Indira Gandhi International Airport

Indira Gandhi International Airport (IATA: DEL, ICAO: VIDP) is the primary international airport serving Delhi, the capital of India, and the National Capital Region (NCR). The airport, spread over an area of 5,106 acres (2,066 ha),[5] is situated in Palam, Delhi, 15 km (9.3 mi) southwest of the New Delhi Railway Station and 16 km (9.9 mi) from New Delhi city centre.[6][7] Named after Indira Gandhi (1917–1984), the former Prime Minister of India, it is the busiest airport of India in terms of passenger traffic since 2009.[8] It is also the busiest airport in the country in terms of cargo traffic. In the financial year of 2020, the airport handled 6.73 crore (67.3 million) passengers, the highest ever in the airport's history.[9] As of 2022, it is the seventh busiest airport in the world, as per the latest rankings issued by the UK-based air consultancy firm, OAG.[10] It is the second busiest airport in the world by seating capacity,[11][12][13] having a seating capacity of over 36 lakh (3.6 million) seats, and the busiest airport in Asia by passenger traffic, handling over 3.7 crore (37 million) passengers in 2021.[12][13]

Indira Gandhi International Airport
IGI Airport logo
Airport typePublic
OwnerAirports Authority of India[1]
OperatorDelhi International Airport Limited (DIAL)
ServesNational Capital Region (NCR)
LocationPalam, Delhi, India
Opened1962; 61 years ago (1962)
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL237 m / 777 ft
Coordinates28°34′07″N 077°06′44″E / 28.56861°N 77.11222°E / 28.56861; 77.11222
WebsiteDelhi Airport
DEL is located in Delhi
Location of airport in India
DEL is located in India
DEL (India)
Direction Length Surface
m ft
09/27 2,816 9,239 Asphalt
10/28 3,813 12,510 Asphalt
11R/29L 4,430 14,534 Asphalt
11L/29R 4,400 14,436 Asphalt
Statistics (April 2022 – March 2023)
Passengers65,327,833 (Increase 66.1%)
International passengers15,652,343 (Increase 41.6%)
Aircraft movements429,964 (Increase 34.5%)
Cargo tonnage895,918 (Decrease 3.1%)
Source: AAI[2][3][4]

The airport was operated by the Indian Air Force before its management was transferred to the Airports Authority of India.[14] In May 2006, the management of the airport was passed over to Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL), a consortium led by the GMR Group.[15] In September 2008, the airport inaugurated a 4,430 m (14,530 ft) runway. With the commencement of operations at Terminal 3 in 2010, it became India's and South Asia's largest aviation hub. The Terminal 3 building has a capacity to handle 3.4 crore (34 million) passengers annually and was the world's 8th largest passenger terminal upon completion.[7] The airport inaugurated a 4,400 m (14,400 ft) runway and the 2.1 km (1.3 mi) Eastern Cross Taxiways (ECT) with dual parallel taxiways in July 2023.[16] The airport uses an advanced system called Airport Collaborative Decision Making (A-CDM) to help keep takeoffs and landings timely and predictable.[17]

The other airport serving NCR is the Hindon Airport, which is much smaller in size and primarily handles regional flights out of the city under the UDAN Scheme.[18] The former airport, which used to be the primary airport of NCR, Safdarjung Airport is now used mainly by VVIP helicopters and small charter helicopters due to its short runway. To stimulate the increasing traffic, a second airport, Noida International Airport is being constructed to offset the load of Indira Gandhi International Airport.[19]

History Edit

Lockheed Hudson Mark VI of No. 194 Squadron RAF at RAF Station Palam

Palam Airport had a peak capacity of around 1,300 passengers per hour.[5] In 1979–80, a total of 30 lakh (3 million) domestic and international passengers flew into and out of Palam Airport.[20] Owing to an increase in air traffic in the 70s and the 80's, an additional terminal with nearly four times the area of the old Palam terminal was constructed. With the inauguration of this new international terminal, Terminal 2, on 2 May 1986, the airport was renamed as Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA).[5]

