Open main menu

Kota (/ˈktə/ (About this soundlisten)) previously known as Kotah, is a city located in the southeast of northern Indian state of Rajasthan.[4] It is located about 240 kilometres (149 mi) south of the state capital, Jaipur, situated on the banks of Chambal River. With a population of over 1.2 million, it is the third most populous city of Rajasthan after Jaipur and Jodhpur, 46th most populous city of India and 53rd most populous urban agglomeration of India. It serves as the administrative headquarters for Kota district and Kota Division. Kota is a major coaching hub of the country for competitive examination preparations and has a number of engineering and medical coaching institutes.[5] Books like Life in a Nutshell by Nitish Rajpurohit and Harsh Agarwal highlight the life of students in the city.[6][7][8]

Kota
Clockwise from the top: Aerial View of Chambal River, Ghatotkachh Circle, Seven Wonders Park, Bansal Classes, Jagmandir Palace, Aerial view of a part of Kota, City Mall, Garh Palace, Aerodrome Circle
Clockwise from the top: Aerial View of Chambal River, Ghatotkachh Circle, Seven Wonders Park, Bansal Classes, Jagmandir Palace, Aerial view of a part of Kota, City Mall, Garh Palace, Aerodrome Circle
Kota is located in Rajasthan
Kota
Kota
Kota is located in India
Kota
Kota
Coordinates: 25°0′0″N 76°10′0″E / 25.00000°N 76.16667°E / 25.00000; 76.16667Coordinates: 25°0′0″N 76°10′0″E / 25.00000°N 76.16667°E / 25.00000; 76.16667
CountryIndia
StateRajasthan
DistrictKota
DivisionKota Division ( Hadoti Region )
Government
 • TypeDemocratic
 • BodyMunicipal Corporation
 • MayorMahesh Vijay (BJP)
 • Member of Parliament Kota-BundiOm Birla (BJP)
 • Member of Legislative Assembly Kota SouthSandeep Sharma (BJP)
 • Member of Legislative Assembly Kota NorthShanti kumar Dhariwal (INC)
Area
 • Total527 km2 (203 sq mi)
Elevation
271 m (889 ft)
Population
 (2011)[2][3]
 • Total1,001,694
 • Rank46th
 • Density1,900/km2 (4,900/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialHindi, English
 • NativeRajasthani, Harauti
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
324001 to 324011 and 324022
Telephone code0744
ISO 3166 codeRJ-IN
Vehicle registrationRJ-20
Sex ratio895 /
Websitekota.rajasthan.gov.in

The city of Kota was once the part of the erstwhile Rajput kingdom of Bundi. It became a separate princely state in the 17th century. Apart from the several monuments that reflect the glory of the town, Kota is also known for its palaces and gardens.[9][10] Mahesh Vijay of Bhartiya Janta Party is the current Mayor of Kota.[11] In 2013, Kota was ranked the second most livable city in the state (after Jaipur) and forty-first in the country among 50 cities.[12] The city was also included among 98 Indian cities for Smart Cities Mission initiated by Indian prime minister Narendra Modi in 2015[13] and was listed at 67th place after results of first round were released following which top 20 cities were further selected for funding in the immediate financial year.[14] It is popular among the youth of India for its coaching institutes for engineering and medical entrance examinations. A large number of students come to Kota to prepare for the IIT JEE and NEET.[15]

HistoryEdit

 
Procession of Raja Ram Singh II of Kota Later Mughal Period, c. 1850

The history of the city dates back to the 12th century AD when Rao Deva, a Chauhan Rajput chieftain belonging to the Hada clan conquered the territory and founded Bundi and Hadoti. Later, in the early 17th century, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, the ruler of Bundi - Rao Ratan Singh, gave the smaller principality of Kota to his son, Madho Singh. Since then Kota became a hallmark of the Rajput gallantry and culture.[16]

