United Airlines, Inc. (commonly referred to as United) is a major American airline headquartered at Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois. United operates a large domestic and international route network spanning cities large and small across the United States and all six continents. Measured by fleet size and the number of routes, it is the third largest airline in the world. It is a founding member of the Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance with a total of 28 member airlines. Regional service is operated by independent carriers under the brand name United Express. United was established by the amalgamation of several airlines in the late 1920s, the oldest of these being Varney Air Lines, which was founded in 1926.
|Founded||April 6, 1926Varney Air Lines)(as|
|Commenced operations||March 28, 1931|
|Parent company||United Airlines Holdings|
|Headquarters||Willis Tower, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.|
|Revenue||$43.259 billion (2019)|
|Operating income||$4.301 billion (2019)|
|Net income||$3.009 billion (2019)|
|Total assets||$52.611 billion (2019)|
|Total equity||$11.531 billion (2019)|
|Employees||~96,000 (December 2019)|
United traces its roots to Varney Air Lines (VAL), which Walter Varney founded in 1926 in Boise, Idaho. Continental Airlines is the successor to Speed Lanes, which Varney had founded by 1932 and whose name changed to Varney Speed Lines in 1934. VAL flew the first privately contracted air mail flight in the U.S. on April 6, 1926.
In 1927, William Boeing founded Boeing Air Transport to operate air mail routes under contract with the United States Post Office Department. In 1929, Boeing merged his company with Pratt & Whitney to form the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation (UATC) which then set about buying, in the space of just 28 months, Pacific Air Transport, Stout Air Services, VAL, and National Air Transport, as well as numerous equipment manufacturers at the same time. On March 28, 1931, UATC formed United Air Lines, Inc. as a holding company for its airline subsidiaries.
In late 2006, Continental Airlines and United had preliminary merger discussions. On April 16, 2010, those discussions resumed. The board of directors of Continental and UAL Corporation agreed on May 2, 2010, to combine operations, contingent upon shareholder and regulatory approval. On October 1, 2010, the UAL Corporation changed its name to United Continental Holdings, Inc. The carriers planned to begin merging their operations in 2011. The merged airline began operating under a single air operator's certificate from the Federal Aviation Administration on November 30, 2011. On March 3, 2012, United and Continental merged their passenger service systems, frequent-flier programs, and websites, which virtually eliminated the Continental brand with the exception of its logo. On June 27, 2019, the parent company's name changed from United Continental Holdings to United Airlines Holdings. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, in July 2020, United announced that will be sending lay-off notice warnings to 36,000 employees including, 15,100 flight attendants, 11,000 in airport operations and 2,250 pilots among others. On September 2, 2020, United Airlines, in a new memo to its employees, indicated that they planned to cut 16,370 jobs in nearly a month. The planned involuntary cuts included 6,920 flight attendants, 2,850 pilots, 1,400 management jobs, 2,010 mechanics and 2,260 in airport operations, among others.
Ownership and structure
United Airlines, Inc. is publicly traded through its parent company, United Airlines Holdings. Inc, which is a Delaware corporation, on the New York Stock Exchange NYSE: UAL, with a market capitalization of over US$21 billion as of January 2018. United's operating revenues and operating expenses comprise nearly 100% of the holding company's revenues and operating expenses.
The key trends for the United Airlines Holdings, Inc. group (formerly the United Continental Holdings, Inc. group), including its consolidated subsidiaries, are (years ending December 31):
|Net profit after tax ($m)||−723||571||1,132||7,340||2,234||2,144||2,129|
|Number of employees (average FTE)(000s)||84.6||84.2||82.0||82.1||83.9||86.0||86.6|
|Number of passengers (m)||140.4||139.2||138.0||140.4||143.2||148.1||158.3|
|Passenger load factor (%)||82.6||83.6||83.6||83.4||82.9||82.4||83.6|
|Number of aircraft (at year end)||1,253||1,265||1,257||1,239||1,231||1,263||1,329|
Headquarters and other facilities
In 2007, United had moved its headquarters from Elk Grove Township, a suburb of Chicago, to 77 West Wacker Drive in the Chicago Loop after receiving US$5.5 million in incentives from the City of Chicago.
