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Logo of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee

The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.[1] It comprises of representatives from 21 state parties[2][1] that are elected by the General Assembly of States Parties for a four-year term.[3] These parties vote on decisions and proposals related to the World Heritage Convention and World Heritage List.

According to the World Heritage Convention, a committee member's term of office is six years. However many State's Parties choose to voluntarily limit their term to four years, in order to give other States Parties an opportunity to serve.[3] All members elected at the 15th General Assembly (2005) voluntarily chose to reduce their term of office from six to four years.[3]

Deliberations of the World Heritage Committee are aided by three advisory bodies, the IUCN, ICOMOS and ICCROM.[4][5]

SessionsEdit

The World Heritage Committee meets once a year for an ordinary session to discuss the management of existing World Heritage Sites, and accept nominations by countries.[3] Extraordinary meetings can be convened at the request of two-thirds of the state members.[6] Meetings are held within the territory of state members of the World Heritage Committee at their invitation. Rotation between regions and cultures is a consideration for selection and the location for the next session is chosen by the committee at the end of each session.[6]

Session[7] Year Date Host city
1 1977 27 June–1 July   Paris
2 1978 5 September–8 September   Washington, D.C.
3 1979 22 October–26 October   Cairo & Luxor
4 1980 1 September–5 September   Paris
5 1981 26 October–30 October   Sydney
6 1982 13 December–17 December   Paris
7 1983 5 December–9 December   Florence
8 1984 29 October–2 November   Buenos Aires
9 1985 2 December–6 December   Paris
10 1986 24 November–28 November   Paris
11 1987 7 December–11 December   Paris
12 1988 5 December–9 December   Brasília
13 1989 11 December–15 December   Paris
14 1990 7 December–12 December   Banff
15 1991 9 December–13 December   Carthage
16 1992 7 December–14 December   Santa Fe
17 1993 6 December–11 December   Cartagena
18 1994 12 December–17 December   Phuket
19 1995 4 December–9 December   Berlin
20 1996 2 December–7 December   Mérida
21 1997 1 December–6 December   Naples
22 1998 30 November–5 December   Kyoto
23 1999 29 November–4 December   Marrakech
24 2000 27 November–2 December   Cairns
25 2001 11 December–16 December   Helsinki
26 2002 24 June–29 June   Budapest
27 2003 30 June–5 July   Paris
28 2004 28 June–7 July   Suzhou
29 2005 10 July–17 July   Durban
30 2006 8 July–16 July   Vilnius
31 2007 23 June–1 July   Christchurch
32 2008 2 July–10 July   Quebec City
33 2009 22 June–30 June   Seville
34 2010 25 July–3 August   Brasília
35 2011 19 June–29 June   Paris
36 2012 25 June–5 July   Saint Petersburg
37 2013 17 June–27 June   Phnom Penh
38 2014 15 June–25 June   Doha
39 2015 28 June–8 July   Bonn
40 2016 10 July–20 July   Istanbul
41 2017 2 July–12 July   Kraków
42 2018 24 June–4 July   Manama
43 2019 30 June–10 July   Baku
44 2020   Fuzhou

BureauEdit

At the end of each ordinary session, the committee elects a chairperson, five vice-chairpersons and a Rapporteur from those members whose term will continue through the next session.[6] These are known as the Bureau, and their representatives are responsible for coordinating the work of the World Heritage Committee, including fixing dates, hours and the order of business meetings.[1]

VotingEdit

Each state member of the World Heritage Committee has one vote. Decisions require a simple majority with abstentions counted as not voting. Votes are delivered by a show of hands unless a secret ballot is requested by either the chairperson or two or more states members.[6]

MembersEdit

Current members of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee

Member state[8] Mandate
  Angola 2015–2019
  Australia 2017–2021
  Azerbaijan 2015–2019
  Bahrain 2017–2021
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 2017–2021
  Brazil 2017–2021
  Burkina Faso 2015–2019
  China 2017–2021
  Cuba 2015–2019
  Guatemala 2017–2021
  Hungary 2017–2021
  Indonesia 2015–2019
  Kuwait 2015–2019
  Kyrgyzstan 2017–2021
  Norway 2017–2021
  Saint Kitts and Nevis 2017–2021
  Spain 2017–2021
  Tunisia 2015–2019
  Tanzania 2015–2019
  Uganda 2017–2021
  Zimbabwe 2015–2019
Total 21

CriticismEdit

Increasing politicization of World Heritage Committee decisions to the detriment of conservation aims has been alleged, particularly with regard to new nominations for the World Heritage List, but also with the consideration of sites for the List of World Heritage in Danger.[9][10] In 2010, states parties including Hungary, Switzerland and Zimbabwe submitted an official protest against such politicization.[5]

An external audit requested by the World Heritage Committee for its Global Strategy of the World Heritage List concluded in 2011 that political considerations were indeed influencing decisions.[5] It observed that the composition of committee representatives had shifted from experts to diplomats in spite of World Heritage Convention Article 9 and found that opinions from advisory bodies often diverged from World Heritage Committee decisions.[5]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c UNESCO. "The World Heritage Committee". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  2. ^ According to the UNESCO World Heritage website, States Parties are countries that signed and ratified The World Heritage Convention. As of March 2013, there were a total of 170 State Parties.
  3. ^ a b c d "The World Heritage Committee". UNESCO World Heritage Site. Retrieved 2006-10-14.
  4. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Advisory Bodies". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Office of the External Auditor for the United Nations Scientific, Educational and Cultural Organization (2011) Independent Evaluation by the UNESCO External Auditor, Volume 1: Implementation of the Global Strategy for the Credible, Balanced and Representative World Heritage List. UNESCO Headquarters, Paris.
  6. ^ a b c d UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Natural and Cultural Heritage (2015) Rules of Procedure. World Heritage Centre, Paris. Download available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/committee/ (27 June 2019)
  7. ^ "Sessions". UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  8. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – 40th session of the Committee". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  9. ^ Meskell, Lynn (Winter 2014). "States of Conservation: Protection, Politics, and Pacting within UNESCO's World Heritage Committee". Anthropological Quarterly. 87: 217–243.
  10. ^ The Economist. 2010. UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites: A Danger List in Danger. Accessed 27 June 2019.

External linksEdit