 
Diwali celebrations at medieval Kotah

The independent state of Kota became a reality in 1631 when Rao Madho Singh, the second son of Rao Ratan of [Bundi] was made the ruler, by the Mughal Emperor Jahangir.[17] Soon Kota outgrew its parent state to become bigger in area, richer in revenue and more powerful. Maharao Bhim Singh played a pivotal role in Kota's history, having held a 'Mansab'[17] of five thousand and being the first in his dynasty to have the title of Maharao. Zalim Singh, a diplomat and statesman, emerged as another prominent figure of the state in the 18th century. Although initially being a general of Kota's army, he rose to the regent of the kingdom after the king died leaving a minor on the throne.[16] He remained a direct administrator of the state. In 1817, a treaty of friendship was signed between him and the British on his condition of carving out part from the existing state for his descendants resulting in Jhalawar coming into existence in 1838.[16] During the colonial period, firebrand social activist Guru Radha Kishan organised the masses against the policies of the government. He left Kota after local administration came to know about the arrest warrant issued against him for his participation in Indian Independence activities.

Princely city of KotaEdit

Princely city: Kota (कोटा)
Region Hadoti
19th-century flag  
Independence from: Bundi State
State existed: 1579-1949
Dynasties Rajput Chauhan Hada
Capital Kota

Kota became independent in 1579, after Bundi state in Hadoti region had become weak. Then, Kota ruled the territory which now is Kota district and Baran district.

GeographyEdit

Kota is located along the banks of the Chambal River in the southern part of Rajasthan. It is the 3rd largest city of Rajasthan after Jaipur and Jodhpur. The cartographic coordinates are 25°11′N 75°50′E / 25.18°N 75.83°E / 25.18; 75.83.[18] It covers an area of 527 km2.[1][19] It has an average elevation of 271 metres (889 ft). The district is bound on the north and north west by Sawai Madhopur, Tonk and Bundi districts. The Chambal River separates these districts from Kota district, forming the natural boundary.

 
Kishore Sagar Lake

The city of Kota is situated at a centre of the southeastern region of Rajasthan a region very widely known as Hadoti, the land of the Hadas. Kota lies along the banks of the Chambal river on a high sloping tableland forming a part of the Malwa Plateau. The general slope of the city is towards the north. The comparatively rocky, barren and elevated land in the southern part of city descends towards a plain agricultural land in the north. The Mokandarra hills run from southeast to northwest axis of the town.

Kota has fertile land and greenery with irrigation facilities through canals. The two main canals; called as left main canal (towards Bundi) and right main canal (towards Baran) originate from the reservoir created by Kota Barrage.[20][21] The tributaries of these canals make up a network in the city and surrounding areas of [Rajasthan] and [Madhya Pradesh] and supplements the irrigation of these areas.[21]

ClimateEdit

Kota
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
10
 
 
23
11
 
 
20
 
 
26
13
 
 
10
 
 
33
19
 
 
10
 
 
39
25
 
 
20
 
 
42
29
 
 
50
 
 
40
29
 
 
250
 
 
34
26
 
 
240
 
 
32
26
 
 
110
 
 
34
25
 
 
20
 
 
34
22
 
 
10
 
 
30
16
 
 
10
 
 
25
12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Kota weather

Kota has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) with high temperatures throughout the year. Summers are long, hot and dry, starting in late March and lasting till the end of June. The temperatures average above 40 °C in May and June and frequently exceed 45 °C with temperatures as high as 48.4 °C also been recorded.[22] The monsoon season follows with comparatively lower temperatures, but higher humidity and frequent, torrential downpours. The monsoons subside in October and temperatures rise again. The brief, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until the last week of February. Temperatures hover between 26.7 °C (max) to 12 °C (min). This can be considered the best time to visit Kota because of intense heat in the summer.[23]

The average annual rainfall in the Kota district is 660.6 mm.[19] Most of the rainfall can be attributed to the southwest monsoon which has its beginning around the last week of June and may last till mid-September. Pre-monsoon showers begin towards the middle of June with post-monsoon rains occasionally occurring in October. The winter is largely dry, although some rainfall does occur as a result of the Western Disturbance passing over the region.[23]