The old domestic airport (Palam) is known as Terminal 1 and was divided into separate buildings – 1A, 1B, and 1C. Blocks 1A and 1B were used to handle international operations while domestic operations took place in Block 1C. Block 1A and 1B later became dedicated terminals for domestic airlines and are currently closed down. It is planned that they will be demolished after the construction of newer terminals. Block 1C was also turned into a domestic arrivals terminal, and was rebuilt and opened on 24 February 2022. The newly constructed domestic departures block 1D is now used by all domestic low-cost airlines (IndiGo, and SpiceJet). There is also a separate technical area for VIP passengers. The domestic arrivals terminal 1C was demolished and rebuilt into a brand-new domestic arrivals terminal. For this expansion work, GoAir and select flights of IndiGo were moved to Terminal 2 as well as select flights of SpiceJet and IndiGo to Terminal 3.

In October 2001, Canada 3000 commenced a flight to Toronto using an Airbus A340.[21] This was the first nonstop service between India and North America.[22] Russia's decision to open its airspace after the Cold War allowed the airline to save time by flying a direct route over the Arctic.[23] Even though the 11 September attacks had precipitated a global decline in air travel, Canada 3000 was hoping that the service would help it improve its financial position.[21][24] Nevertheless, the company collapsed one month later.[25]

Significant growth in the Indian aviation industry led to a major increase in passenger traffic. The capacity of Terminal 1 was estimated to be 71.5 lakh (7.15 million) passengers per annum (mppa). The actual throughput for 2005/06 was an estimated 1.04 crore (10.4 million) passengers. Including the then closed down international terminal (Terminal 2), the airport had a total capacity of 1.25 crore (12.5 million) passengers per year, whereas the total passenger traffic in 2006/07 was 1.65 crore (16.5 million) passengers per year.[26] In 2008, the total passenger count at the airport reached 2.4 crore (23.97 million). To ease the traffic congestion on the existing terminals, a much larger Terminal 3 was constructed and inaugurated on 3 July 2010.[27] The new terminal's construction took 37 months for completion and this terminal increased the airport's total passenger capacity by 34 million.[27] Apart from the three budget domestic airlines handled by Terminals 1 and 2, all other airlines operate their flights from Terminal 3. In June 2022, Delhi International Airport became India's first to run entirely on Hydro Power and solar energy.[28]

Ownership Edit

On 31 January 2006, the aviation minister Praful Patel announced that the empowered Group of Ministers have agreed to sell the management-rights of Delhi Airport to the DIAL consortium and the Mumbai Airport to the GVK Group.[29] On 2 May 2006, the management of Delhi and Mumbai airports were handed over to the private consortia.[30] Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL) is a consortium of the GMR Group (54% (currently 64%)), Fraport (10%) and Malaysia Airports (10% (currently no share)),[31] and the Airports Authority of India retains a 26% stake.[32]

Nine years later, in May 2015, Malaysia Airports chose to exit from DIAL venture and sold its entire 10% stake to majority shareholder GMR Infra for $79 million. Following this GMR Group's stake at DIAL increased to 64%.[33] Earlier, GMR indicated that it was interested in buying out the 10% stake of Fraport.[34]

Facilities Edit

Runways Edit

Interior of the domestic departures terminal
Runways at IGI Airport
Runway Number Length Width Approach Lights/ILS[7][16]
11R/29L 4,430 m (14,530 ft) 60 m (200 ft) CAT III-B / CAT II
11L/29R 4,400 m (14,400 ft) 45 m (148 ft) CAT III-B / CAT II
10/28 3,813 m (12,510 ft) 46 m (151 ft) CAT I / CAT III-B
09/27 2,816 m (9,239 ft) 45 m (148 ft) CAT I / CAT I