Then in 2010, United accepted the City of Chicago's offer of US$35 million in incentives, including a US$10 million grant, for United to move its remaining 2,500 employees out of Elk Grove Township to the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) in the Chicago Loop. On May 31, 2012, United opened its operations center, which occupied twelve floors there. In 2019 United renewed its lease at Willis Tower, originally ending in 2028 and now set to expire in 2033, and plans to construct a roof deck and a 30,000 sq ft (2,800 m2) dining hall on the fourth floor.
The former headquarters campus at Elk Grove Township was gradually annexed into the Village of Mount Prospect, and serves as an IT operations facility, with a new 172,000 sq ft (16,000 m2) data center constructed in 2013.
United maintains a large presence in downtown Houston, having leased 225,000 sq ft (20,900 m2) of space (seven floors) for occupancy in 2017.
United has training facilities for its flight crews in Denver and Houston, a major aircraft maintenance center in San Francisco, and call centers in Houston and Chicago.
The pre-merger United logo, commonly nicknamed the "tulip", was developed in the early 1970s by the designer Saul Bass as part of a new brand image. The logo represented the airline's monogram as well as a modernized version of the airline's shield logo which had been adopted in the 1930s, but fell out of use by the late 1960s. The ribbon-like rendering has also been said to symbolize the motion of flight.
United's earliest slogan, "The Main Line Airway", emphasized its signature New York-Chicago-San Francisco route, and was replaced in 1965 with "Fly the Friendly Skies", which was in use until 1996 in its first iteration. The "It's time to fly" slogan was created in 2004. After the merger of United and Continental in October 2010, the slogan changed to "Let's fly together" until September 2013, when United announced a return of the "Fly the Friendly Skies" slogan in an ad campaign to start the following day. The resurrected slogan would be accompanied by the 1924 George Gershwin song "Rhapsody in Blue" as its theme song, and a voiceover provided by Matt Damon.
United had licensed its theme song, "Rhapsody in Blue", from Gershwin's estate for US$500,000 (equivalent to $2,246,491 in 2019) in 1976. "Rhapsody" would have entered the public domain in 2000, but the Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 extended its copyright another 20 years until January 1, 2020 when it officially entered on the Public Domain. United announced that it would continue to use "Rhapsody in Blue" as its theme song following the merger with Continental.
Because over 98 percent of United's greenhouse gas emissions are from jet fuel, its environmental strategy has focused on operational fuel efficiency initiatives and investments in sustainably produced, low-carbon alternative fuels.
On August 23, 2011, United Continental Holdings, Inc. announced a conversion to paperless flight decks and projected that by the end of the year, 11,000 iPads will have been deployed to all United and Continental pilots. Each iPad, which weighs less than 1.5 pounds (0.68 kg), will replace approximately 38 pounds (17 kg) of paper operating manuals, navigation charts, reference handbooks, flight checklists, logbooks, and weather information. The green benefits include reductions in paper use, printing, and fuel consumption.
On November 7, 2011, United flew the world's first commercial aviation flight on a microbially-derived biofuel. The aircraft was fueled with 40 percent Solajet, which is Solazyme's algae-derived renewable jet fuel, and 60 percent petroleum-derived jet fuel. This flight was operated by the Eco-Skies Boeing 737-800 aircraft from Houston to Chicago-O'Hare.
On January 15, 2013, Aviation Partners Boeing (APB), a joint venture between Aviation Partners Inc. and Boeing, announced that United had agreed to replace the Blended Winglets on its Boeing Next Generation 737 aircraft with APB's Split Scimitar Winglet (SSW), significantly reducing drag. Once the SSWs are installed, it is estimated that APB's winglet technology will save United more than $250 million annually in fuel costs.