Climate data for Kota (A)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.4
(92.1)
37.0
(98.6)
42.7
(108.9)
48.5
(119.3)
48.4
(119.1)
47.3
(117.1)
44.3
(111.7)
41.0
(105.8)
41.0
(105.8)
40.4
(104.7)
38.0
(100.4)
33.2
(91.8)
48.5
(119.3)
Average high °C (°F) 23.7
(74.7)
26.9
(80.4)
32.9
(91.2)
38.8
(101.8)
42.1
(107.8)
40.0
(104.0)
34.2
(93.6)
32.0
(89.6)
33.7
(92.7)
34.3
(93.7)
29.9
(85.8)
25.3
(77.5)
32.8
(91.1)
Average low °C (°F) 10.9
(51.6)
13.7
(56.7)
19.1
(66.4)
25.0
(77.0)
29.3
(84.7)
29.2
(84.6)
26.5
(79.7)
25.4
(77.7)
25.0
(77.0)
21.8
(71.2)
16.3
(61.3)
11.9
(53.4)
21.2
(70.1)
Record low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
4.5
(40.1)
8.6
(47.5)
14.0
(57.2)
20.0
(68.0)
18.8
(65.8)
20.4
(68.7)
18.4
(65.1)
16.4
(61.5)
14.1
(57.4)
7.1
(44.8)
3.8
(38.8)
1.7
(35.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 5.4
(0.21)
4.4
(0.17)
4.0
(0.16)
3.2
(0.13)
10.3
(0.41)
62.9
(2.48)
257.0
(10.12)
245.8
(9.68)
98.5
(3.88)
19.6
(0.77)
7.8
(0.31)
3.5
(0.14)
722.4
(28.46)
Average rainy days 0.9 1.0 0.6 0.4 2.1 6.9 13.1 15.2 5.6 1.6 1.2 0.5 49.1
Average relative humidity (%) 48 38 25 19 23 43 67 74 58 40 41 48 44
Source #1: Kota weather, India Meteorological Department: (Kota (A) record highs and lows up to 2010),[24] Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall (1961-2000)[25]
Source #2: NOAA (1971-1990)[26]

DemographicsEdit

Demographic Distribution of Religion in Kota, Rajasthan[27]
Religion Percent(%)
Hinduism
80.50%
Islam
15.87%
Jainism
2.17%
Sikhism
0.86%
Christianity
0.42%
Others
0.18%

According to 2011 Census of India, Kota City had a population of 1,001,694, of which male and female are 528,601 and 473,093 respectively.[3][28] The provisional results of census 2011 reported city's population as 1,001,365.[29] The urban agglomeration of Kota consists of city only.[28][30] The sex ratio was 895 and 12.14% were under six years of age. The effective literacy rate was 82.80%, with male literacy at 89.49% and female literacy at 75.33%.[28]

Harauti, a dialect of Rajasthani is widely spoken in Kota with Hindi, Marwari and English being the other languages spoken.[31]

According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the majority religion in the city practised by about 80.5% of the population. Muslims form large minorities (15.9%) followed by Jains (2.2%), Sikhs (0.9%) and Christians (0.4%).[27]

Government institutions and courtsEdit

Governmental institutions in Kota include:

  • Municipal Corporation
  • Collectorate
  • Office of the Divisional Commissioner
  • Rajasthan Housing Board
  • Command Area Development (CAD)
  • Urban Improvement Trust (UIT)
  • Office of the Superintendent of Police, Inspector General of Police and the Income Tax commissioner of Kota range.
  • Office of the Divisional Railway Manager, Kota Division, West Central Railway
  • Office of Deputy Commissioner of central excise and service tax

Instrumentation Ltd is a Public Sector company based in Kota.[32] Its clientele includes public sector entities such as the Indian Railways, BSNL and VSNL.