Delhi Airport has four near-parallel runways: runway 11R/29L, 4,430 m × 60 m (14,530 ft × 200 ft), runway 11L/29R, 4,400 m × 45 m (14,436 ft × 148 ft), runway 10/28, 3,813 m × 46 m (12,510 ft × 151 ft), and runway 09/27, 2,816 m × 45 m (9,239 ft × 148 ft). The 09/27 runway of the Delhi Airport was the airport's first-ever runway; the British constructed the 2,816 metre-long and 60 metre-wide runway in the pre-independence era and used it during World War II.[35] In addition to Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport in Lucknow and Jaipur Airport in Jaipur, Delhi Airport is the only airport in India to have been equipped with the CAT III-B ILS, as of 2017.[36] In the winter of 2005, there were a record number of disruptions at Delhi Airport due to fog/smog. Since then some domestic airlines have trained their pilots to operate under CAT-II conditions of a minimum 350 m (1,150 ft) visibility. On 31 March 2006, IGI became the first Indian airport to operate two runways simultaneously following a test run involving a SpiceJet plane landing on runway 28 and a Jet Airways plane taking off from runway 27 at the same time.

The initially proposed mode involving simultaneous takeoffs in westerly flow to increase handling traffic capacity caused several near misses over the west side of the airport where the centrelines of runways 10/28 and 9/27 intersect.[37] The runway use was changed to segregate dependent mode on 25 December 2007, which was a few days after a near miss involving an Airbus A330-200 of Qatar Airways and an IndiGo A320 aircraft. The new method involved the use of runway 28 for all departures and runway 27 for all arrivals. This more streamlined model was adopted during day hours (– 2300 0600 – 2300 IST) until 24 September 2008.

On 21 August 2008, the airport inaugurated its third runway, 11R/29L, costing 1,000 crore[38] and 4,430 m (14,534 ft) long. The runway has one of the world's longest paved threshold displacements of 1,460 m (4,790 ft). This, in turn decreases the available landing length on runway 29L to 2,970 m (9,744 ft). The runway increases the airport's capacity to handle up to 100 flights from the previous 45–60 flights per hour. The new runway was opened for commercial operations on 25 September 2008 and gradually began full round-the-clock operations by the end of October of the same year.[39]

Since 2012, all three runways are operated simultaneously to handle traffic during day hours.[40] Only runways 11R/29L and 10/28 are operated during night (2300–0600 IST) hours with single runway landing restriction during westerly traffic flow that is rotated late night (0300 IST) and reversed weekly to distribute and mitigate night time landing noise over nearby residential areas.[41]

To cater for the demand of increasing air traffic, the master plan for the construction of a fourth parallel runway next to the existing runway 11R/29L had been cleared along with the Eastern Cross Taxiways (ECT), which will have two elevated parallel taxiways linking the northern part of the airport with the southern runways. It will be elevated as it will pass over the airport approach roads. It will be 2.1 km (1.3 mi) long and both the taxiways will be 44 m (144 ft) wide, with a 47 m (154 ft) wide gap separating the taxiways, making it capable of handling Airbus A380 and Boeing 747 type aircraft. It will help flights reducing duration to reach the southern runways from 9–10 minutes to only two minutes, as well as reducing pollution and traffic. The fourth runway and the ECT was inaugurated on 14 July 2023.[42][43][16]

Terminals Edit

Terminal 1D at Indira Gandhi International Airport

IGI Airport serves as a major hub or a focus destination for several Indian carriers including Air India, Alliance Air, IndiGo, SpiceJet, GoAir, and Vistara. Approximately 80 airlines serve this airport. At present, there are three actively scheduled passenger terminals, as well as a cargo terminal.

Recently, Delhi Airport operator DIAL has introduced an e-boarding facility for passengers at all the three terminals of the airport, by which all boarding gates will have contactless e-boarding gates with boarding card scanners, which will allow passengers to flash their physical or e-boarding cards to verify flight details in order to proceed for security checks.[44]

Domestic and international operations Edit

Terminal 3 is an integrated terminal used for both international and domestic flights. The Indian carriers operating international flights are Air India, IndiGo, SpiceJet, GoAir, and Vistara.

As far as domestic operations are concerned, Terminal 3 is used by Air India, AirAsia India, Vistara, and select flights of SpiceJet and IndiGo.

GoAir and select flights of IndiGo use Terminal 2 for their domestic operations.

