1699 – 21 Sep 1743: Jai Singh II (b. 1688 – d. 1743)
  • 1743 – 12 Dec 1750: Ishwari Singh (b. 1721 – d. 1750)
  • 1750 – 5 Mar 1768: Madho Singh I (b. 1728 – d. 1768)
  • 1768 – 13 Apr 1778: Prithvi Singh II (b. c. 1762 – d. 1778)
  • 1778 – 1803: Pratap Singh (b. 1764 – d. 1803)
  • 1803 – 21 Nov 1818: Jagat Singh II (b. ... – d. 1818)
  • 22 Dec 1818 – 25 Apr 1819: Mohan Singh (regent) (b. c. 1809 – d. ...)
  • 25 Apr 1819 – 6 Feb 1835: Jai Singh III (b. 1819 – d. 1835)
  • Feb 1835 – 18 Sep 1880: Ram Singh II (b. 1835 – d. 1880)
  • 18 Sep 1880 – 7 Sep 1922: Madho Singh II (b. 1861 – d. 1922)
  • 7 Sep 1922 – 15 Aug 1947 (subsidiary): Sawai Man Singh II (b. 1912 – d. 1970)
  • 15 Aug 1947 – 7 Apr 1949 (independent): Sawai Man Singh II (b. 1912 – d. 1970)

He merged Jaipur State in Union of India in 1949 CE.

Titular rulersEdit

The titular [note 1] rulers of the Jaipur State includes:

Other family membersEdit

Jaipur ResidencyEdit

The Jaipur Residency was established in 1821. It included the states of Jaipur, Kishangarh and Lawa. The latter had belonged to the Haraoti-Tonk Agency until 1867.[23]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In 1948, after India's independence and the state's accession to the Dominion of India under terms agreed to during the Political integration of India, Sawai Man Singh II was granted a privy purse, certain privileges, and the use of the title Maharaja of Jaipur by the Government of India.[3]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ramusack, Barbara N. (2004). The Indian princes and their states. Cambridge University Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-521-26727-4. The crucial document was the Instrument of Accession by which rulers ceded to the legislatures of India or Pakistan control over defence, external affairs, and communications. In return for these concessions, the princes were to be guaranteed a privy purse in perpetuity and certain financial and symbolic privileges such as exemption from customs duties, the use of their titles, the right to fly their state flags on their cars, and to have police protection. ... By December 1947 Patel began to pressure the princes into signing Merger Agreements that integrated their states into adjacent British Indian provinces, soon to be called states or new units of erstwhile princely states, most notably Rajasthan, Patiala and East Punjab States Union, and Matsya Union (Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karaulli).
  2. ^ Copland, Ian, The princes of India in the endgame of empire, 1917–1947, Cambridge Studies in Indian History and Society, Cambridge University Press, p. 1, Between 1947 and 1949 all 600-odd ruling princes in India were pensioned off and their ancestral domains—the so-called 'princely states'—were submerged in the bodypolitic of the Indian union. Nowadays the few former rulers still alive are just ordinary citizens, while the ex-states survive—if at all—only in attenuated shape as components of larger administrative units. As a practical system of governance monarchy in India has been consigned to the dustbin of history.
  3. ^ a b Ramusack, Barbara N. (2004). The Indian princes and their states. Cambridge University Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-521-26727-4. The crucial document was the Instrument of Accession by which rulers ceded to the legislatures of India or Pakistan control over defence, external affairs, and communications. In return for these concessions, the princes were to be guaranteed a privy purse in perpetuity and certain financial and symbolic privileges such as exemption from customs duties, the use of their titles, the right to fly their state flags on their cars, and to have police protection. ... By December 1947 Patel began to pressure the princes into signing Merger Agreements that integrated their states into adjacent British Indian provinces, soon to be called states or new units of erstwhile princely states, most notably Rajasthan, Patiala and East Punjab States Union, and Matsya Union (Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karaulli).
  4. ^ "The Constitution (26 Amendment) Act, 1971", indiacode.nic.in, Government of India, 1971, retrieved 9 November 2011
  5. ^ Schmidt, Karl J. (1995). An atlas and survey of South Asian history. M.E. Sharpe. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-56324-334-9. Although the Indian states were alternately requested or forced into union with either India or Pakistan, the real death of princely India came when the Twenty-sixth Amendment Act (1971) abolished the princes' titles, privileges, and privy purses.
  6. ^ Princely States of India
  7. ^ Prasad, Rajiva Nain (1966). Raja Man Singh of Amber. pp. 1.
  8. ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1994) [1984]. A History of Jaipur: C. 1503–1938. Orient Longman Limited. p. 23. ISBN 81-250-0333-9.
  9. ^ Arms & Armour at the Jaipur court by Robert Elgood p.10
  10. ^ Sarkar (1994, p. 34)
  11. ^ Wadley, Susan Snow (2004). Raja Nal and the Goddess: The North Indian Epic Dhola in Performance. Indiana University Press. pp. 110–111. ISBN 9780253217240.
  12. ^ Sadasivan, Balaji (2011). The Dancing Girl: A History of Early India. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 233–234. ISBN 9789814311670.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Jaipur" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 128–129.
  14. ^ Sarkar (1994, p. 209)
  15. ^ Sarkar (1994, p. 289)
  16. ^ Sarkar (1994, p. 315)
  17. ^ Giles Tillotson, Jaipur Nama: Tales from the Pink City.
  18. ^ Rajasthan Through the Ages By R.K. Gupta, S.R. Bakshi, pg.287
  19. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 13, page 395 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library".
  20. ^ Warren, Katie (9 March 2020). "Meet the 21-year-old 'king' of Jaipur, India, a polo star who spends his multimillion-dollar fortune traveling the world and studying in NYC and Rome". Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  21. ^ Prasad (1966, pp. 1–3)
  22. ^ Sarkar (1994)
  23. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 156.

Coordinates: 26°55′34″N 75°49′25″E / 26.9260°N 75.8235°E / 26.9260; 75.8235