The District court provides court and notary services.[33]

EconomyEdit

The city is the trade centre for an area in which cotton, millet, wheat, coriander and oilseeds are grown; industries include cotton and oilseed milling, textile weaving, distilling, dairying, and the manufacture of metal handcrafts.[34] Kota also has an extensive industry of stone-polishing of a stone called Kota Stone, used for the floor and walls of residential and business buildings. Since last 15 years Kota has emerged as an Education hub of the country as producing excellent results in IIT-JEE and medical entrance exams.[5][35][36]

Kota doria and sarisEdit

 
Kota Sari with Gota Patti embroidery

Weaving in Kota was started by Maharana Bhimdeo in the 18th century.[37]

The Kota saris like most traditional piece of work had started becoming lost before designer Vidhi Singhania moved to Kota and started working with the workers to revive its market.[38] Many textile shops in the city sell different varieties of Kota doria. These saris have become one of the trademarks of the city.[39]

Kota stoneEdit

 
Storage area of Kota Stone

The fine-grained variety of limestone quarried from Kota district is known as Kota stone, with rich greenish-blue and brown colours. Kota stone is tough, non-water-absorbent, non-slip, and non-porous. The varieties include Kota Blue Natural, Kota Blue Honed, Kota Blue Polished, Kota Blue Cobbles, Kota Brown Natural and Kota Brown Polished.[40]

IndustriesEdit

Kota is one of the industrial hubs in northern India, with chemical, cement, engineering and power plants based there. The total number of industrial units in the district in 2010-11 stood at 12908 with 705 registered units.[41] The district power plants show annual growth of 15-20 % due to their strategic locations.[41]

Power plantsEdit

Kota is surrounded by five power stations within its 50 km radius.

  1. Kota Super Thermal Power Plant – thermal[42]
  2. Rajasthan Atomic Power Station in Rawatbhatha Chittorgarh district (65 kilometres from Kota) – nuclear[43]
  3. NTPC Anta Gas Power Plant in Antah Baran district (50 kilometFertilm Kota) – gas
  4. Jawahar Sagar Power Plant – hydro[44]
  5. Kalisindh Thermal Power Station (in Jhalrapatan, Jhalawar) – thermal

EducationEdit

The city is specially known in India as a center for preparation of various national level competitive examinations through which the students seek admissions in various engineering and medical colleges of the country. Often termed as the "kota factory", the town contains more than 40 large coaching institutes for aspiring students trying to pass entrance exams for Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT), through the IIT JEE, other engineering colleges and prominent medical colleges of India.[15] Of the 40 large coaching institutes in the town, the most prominent are Allen, Resonance, Bansal, Vibrant and Career Point.[45]

Since 2000, the city has emerged as a popular coaching destination for competitive exams preparation and for profit educational services. The education sector of Kota has become one of the major contributors to the city's economy.[46] Kota is popularly referred to as "the coaching capital of India".[5][35][47] Over 1.5 lakh students from all over the country flock every year towards the city for preparation of various exams such as IIT-JEE, NEET-UG and AIIMS etc.[48][49][50][51][52] Many hostels and PGs are located in Kota near the vicinity of coaching centres for students. Students live here for 2–3 years and prepare for the exams. The annual turnover of the Kota coaching industry is about ₹1500 crore.[53]

Kota's emergence as a coaching hub began in 1985 when Vinod Kumar Bansal, an engineer working for J. K. Synthetics Ltd, set up Bansal Classes that eventually became Bansal Classes Private Limited.[54]

Student SuicidesEdit

In the past few years, reports of students committing suicide in the city have increased. As per reports, students feel stressed and get pressurized in order to crack their target competitive exam. As per National Crime Records Bureau report of 2014, 45 suicide cases of students were reported in the city. In year 2015, 17 such cases were found.[55] For the same cause, many coaching centers have also appointed counsellors to help students.[56][57][58][59]

Medical and Engineering CollegesEdit

UniversitiesEdit

Places of interestEdit

 
Chambal Express, a toy train in Chatra Vilas Garden

Some of the popular visitor attractions in and nearby the city include Chambal Garden, Seven Wonders Park, Kishore Sagar Lake, Jag Mandir, Garh Palace, Chatra Vilas Garden, Godavari Dham Temple, Garadia Mahadev Temple, Kota Zoological Park, Maharao Madho Singh Museum, Kota Government Museum, Brijraj Bhawan Palace, Abheda Mahal, Agamgarh Gurudwara Sahib, Hanging Rock Fountain, Royal Cenotaphs at Keshar Bagh, Kota Barrage, Adarshila Dargah, Darrah National Park and Jawahar Sagar Dam.[60][61][62][63][64]