Terminal 1 Edit

Terminal 1 is currently used by the low cost domestic carriers, such as SpiceJet and IndiGo. In 2022, Terminal 1D was fully expanded with an arrivals hall, with the goal of enhancing its annual passenger handling capacity from the previous 1.8 crore (18 million) to 3 crore (30 million).[45][46]

Terminal 1A

Terminal 1A was built in the late 1980s to cater to Indian Airlines (now absorbed into Air India). It had to be refurbished after a fire gutted the interiors and DIAL significantly upgraded the terminal. It was used by Air India for its Airbus operations until it shifted to the new Terminal 3 on 11 November 2010.[47] This terminal is now closed and is expected to be torn down on the completion of newer terminals.

Terminal 1B

Terminal 1B was also built in the late 1980s and was used only for domestic departures. Upon the opening of the new domestic departures Terminal 1D in 2009, Terminal 1B got closed and is also expected to be torn down on the completion of newer terminals.

Terminal 1C

Terminal 1C was also built in the late 1980s and was used only for domestic arrivals. The terminal has been upgraded with a newly expanded greeting area and a larger luggage reclaim area with eight belts. Terminal 1C was shut down, torn, and rebuilt into a brand new domestic arrivals hall on 24 February 2022.

Terminal 1D

Interior of Terminal 1D

Terminal 1D is the newly built domestic departures terminal with a total floor space of 53,000 m2 (570,000 sq ft) and has a capacity to handle 1.5 crore (15 million) passengers per year.[48] Terminal 1D commenced operations on 19 April 2009.[49] It has 72 Common Use Terminal Equipment (CUTE) enabled check-in counters, 16 self check-in counters, and 16 security channels.[49]

Terminal 2 Edit

Terminal 2 was opened on 1 May 1986, at a cost of 95 crores[5] and was used for international flights until July 2010 when operations shifted to Terminal 3. After this, the terminal remained operational for only three months per year catering to Hajj flights.[50] In 2017, after revamping Terminal 2 at a cost of 100 crores,[50] DIAL shifted all operations of GoAir and select operations of IndiGo to that terminal in order to continue expansion work of Terminal 1.[51][52]

Terminal 3 Edit

Sculptures in Terminal 3: Hindu solar deity Surya (upper left), Surya Namaskara asanas (upper right), and hasta mudras or hand gestures extending from a wall over the immigration counters (bottom)
Interior Terminal 3

Designed by HOK working in consultation with Mott MacDonald,[53] the new Terminal 3 is a two-tier building spread over an area of 54 lakh (5.4 million) square feet (approx 502,000 square metre ) making it the world's 8th largest terminal in the world, with the lower floor being the arrivals area, and the upper floor being a departures area. This terminal has 168 check-in counters, 78 aerobridges at 48 contact stands, 54 parking bays, 95 immigration counters, 18 X-ray screening areas, shorter waiting times, duty-free shops, and other features.[54][55] This new terminal was timed to be completed for the 2010 Commonwealth Games, which was held in Delhi and is connected to Delhi by an eight-lane Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway and the Delhi Metro through its Airport Express (Orange Line). The terminal was officially inaugurated on 3 July 2010. All international airlines shifted their operations to the new terminal in late July 2010 and all full service domestic carriers in November 2010. The arrival area is equipped with 14 baggage carousels. Terminal 3 has India's first automated parking management and guidance system in a multi level car park, which comprises seven levels and a capacity of 4,300 cars. Terminal 3 forms the first phase of the airport expansion which tentatively includes the construction of additional passenger & cargo terminals (Terminal 4, 5, and 6).[56]

Domestic full-service airlines operate from Terminal 3 including Air India, the national carrier. The Tata & Singapore Airlines airline joint-venture Vistara also operates from Terminal 3.[57] AirAsia India, although a low cost airline, also operates its domestic flights from this terminal. Some flights of SpiceJet and IndiGo were also shifted to Terminal 3 temporarily for the expansion of Terminal 1.