On June 30, 2015, United invested US$30 million in Fulcrum BioEnergy, an alternative fuel company. Fulcrum's alternative fuel is produced through a clean and efficient thermochemical process and reduces lifecycle carbon emissions by more than 80 percent. As part of its investment, United will work with Fulcrum to develop up to five alternative fuel refineries near its U.S. hubs. These refineries will produce up to 180 million gallons of sustainable aviation alternative fuel per year, and United will have the opportunity to purchase at least 90 million gallons per year for a minimum of 10 years, making it the largest aviation alternative fuel commitment to date.
On March 11, 2016, United became the first airline in the world to fly on commercial-scale quantities of such fuels on a continuous basis, which were procured from AltAir Fuels. This fuel was produced from sustainable feedstocks such as non-edible natural oils and agricultural wastes and is expected to provide a greater than 60 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions on a lifecycle basis when compared to traditional jet fuel. United has agreed to purchase up to 15 million gallons of sustainable alternative fuel from AltAir Fuels for use in Los Angeles over a three-year period.
In 2016, United began partnering with Clean the World to repurpose items from the airline's international premium class amenity kits and donate the hygiene products to those in critical need. Clean the World provides hygiene education and soap to promote handwashing, which helps prevent hygiene-related deaths. During the first year of this partnership, United expected to divert 60,000 pounds (27,200 kg) of material that otherwise would have gone to landfills.
In 2017 United started a partnership with Audubon International to protect raptors—including hawks, ospreys and owls—in and around New York-area airports and resettle the birds-of-prey at suitable golf course habitats where the species are more likely to thrive.
All United Airlines pilots are represented by the Air Line Pilots Association. A new Joint Collective Bargaining Agreement was ratified by a majority of the United/Continental pilots on December 15, 2012, which struck down a scope clause that disallowed Continental from outsourcing the flying of regional jets with 70 or more passenger seats.
United operates to 238 domestic destinations and 118 international destinations in 48 countries or regions across five continents.. By spring 2021, United will once again fly regularly to all 6 inhabited continents following the reinstatement of scheduled year-round flights to Africa (Accra, Johannesburg and Lagos).
- Chicago–O'Hare – United's hub for the Midwest and largest hub overall. United flies approximately 36 million passengers through ORD every year, which is about 99,000 people per day, making United also the busiest airline at the airport. United's corporate headquarters are also in Chicago.
- Denver – United's hub for the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. In 2017, United flew approximately 25.9 million passengers through DIA or about 71,000 people per day. As of December 2017, United has about 42% of the market share at DIA making it the airport's largest airline.
- Guam - Inherited through the merger with Continental Airlines, Guam serves as United's hub for flight routes in the Pacific region. United has about 98.8% of the market share at Guam International, making it by far the largest airline at the airport. About 313,000 passengers flew through GUM between June 2018 and May 2019 on United, which is about 858 people per day.
- Houston–Intercontinental – Inherited through the merger with Continental Airlines, Houston serves as United's hub for the Southern United States. IAH is the primary gateway to Latin America. About 33.5 million passengers fly through Houston on United every year, or about 91,000 people per day. United currently has about 78% of the seat share at IAH, making it the airport's largest tenant.
- Los Angeles – United's secondary hub for the West Coast and gateway to Asia and Australia. About 10 million passengers fly through LAX on United every year or about 28,000 people per day. United has 15% of the market share at LAX, making it the third-biggest carrier at the airport.
- Newark – Inherited through the merger with Continental Airlines, Newark is United's primary hub for the New York City market and the Eastern Coast of the United States. EWR is United's primary gateway to Europe while including other select flights to Latin America and Asia. About 28.5 million passengers fly on United through Newark every year, or about 78,000 people per day. United controls about 81% of the slots at Newark and carries about 68% of all passengers at the airport. United controls all of Terminal C and also uses part of Terminal A for United Express.
- San Francisco – United's primary hub for the West Coast and gateway to Asia and Australia. About 22 million passengers pass through SFO every year on United, which is about 60,000 people per day. United has about 46% of the market share at San Francisco International, making it the biggest airline at the airport.
- Washington–Dulles – United's hub for the capital of the United States. United has about 65% of the market share at Washington Dulles, making it the largest airline at the airport. About 14 million passengers fly through IAD every year on United, which is about 38,465 people per day.