TransportEdit

Kota is well connected with road and rail to all major cities within Rajasthan as well as those located outside the state.[65]

RoadwaysEdit

National highway No.12 (JaipurJabalpur) and National Highway No.76 pass through the city.[66] National Highway No.76 is a part of East-West Corridor. The total road length in Kota district is 2,052 km. as of March 2011.

RailwaysEdit

 
Entrance of Kota Railway station

Kota is well connected to all the major cities of India with rail. Kota Junction is one of the divisions in West Central Railway.[67] It is a station on the New Delhi–Mumbai main line. There are four railway stations within Kota and in its vicinity. Another suburban station of South Kota city is Dakaniya Talav Railway station which has a stoppage of Avadh Express, Dehradun Express and Ranthambore Express.[68]

 
Kota Junction

The city is a halt for over 150 trains,[69] including Mumbai Rajdhani Express, August Kranti Rajdhani Express, Mumbai New Delhi Duronto Express, Indore–Jaipur Express, Udaipur SuperFast (Delhi - Udaipur City Express), Dayodaya Express (Jaipur - Jabalpur Express / Ajmer - Jabalpur Express), Jodhpur - Indore Intercity, Hazrat Nizamuddin - Indore Express, Garbha Express, Marusagar Express (Ajmer - Ernakulam Express / Ernakulam Express), Jaipur - Mysore Express, Jaipur - Chennai Express, Jaipur - Coimbatore Express, Jodhpur - Puri Express, Jodhpur - Bhopal Express.

The DelhiMumbai railway line passes through the Kota Junction. The district has 148.83 km of railway line in the Kota — Ruthia section, 98.72 km on NagdaMathura (Mumbai-Delhi) section and 24.26 km on Kota —Chittorgarh section.

A broad-gauge railway facility between Kota and Jodhpur via Jaipur exists.

AirwaysEdit

Kota Airport has had no scheduled services operating since 1999.[70] The nearest international airport is Jaipur International Airport situated 250 km away from Kota.

SportsEdit

The city is home to Jay Kaylon Cricket Stadium located in Nayapura area. Among several matches, six Ranji Trophy matches have been played in the stadium.[71][72] The stadium also hosted RCL T20 2016, an inter state cricket league with six participating teams.[73]

MediaEdit

TelevisionEdit

There are five major regional TV Channels in Kota.[74]

A wide range of other Hindi, English and other language channels are accessible via cable subscription and direct-broadcast satellite services. Dish TV, Tata Sky, Radiant Digitek, Airtel Digital TV are entertainment services in Kota.

NewspapersEdit

Major daily newspapers in Kota[75][76][77] include:

RadioEdit

There are five radio stations in Kota, with four broadcasting on the FM band, and one All India Radio station broadcasting on the AM band.