WorldMark is an upcoming mixed-use project in the Aerocity hospitality district near Terminal 3.[citation needed]

General Aviation Terminal Edit

India's first general aviation terminal was commissioned in this airport in September 2020. The terminal caters to support the movement and processing of passengers flying through chartered flights or private jets from the airport.[58][59]

Air cargo complex Edit

The air cargo complex is located at a distance of 1 km (0.62 mi) from Terminal 3. It consists of separate brownfield and greenfield cargo terminals.[60] The cargo operations at the brownfield terminal are managed by Celebi Delhi Cargo Management India Pvt. Ltd., which is a joint venture between Delhi International Airport Private Ltd (DIAL) and the Turkish company Celebi Ground Handling (CGH).[61] CGH was awarded the contract to develop, modernise, and finance the existing cargo terminal and to operate the terminal for a period of twenty-five years by DIAL in November 2009.[62] It started its operations in June 2010.[62] In addition to the existing terminal, a new greenfield terminal is being developed in phases by Delhi Cargo Service Centre (DCSC), also a joint venture between DIAL and Cargo Service Center (CSC).[62] The greenfield cargo terminal project consists of two terminals built over a plot of 48,000 square metres and 28,500 square metres, respectively. Phase 1A of the project has been completed and is fully operational.[60] Once the entire project is completed, these two new terminals will have an annual handling capacity of 12.5 lakh (1.25 million) tonnes.[62] The cargo operations of the airport received "e-Asia 2007" award in 2007 for "Implementation of e-Commerce / Electronic Data Interchange in Air Cargo Sector".[63]