As of 11 June 2020, its subsidiary, United Cargo, has expanded its cargo-only flights to include Dublin, Paris, Rome, Santiago and Zurich.
United Airlines has been a member of the Star Alliance since the company was a co-founder in 1997.
- Aer Lingus
- Air Canada
- Air China
- Air India
- Air Dolomiti
- Air New Zealand
- All Nippon Airways
- Asiana Airlines
- Austrian Airlines
- Azul Brazilian Airlines
- Boutique Air
- Brussels Airlines
- Cape Air
- Copa Airlines
- Croatia Airlines
- Ethiopian Airlines
- EVA Air
- Hawaiian Airlines
- Island Air
- LOT Polish Airlines
- Scandinavian Airlines
- Silver Airways
- Singapore Airlines
- South African Airways
- Swiss International Air Lines
- TAP Air Portugal
- Turkish Airlines
In addition to the above codeshares, United has also entered into joint ventures with the following airlines:
On July 20, 2011, American Airlines announced an order for 460 narrowbody jets, including 260 Airbus A320s. The order broke Boeing's monopoly with the airline and forced Boeing to proceed with plans for the re-engined 737 MAX. The contract with American included a Most-Favoured-Customer Clause, which requires Airbus to refund to American any difference between the price paid by American and the price paid by United or another airline, if lower. The clause acts to perpetuate United having a Boeing-skewed fleet.
On September 22, 2012, United became the first American airline to take delivery of Boeing 787 aircraft. United is also the North American launch customer for the Boeing 787-9 and 787-10 aircraft, which are stretched versions of the base 787-8 model, delivered at launch.
In May 2018, United planned to replace its 51 Boeing 767s in a deal potentially worth $14 billion at list prices, and was in talks with both Airbus and Boeing, for their A330neo and 787. United operates 128 757s and 767s (77 B757s and 51 B767s), the second-largest combined fleet after Delta Air Lines with 206 (127 757s and 79 767s). Both have to replace them; they could be replaced by 737 MAX 10s, A321neos, Boeing NMAs, 787-8s or A330-800neos.
United Polaris Business
On June 2, 2016, United introduced its new, redesigned international business class seat that will replace current business class seats. The Polaris seat converts into a 6' 6" flatbed in a 1-2-1 configuration or a 1-1-1 configuration, providing all-aisle access for every seat. The seat boasts multiple storage areas, mood lighting, multiple charging ports, lumbar support, and improved dining and amenity services.
United Polaris Business passengers check-in at separate counters and can use priority security screening where available. In-flight services include pre-departure beverages, table linens and multi-course meals designed in partnership with Charlie Trotter-affiliated chefs via the airline's partnership with the Trotter Project. Passengers are also given priority with boarding and baggage handling and access to the United Polaris Lounge where available, as well as the United Club and partner airline lounges. All Polaris Business seats recline 180 degrees into a full flatbed, all seats face forward.
Other domestic routes, especially hub-to-hub service and certain non "United p.s." transcontinental flights, may see internationally configured aircraft with United Polaris Business seating for operational reasons (such as transferring international aircraft from one hub to another or high demand). While the physical seats and entertainment are the same as on international flights, the service, catering and other amenities are the same as in domestic first class. Unlike routes marketed as United Business, these flights are eligible for complimentary premier upgrades.
United Premium Plus
United Premium Plus is United's premium economy product, that is being retrofitted on wide-body international aircraft. United Premium Plus seating offers more space, comfort and amenities compared to United Economy or Economy Plus, and offers upgraded dining on china dinnerware, free alcoholic beverages, a Saks Fifth Avenue blanket and pillow, an amenity kit and more. The first aircraft with these seats was flying at mid-2018, and the full service launched in 2019. During the interim period, these seats were sold as part of Economy Plus.
Domestic routes, especially hub-to-hub service may see internationally configured aircraft with United Premium Plus seating for operational reasons. Premium Plus seats are sold as an Economy Plus seat. While the physical seats and entertainment are the same as on international flights, the service catering and other amenities are the same as in Economy Plus.