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Kota District Census 2011 Handbook: VILLAGE AND TOWN WISE PRIMARY CENSUS ABSTRACT (PCA)" (PDF). Census of India. p. 29 (pdf) Urban Section. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 April 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  2. ^ "2011 census: Kota Municipal Corporation Demographics". Censusofindia.gov.in. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  3. ^ a b "Kota (Kota, Rajasthan, India) - Population Statistics and Location in Maps and Charts - City Population". Citypopulation. de. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  4. ^ "Major Cities in Rajasthan". Indiatravelportal.com. Archived from the original on 3 August 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  5. ^ a b c Anjali Puri (31 December 2015). "How Kota became India's capital for educational coaching". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 4 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  6. ^ "I always try to write beyond genres:Interview With Harsh Agarwal, Author of the book 'An Excursion of Insight'". Merry Brains. 12 August 2014. Archived from the original on 25 June 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  7. ^ "Book Launch – The Life in a Nutshell". UdaipurBlog. 24 December 2011. Archived from the original on 25 June 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  8. ^ DSOUZA, DILIP (April 2012). "Get To The Top - Coaching and poaching in a Rajasthani city transformed by the business of aspiration". The Caravan. Archived from the original on 25 June 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  9. ^ "Tours to Kota". Indian Horizons. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  10. ^ "Lakes and Gardens in Kota". Indian Horizons. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  11. ^ "कोटा में महेश विजय होंगे नए महापौर". Rajasthan Patrika. 26 November 2014. Archived from the original on 23 June 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  12. ^ "Liveability Index: The Best Cities in India" (PDF). Competitiveness.in. p. 22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  13. ^ Mehboob Jeelani (28 August 2015). "Centre unveils list of 98 smart cities; UP, TN strike it rich". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 26 November 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  14. ^ "Ranking of Smart Cities" (PDF). Ministry of Urban Development. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  15. ^ a b "Kota coaching factory – Panic calls: 14-hr days, morning nightmares". The Indian Express. 26 November 2015. Archived from the original on 27 December 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  16. ^ a b c "About Kota". Rajasthan Travel. Archived from the original on 8 September 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  17. ^ a b "History of Kota". Maps of India. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  18. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Kota". Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2006. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  19. ^ a b Statistics by Govt. of Rajasthan Archived 29 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT CHAMBAL, KOTA". kotadivision.nic.in. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  21. ^ a b "Chambal Valley Project". Water Resources Department, Govt. of Rajasthan. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  22. ^ "Heat wave claims 10 lives; Kota hottest at 48.4 °C". Zee News. 26 May 2010. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  23. ^ a b "Kota Climate details: Monthly Temperature, Rainfall and Sunshine". Weather and climate.com. Archived from the original on 5 June 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  24. ^ "Ever Recorded Maximum Temperature, Minimum Temperature and 24 Hours Heaviest Rainfall up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. p. 64. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  25. ^ "Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall based upon 1901-2000 data" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. p. 38. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  26. ^ "Kota (A) Climate Normals 1971-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  27. ^ a b "Religion in Kota". Census 2011. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  28. ^ a b c Kota City Census report Archived 9 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine census 2011
  29. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  30. ^ Kota District Demographics, Census 2011 Archived 10 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine census India 2011
  31. ^ "Languages of Rajasthan". Rajasthan Tourism. Archived from the original on 9 June 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  32. ^ "Instrumentation Ltd Kota: Official website". Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  33. ^ "District and Session Court, Kota: Official Website of District Court". Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  34. ^ "Economy of Kota". kotaonline.com. Archived from the original on 9 June 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  35. ^ a b Aabshar H Quazi (29 April 2016). "JEE (Main) 2016 results: Kota institutes excel again". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  36. ^ "Top 3 in IIT entrance exam from Kota institute". The Times of India. 13 June 2016. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  37. ^ "Metro Plus Delhi / Arts & Crafts : Let's go Kota". The Hindu. 2 April 2005. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  38. ^ Radhika Rajamani (12 March 2003). "A piece of 'tradition'". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 17 January 2004. Retrieved 20 April 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  39. ^ Ritu Jain and Victoria Singh. "Kota doria - unique summer weave". Kota Heritage Society. Archived from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  40. ^ Sathya Prakash Varanashi (20 August 2012). "Kota, for a fresh look". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  41. ^ a b "Brief Industrial Profile of Kota District" (pdf). MSME Development Institute, Jaipur. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  42. ^ "Kota Super Thermal Power Plant". RVUN. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  43. ^ Aarti Dhar (12 August 2014). "Rawatbhata achieves nuclear power production feat". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  44. ^ "Jawahar Sagar Hydel Power Station". RVUN. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  45. ^ "Inside Kota coaching factory – Why an 18-yr-old signs off her note: 'Mein aaj apni life khatam karti hoon'". The Indian Express. 26 November 2015. Archived from the original on 27 December 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  46. ^ "The Sunday Tribune - Spectrum". Tribuneindia.com. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  47. ^ "Kota, the coaching capital". Financialexpress.com. 11 April 2010. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  48. ^ Sudhanshu Mishra (23 April 2013). "Inside Kota's Rs 300 crore coaching industry: How students aiming to crack IIT-JEE join mushrooming institutes | Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  49. ^ Sharma, Yojana (27 November 2012). "BBC News - Meet the 'tutor kings and queens'". Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 November 2018. Retrieved 27 September 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  50. ^ TNN 17 November 2010, 12.56pm IST (17 November 2010). "IIT hub losing edge - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  51. ^ "Forbes India Magazine - The New Coaching Class in Kota". Forbesindia.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  52. ^ "Home tips cut Kota JEE rush". Telegraphindia.com. 29 April 2013. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  53. ^ "Kota's success in NEET fuels boom in coaching institute business". Hindustan Times. 5 April 2017. Archived from the original on 16 April 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  54. ^ "How Kota became coaching factory for cracking IIT, Himanshu Mishra, India Today, 21 October 2009". Archived from the original on 21 April 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  55. ^ "Medical aspirant hangs self in Kota, no suicide note recovered". Financial Express. 20 January 2017. Archived from the original on 20 January 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  56. ^ Singh, Harsha Kumari (12 September 2015). "Behind the Successes of Kota's Coaching Centres, a Harsh Reality". NDTV. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  57. ^ Singh, Akhilesh (3 January 2016). "Why Kota is so killing". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  58. ^ Dwivedi Johri, Ankita (26 November 2015). "Kota coaching factory – Panic calls: 14-hr days, morning nightmares". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  59. ^ Rakhee Roy Talukdar (1 July 2015). "Suicides hit IIT coaching hub". Telegraphindia.com. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  60. ^ "Tourist Places in Kota, Rajasthan". Kota.Rajasthan.gov.in. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  61. ^ "Kota: Rajasthan Tourism". Rajasthan Tourism. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  62. ^ "Tourism in Kota". Nativeplanet.com. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  63. ^ "Places to Visit in Kota". Mapsofindia.com. Archived from the original on 22 May 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  64. ^ "Tour of Kota, Rajasthan". GoTravelTrek. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  65. ^ "Titan Aviation Air Charter Service". Titan Aviation India. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  66. ^ "National highways and their length" (PDF). National Highway Authority of India. p. 2(NH12), 7(NH76). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  67. ^ "West Central Railway". Maps of India. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  68. ^ "Arrivals at DKNT/Dakaniya Talav". Indianrailinfo.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  69. ^ "Arrivals at Kota Junction". RunningStatus.IN. Archived from the original on 31 August 2018. Retrieved 31 August 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  70. ^ "Airports fail to lure airlines". The Times of India. 9 October 2011. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  71. ^ "First-Class Matches played at Jay Kaylon Ground, Kota". Cricket archive. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  72. ^ "Jay Kaylon Ground, Kota". Cricket archive. Archived from the original on 20 March 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  73. ^ "video : कोटा में टी-20 का रोमांच आज से". rajasthanpatrika.patrika.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  74. ^ "Media of Rajasthan". INDFY. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  75. ^ "Search Newspapers by Area". Advertisement India. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  76. ^ "Dainik Navajyoti". dainiknavajyoti.com. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  77. ^ "Dainik Bhaskar Kota". bhaskar.com. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  78. ^ "Dainik Navajyoti". Rajasthan Direct. Archived from the original on 4 July 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  79. ^ "92.7 BIG FM Kota". 92.7 BIG FM. Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  80. ^ "Kota is 94.3 MY FM's fifth station in Rajasthan & 16th nationally". Afaqs. 1 February 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  81. ^ "95 FM Tadka". Rajasthan direct. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  82. ^ "All India Radio, Kota". airkota.com. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  83. ^ "Radio City 91.1 FM Kota". Planet RadioCity. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)

Further readingEdit

  • Tod James Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan: Or, The Central and Western Rajpoot States of India Published 2001 Asian Educational Services ISBN 81-206-1289-2 pp. 407–690

External linksEdit