Airlines and destinations Edit

Passenger Edit

Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo[64]
Aero Nomad Airlines Bishkek[65]
Air Arabia Sharjah[66]
Air Astana Almaty[67]
Air Canada Montréal–Trudeau, Toronto–Pearson[68]
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle
Air India Agartala, Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Amsterdam,[69] Aurangabad, Bahrain, Bangalore, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Bhopal, Birmingham, Chennai, Chicago–O'Hare, Coimbatore, Colombo–Bandaranaike, Copenhagen,[70] Dammam, Dhaka,[71] Doha, Dubai–International, Frankfurt, Goa–Dabolim, Guwahati, Hong Kong,[72] Hyderabad, Imphal, Indore, Jammu, Jodhpur, Kathmandu, Kochi, Kolkata, Kuwait City, Leh, London–Heathrow, Lucknow, Melbourne, Milan–Malpensa,[73] Mumbai, Muscat, Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta,[74] New York–JFK, Newark, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Patna, Port Blair, Pune, Rajkot,[75] Riyadh, San Francisco, Seoul–Incheon, Singapore, Srinagar, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Thiruvananthapuram, Tirupati, Tokyo–Narita, Toronto–Pearson, Udaipur, Vadodara, Vancouver, Varanasi, Vienna,[76] Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Washington–Dulles, Yangon
Air India Express Sharjah
AIX Connect Bagdogra, Bangalore, Bhubaneswar, Goa–Dabolim, Guwahati, Imphal, Jaipur, Kochi, Lucknow,[77] Mumbai, Pune, Ranchi, Srinagar, Surat[78]
Air Mauritius Mauritius[79]
AirAsia X Kuala Lumpur–International[80]
Akasa Air[81] Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Goa–Mopa, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Pune
Alliance Air[82] Amritsar,[83] Bareilly, Bathinda (resumes 9 October 2023),[84] Bikaner (resumes 6 October 2023),[85] Bilaspur, Chandigarh, Dehradun, Dharamshala, Gorakhpur, Indore,[86] Jabalpur, Jaipur, Jammu, Kolkata (resumes 2 October 2023),[citation needed] Kullu, Prayagraj, Shimla,[87] Udaipur
Seasonal: Jaisalmer[88]
All Nippon Airways Tokyo–Haneda[89]
American Airlines New York–JFK[90]
Ariana Afghan Airlines Kabul[91]
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Incheon[92]
Azerbaijan Airlines Baku
Batik Air Malaysia Kuala Lumpur–International
Belavia Minsk[93]
Bhutan Airlines Paro[94]
Biman Bangladesh Airlines Dhaka[95]
British Airways London–Heathrow[96]
Cambodia Angkor Air Phnom Penh (begins 29 October 2023)[97]
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong[98]
Drukair[99] Kathmandu, Paro
El AlTel Aviv (resumes 29 October 2023)[101]
Emirates Dubai–International[102]
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa[96]
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi
Finnair Helsinki[103]
Fly Baghdad[104] Seasonal: Baghdad, Najaf
FlyArystan Almaty,[105] Şymkent[106]
flydubai Dubai–International[107]
Flynas Riyadh[108]
Gulf Air Bahrain[109]
IndiGo[110][111] Abu Dhabi, Ahmedabad, Aizawl, Almaty,[112] Amritsar, Aurangabad, Bagdogra, Baku,[113] Bangalore, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi,[114] Belgaum (begins 5 October 2023),[115] Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Chandigarh, Chennai, Coimbatore, Colombo–Bandaranaike, Dammam, Dehradun, Deoghar,[116] Dhaka, Dharamshala,[117] Dibrugarh, Dimapur, Doha, Dubai–International, Durgapur, Gaya, Goa–Dabolim, Goa–Mopa,[118] Gorakhpur, Guwahati, Hong Kong (begins 5 October 2023),[119] Hubli,[120] Hyderabad, Imphal, Indore, Istanbul, Itanagar (begins 2 October 2023),[121] Jabalpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer (begins 12 October 2023),[122] Jammu, Jeddah, Jodhpur, Jorhat, Kanpur,[123] Kathmandu, Khajuraho (begins 10 October 2023),[124] Kochi, Kolkata, Kozhikode, Kuwait City, Leh, Lucknow, Madurai, Malé (resumes 1 November 2023),[125] Mangalore, Mumbai, Muscat, Nagpur, Nashik (begins 29 October 2023),[126] Pantnagar,[127] Patna, Phuket, Port Blair, Prayagraj, Pune, Raipur, Rajkot,[75] Ranchi, Riyadh, Sharjah, Singapore,[128] Srinagar, Surat, Tashkent,[112] Tbilisi,[129] Thiruvananthapuram, Tiruchirappalli, Tirupati, Udaipur, Vadodara, Varanasi, Visakhapatnam
Iraqi Airways[130] Baghdad, Basra
ITA Airways Rome–Fiumicino[131]
Japan Airlines Tokyo–Haneda[96]
Jazeera Airways Kuwait City[132]
Kam Air Kabul[133]
KLM Amsterdam[96]
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon[134]
Kuwait Airways Kuwait City[96]
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw–Chopin[135]
Lufthansa[136] Frankfurt,[137] Munich
Mahan Air Tehran–Imam Khomeini[138]
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur–International[139]
Myanmar Airways International Yangon[140]
Nepal Airlines Kathmandu[141]
Oman Air Muscat[142]
Qantas Melbourne[143]
Qatar Airways Doha[144]
Saudia Jeddah, Riyadh
Singapore Airlines Singapore[145]
Somon Air Dushanbe
SpiceJet[146] Ahmedabad, Bagdogra, Bangalore, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Chennai, Darbhanga, Dharamshala, Dubai–International, Goa–Dabolim, Goa–Mopa, Gorakhpur, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jammu, Jeddah, Jharsuguda, Kandla, Kanpur (resumes 29 October 2023),[147] Khajuraho, Kolkata, Kushinagar, Leh, Mumbai, Pakyong,[148] Patna, Pune, Shillong,[149] Shirdi, Srinagar, Varanasi
Seasonal: Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Udaipur
SriLankan Airlines Colombo–Bandaranaike[150]
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich[151]
Thai Airways International Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi[152]
Turkish Airlines Istanbul[153]
Turkmenistan Airlines Ashgabat[154]
United Airlines Newark
Uzbekistan Airways Tashkent[155]
VietJet Air Hanoi,[156] Ho Chi Minh City
Seasonal: Da Nang,[156] Phu Quoc[157]
Vietnam Airlines Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City[158]
Virgin Atlantic London–Heathrow[159]
Vistara[160][161] Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Bagdogra, Bangalore, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Bhubaneswar, Chandigarh, Chennai, Coimbatore,[162] Dehradun, Dhaka, Dibrugarh, Frankfurt, Goa–Dabolim, Goa–Mopa,[163] Guwahati, Hong Kong (begins 29 October 2023),[164] Hyderabad, Indore, Jammu, Kathmandu, Kochi, Kolkata, Leh, London–Heathrow, Lucknow, Malé (begins 1 October 2023),[165] Mumbai, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Patna, Port Blair, Pune, Raipur, Ranchi, Singapore, Srinagar, Thiruvananthapuram, Udaipur, Varanasi