United premium transcontinental service
United premium transcontinental service is offered on transcontinental flights between Newark and Los Angeles or San Francisco and between Boston and San Francisco. Previously branded as p.s. (short for "Premium Service") when initially launched in 2004, through 2017, these flights utilize primarily Boeing 757-200s, with 180-degrees-flat Business class seats. The premium cabin also features international style catering, while all seats have access to inflight wi-fi, on-demand entertainment, and power outlets. Business-class passengers also have access to the United Club at Newark, Boston, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.
All premium transcontinental flights were moved from New York JFK to Newark Liberty Airport on October 25, 2015.
These routes are not eligible for Complimentary Premier upgrades, although MileagePlus members can upgrade using Regional Premier Upgrades, Global Premier Upgrades, or MileagePlus award miles.
United First and United Business
United First is offered on all domestically configured aircraft. When such aircraft are used on international services such as services to Canada, Central America and the Caribbean destinations, this cabin is branded as United Business. United First seats on narrowbody aircraft have a 38-inch (97 cm) seat pitch, while United First seats on re-configured domestic Boeing 777-200 aircraft feature fully flat bed seats. Passengers receive priority boarding and baggage handling, pre-departure beverages, complimentary meals and separate check-in desks.
In 2015, United released its new domestic first class seat design. The new leather seats feature cradling headrests, granite cocktail tables, and a tablet stand. These seats debuted on Airbus A319 and Airbus A320 aircraft, and will eventually be installed on all domestic aircraft.
In 2019, It was announced that United is increasing first and business class seats "by 1,600" across all their aircraft in their fleet, to include the Bombardier CRJ550 for which United is the "launch customer" of.
United Economy Plus is available on all aircraft. Economy Plus seats are located in the front few rows and exit rows of the economy cabin and have 2 inches (5.1 cm) more recline and at least 5 to 6 inches (13 to 15 cm) of additional seat pitch totaling 4 to 7 inches (10 to 18 cm) of recline (aircraft dependent) and 35 to 37 inches (89 to 94 cm) of pitch. Economy Plus is complimentary for all MileagePlus Premier members. Premier 1K, Platinum and Gold members may select an Economy Plus seat when booking, while silver members can select an Economy Plus seat at check-in. It can also be purchased depending upon availability by other passengers.
Prior to the merger between United and Continental, United Airlines aircraft offered Economy Plus, while Continental did not. Following the merger, Economy Plus was rolled out across the combined fleet.
United Economy is available on all aircraft, and usually have a pitch of 31 inches (30 inches on aircraft refurbished with Slimline seats, and 32 inches on Boeing 787s) and a recline of 2–5 inches. All economy seats feature an adjustable headrest and some form of entertainment, ranging from AVOD, inflight wi-fi, personal device entertainment, or DirecTV. Economy seats on Boeing 767, Boeing 777 (except domestic 777-200s), Boeing 787, and 757-200 aircraft feature a personal 7-inch (18 cm) touchscreen television at the back of each seat with United Private Screening. On Airbus A319, A320, Boeing 737, Boeing 757-300, and domestically configured Boeing 777 aircraft feature personal device entertainment and WiFi. Some Boeing 737 aircraft feature DirecTV. In April 2018, United upgraded all aircraft with over 70 seats to include Wi-Fi and personal device entertainment even with DirecTV equipped.
Food and snacks are available for purchase on domestic, Caribbean, and some Latin America flights. These include snacks, fresh meals, and snack boxes, depending on flight time and distance. Meals are complimentary on all other international flights. Beverages and small snacks are complimentary in economy class on North America flights. Alcoholic beverages are available for purchase on North America flights, but are complimentary on long-haul international flights. On flights where meals are served, a cocktail snack with a beverage is served shortly after takeoff, followed by a main course and dessert. Longer international flights feature a pre-arrival meal, which usually consists of a light breakfast or snack.