Cargo Edit

AeroLogic Leipzig/Halle
Aerotranscargo Brisbane, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Melbourne[166]
Amazon Air Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai[167]
Astral Aviation Hong Kong, Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta, Sharjah[168]
Atlas Air Hanoi, Hong Kong, Riyadh, Seoul–Incheon, Zaragoza[169]
Blue Dart Aviation Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai[170]
Cathay Cargo Bangalore, Hong Kong, Hyderabad, London–Heathrow, Milan–Malpensa, Paris–Charles de Gaulle[171][172]
China Airlines Cargo Luxembourg, Taipei–Taoyuan[173][174]
DHL Aviation Hong Kong, Leipzig/Halle[175]
Ethiopian Airlines Cargo Addis Ababa, Chongqing [176]
FedEx Express Chengdu–Shuangliu, Dubai–International, Guangzhou, Memphis[177]
IndiGo CarGo Bangalore,[178] Kolkata, Mumbai, Sharjah[179]
Korean Air Cargo Hanoi, Seoul–Incheon, Vienna[180]
Lufthansa Cargo Frankfurt, Dhaka, Guangzhou, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Krasnoyarsk[181]
MASkargo Chennai, Kuala Lumpur–International [182][183]
Qatar Airways Cargo Doha[184]
SF Airlines Chengdu–Shuangliu, Ezhou, Shenzhen, Wuhan [185][186]
Sichuan Airlines Chengdu–Tianfu [187]
Singapore Airlines Cargo Singapore
SpiceXpress Hanoi, Leh,[188] Kolkata, Mumbai [189]
Turkish Cargo Hanoi, Istanbul[190]
UPS Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Cologne/Bonn, Dubai–International [191]
YTO Cargo Airlines Guangzhou, Nanning [192]

Statistics Edit

Annual passenger traffic at DEL airport. See Wikidata query.

Connectivity Edit

Delhi Metro Airport Express Train
Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway

Railways Edit

The nearest railway station is the Palam railway station, located 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi) and 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from Terminals 1 and 3 respectively. Several passenger trains run regularly between these stations. Shahabad Mohammadpur railway station is equally close.[193][194]

Terminals 2 and 3 of the airport are served by the IGI Airport metro station on Airport Express (Orange Line) of Delhi Metro. The 22.7 km (14.1 mi) line runs from Dwarka Sector 21 to the New Delhi metro station with trains running every 10 minutes.[195] Terminal 1 is served by the Terminal 1-IGI Airport metro station on the Magenta Line.[196]

Roadways Edit

The airport is connected by the 8-lane Delhi–Gurgaon Expressway, the busiest inter-city route in India.[197] Air conditioned low-floor buses operated by Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) regularly run between the airport and the city. Metered taxis are also available from Terminals 1 and 3 to all areas of Delhi.[198]

Awards Edit

In 2010, IGIA was conferred the fourth best airport award in the world in the 1.5–2.5 crore (15–25 million) category, and Most Improved Airport in the Indo-Pacific Region by Airports Council International.[199] The airport was rated as the Best Airport in the world in the 2.5–4 crore (25–40 million) passengers category in 2015, by Airports Council International.[200][201] It was awarded The Best Airport in Central Asia and Best Airport Staff in Central Asia at the Skytrax World Airport Awards 2015.[202] It also stood first in the new rankings for 2015 Airport Service Quality (ASQ) Awards conducted by Airports Council International.[203]

The airport, along with Mumbai Airport, was adjudged as the "World's Best Airport" at the Airport Service Quality Awards 2017, in the highest category of airports handling more than 4 crore (40 million) passengers annually.[204] The airport was awarded the "best airport" in Asia-Pacific in 2020 (over 4 crore (40 million) passengers per annum) by the Airports Council International.[205] In 2023, the airport was awarded as the Cleanest Airport in the Asia-Pacific Region and also stood first again in the rankings for 2022 Airport Service Quality (ASQ) Awards in the category of over 4 crore (40 million) passengers per annum, conducted by Airports Council International.[206]

Future expansion Edit

The newer domestic arrivals and departures terminals 1C and 1D, respectively, will be connected and expanded into a singular domestic terminal which will be known as simply, Terminal 1.

Terminals 4, 5, and 6 will be built at a later stage, which will be triggered by growth in passenger traffic. Once completed, all international flights will move to these three new terminals. Terminal 3 will then be solely used for handling domestic air traffic. A new cargo handling building is also planned. According to Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL), these new terminals will increase the airport's annual passenger volume capacity to 10 crore (100 million).[56]

DIAL submitted a plan in 2016 to the then aviation secretary R N Choubey regarding the expansion of the airport with a new fourth runway and Terminal 4 in a phased manner.[45] The Master Plan of Airport in 2016 was then reviewed and updated by DIAL in consultation with the Airports Authority of India.[207] The terminal construction will start after the fourth runway is completed and Terminal 1 is expanded.[45]

Accidents and incidents Edit

  • 1970: The pilot of a Royal Nepal Airlines Fokker F27-200 (9N-AAR) lost control due to severe thunderstorms and downdrafts, crashing just short of the runway. The plane was landing after a flight from Kathmandu, Nepal. Of the five crew and 18 passengers, one crew member was killed.[208]
  • 1972: Japan Airlines Flight 471 crashed outside of Palam Airport, killing 82 of 87 occupants; ten of eleven crew members and 72 of 76 passengers died, as did three people on the ground.[209]
  • 1973: Indian Airlines Flight 440 crashed while on approach to Palam Airport, killing 48 of the 65 passengers and crew on board.[210][211]
  • 1990: An Air India Boeing 747 flying on the London-Delhi-Mumbai route and carrying 215 people (195 passengers and 20 crew) touched down at Indira Gandhi International Airport after a flight from London Heathrow Airport. On application of reverse thrust, a failure of the no. 1 engine pylon to wing attachment caused this engine to tilt nose down. Hot exhaust gases caused a fire on the left-wing. There were no casualties but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair and written off.[212]
  • 1993: An Uzbekistan Airlines Tupolev Tu-154 that had been leased by Indian Airlines due to an ongoing pilot strike flipped over and caught fire while landing in bad weather. There were no fatalities, but the aircraft was destroyed by a post-crash fire.[213]
  • 1994: A Sahara Airlines Boeing 737-2R4C (registered VT-SIA) crashed while performing a training flight killing all four people on board and one person on the ground.[214] Wreckage struck an Aeroflot Ilyushin-86 (registered RA-86119) parked nearby, killing four people inside.[215]
  • 1995: Indian Airlines Flight 492 (IC 492), a Boeing 737-2A8 (Registered VT-ECS), was damaged beyond repair when the aircraft overshot the runway at Delhi Airport due to pilots error, on its scheduled flight from Jaipur to Delhi.[216]
  • 1996: The airport was involved in the Charkhi Dadri mid-air collision when a Saudia Boeing 747-100B, climbing out after take-off, collided with an incoming Kazakhstan Airlines Ilyushin Il-76 chartered by a fashion company, causing the deaths of all 349 people on board the two planes.[217]
  • In December 1999, Indian Airlines Flight 814 bound for Delhi was hijacked. The plane was taken to Pakistan, Afghanistan and the UAE. After the turn of the millennium, the plane was allowed to go back to Delhi. One passenger was killed.

See also Edit

References Edit

Citations Edit

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External links Edit

  This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency.
  Media related to Indira Gandhi International Airport at Wikimedia Commons