Basic Economy is available on select routes and in addition to standard fares. Intended to be United's lowest fare, Basic Economy fares provide most of the same inflight services and amenities with standard United Economy Class. With Basic Economy, group/family seating, seat selection/upgrades and bringing full-sized carry-on bags are not allowed. When booking online, it is clearly marked - with a user prompt to confirm the user is booking a Basic Economy fare. Users also have the option to pay a small fee to upgrade their booking to a regular Economy. Also, certain MileagePlus and Premier member benefits are not available.
United Club is the airline lounge associated with United Airlines and United Express carriers. The United Club replaced the former United Red Carpet Club and Continental Airlines Presidents Club prior to United Airlines' merger with Continental.
Concerns and conflicts
In 2013, after pressure from PETA, United announced that it would no longer transport monkeys to laboratories. United was the last North American passenger airline to transport these animals to laboratories. United flies more animals and has longer flight stage length than any other US airline, and accounted for one third of animal deaths of US airlines between 2012 and 2017.
Effective March 20, 2018, the PetSafe program was suspended with no new reservations for cargo transport of pets accepted. This came after United announced plans to mark pet carriers in the passenger cabin with bright tags and legislation was introduced in the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate banning the placement of pets in overhead compartments. This was in response to a dog death after a passenger placed it in the overhead compartment following flight attendant instructions, but the flight attendant denied knowing that the luggage contained a dog.
Cyber security issues
United awarded airline miles as "bug bounties" to hackers who could identify gaps in the carrier's web security. Two hackers have each been rewarded with 1 million miles of air travel as of July 15, 2015. This cybersecurity program was announced a few weeks after the company experienced two software glitches. The first incident delayed 150 United flights on June 2 due to a problem with its flight dispatching system. Six days later, United's reservation system delayed flights by not allowing passengers to check-in. In addition to the "bug bounty" program, United said it tests systems internally and engages cybersecurity firms.
In February 2019, privacy concerns arose after it emerged that United had installed cameras in some seat backs. United said that the cameras were "not activated", but journalists reported that malicious hackers could still potentially enable the cameras to spy on passengers.
Accidents and incidents
|1930s||NC13304||NC13357||Flight 6||Flight 4||NC13323||NC13355|
|1940s||41-24027||Flight 521||Flight 608||Flight 624|
|1950s||Flight 129||Flight 610||Flight 615||Flight 409||Flight 629||Flight 718||Flight 736|
|1960s||Flight 826||Flight 859||Flight 297||Flight 823||Flight 389||Flight 227||Flight 266|
|1970s||Flight 553||Flight 2860||Flight 696||Flight 173|
|1980s||Flight 811||Flight 232||Flight 2885||Flight 2415|
|1990s||Flight 585||Flight 6291||Flight 5925||Flight 826||Flight 863|
|2000s||Flight 175||Flight 93|
|2010s||Flight 3411||Flight 627|
On the evening of April 9, 2017, a revenue passenger was forcibly removed by law enforcement from United Airlines flight 3411 at Chicago-O'Hare, bound for Louisville. United announced that it needed four seats for airline staff on the sold-out flight. When no passengers volunteered after being offered vouchers worth $800, United staff selected four passengers to leave. Three of them did so, but the fourth, a doctor named David Dao, declined as he said that he had patients to treat the following morning. He was pulled from his seat by Chicago Department of Aviation security officers and dragged by his arms down the aisle. Dao sustained a concussion, broken teeth, a broken nose, and other injuries. The incident was captured on smartphone cameras and posted on social media, triggering an angry public backlash. Afterwards, United's then-chief executive officer, Oscar Munoz, described Dao as "disruptive and belligerent", apologized for "re-accommodating" the paying customers, and defended and praised staff for "following established procedures". He was widely criticized as "tone-deaf". Munoz later issued a second statement calling what happened a "truly horrific event" and accepting "full responsibility" for it. After a lawsuit, Dao reached an undisclosed settlement with United and airport police. In the aftermath, United's board of directors decided that Munoz would not become its chairman and that executive compensation would be tied to customer satisfaction. Following this incident, passenger complaints increased by 70 percent.
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