O'Hare International Airport

Chicago O'Hare International Airport (IATA: ORD, ICAO: KORD, FAA LID: ORD), typically referred to as O'Hare Airport, Chicago O'Hare, or simply O'Hare, is an international airport located on the Northwest Side of Chicago, Illinois, 17 miles (27 km) northwest of the Loop business district. Operated by the Chicago Department of Aviation[3] and covering 7,627 acres (3,087 ha),[4] O'Hare has non-stop flights to 228 destinations in North America, South America, the Caribbean, Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Oceania, and the North Atlantic region as of 2018.[5][6]

Chicago O'Hare International Airport
O'Hare International Airport Logo.svg
O'Hare from ISS 12-06-2019.jpg
Summary
Airport typePublic
OwnerCity of Chicago
OperatorChicago Department of Aviation
ServesChicago metropolitan area
LocationO'Hare, Chicago, Illinois, United States
OpenedFebruary 1944
(78 years ago)
 (1944-02)[1]
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL668 ft / 204 m
Coordinates41°58′43″N 87°54′17″W / 41.97861°N 87.90472°W / 41.97861; -87.90472Coordinates: 41°58′43″N 87°54′17″W / 41.97861°N 87.90472°W / 41.97861; -87.90472
Websiteflychicago.com/ohare
Maps
FAA airport diagram
FAA airport diagram
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
4L/22R 7,500 2,286 Asphalt
4R/22L 8,075 2,461 Asphalt
9L/27R 7,500 2,286 Concrete
9C/27C 11,245 3,427 Concrete
9R/27L 11,260 3,432 Asphalt/concrete
10L/28R 13,000 3,962 Asphalt/concrete
10C/28C 10,801 3,292 Concrete
10R/28L 7,500 2,286 Concrete
Helipads
Number Length Surface
ft m
H1 200 61 Concrete
Statistics (2021)
Passenger volume54,020,399
Aircraft movements684,201
Cargo (metric tons)2,536,535.7
Source: O'Hare International Airport[2]

Designed to be the successor to Chicago's Midway International Airport, itself nicknamed the "busiest square mile in the world," O'Hare began as an airfield serving a Douglas manufacturing plant for C-54 military transports during World War II. It was named after Edward "Butch" O'Hare, the U.S. Navy's first Medal of Honor recipient during that war.[7] As the first major airport planned after World War II, O'Hare's innovative design pioneered concepts such as concourses, direct highway access to the terminal, jet bridges, and underground refueling systems.[8]

O'Hare became famous during the jet age, holding the distinction as the world's busiest airport from 1963 to 1998; today, it is the world's fourth-busiest airport for passenger counts, serving 54 million passengers in 2021.[9] In 2019, O'Hare had 919,704 aircraft movements, averaging 2,520 per day, the most of any airport in the world in part because of a large number of regional flights.[10] O'Hare serves as a major hub for both United Airlines (which is headquartered in Willis Tower) and American Airlines.[11][12] It is also a focus city for Spirit Airlines.[13][14]

HistoryEdit

Establishment and defense effortsEdit

 
Grumman F4F-3 Wildcat on display in O'Hare's Terminal 2, restored in the markings of "Butch" O'Hare's plane

Soon after the opening of Chicago Municipal Airport in 1926, the City of Chicago realized more airport capacity would be needed. The city government investigated various sites in the 1930s but made little progress before America's entry into World War II.[7]

O'Hare began as a manufacturing plant for Douglas C-54 Skymasters during World War II. The site was known as Orchard Place, previously a small German-American farming community. The 2 million square feet (190,000 m2) plant, in the northeast corner of what is now the airport, needed easy access to the workforce of the nation's second-largest city, as well as its railroads and location far from enemy threat. Some 655 C-54s were built at the plant, more than half of all produced. The airfield, from which the C-54s flew out, was known as Douglas Airport; initially, it had four 5,500-foot (1,700 m) runways.[7] Less known is the fact that it was the location of the Army Air Force's 803rd Specialized Depot,[15] a unit charged with storing many captured enemy aircraft; a few representatives of this collection would eventually be transferred to the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum.[16][17]

Douglas Company's contract ended with the war's conclusion. Douglas considered building airliners at Orchard, but chose to concentrate civil production at its headquarters in Santa Monica, California.[7] With the departure of Douglas the complex took the name Orchard Field Airport, and was assigned the IATA code ORD.[18]

The United States Air Force used the field extensively during the Korean War; the airport then had no scheduled airline service. Although not its primary base in the area, the Air Force used O'Hare as a fighter base; it was home to the 62nd Fighter-Interceptor Squadron flying North American F-86 Sabres from 1950 to 1959.[19] By 1960, the need for O'Hare as an active duty fighter base was diminishing, just as commercial business was picking up at the airport. The Air Force removed active-duty units from O'Hare and turned the station over to Continental Air Command, enabling them to base reserve and Air National Guard units there.[20] As a result of a 1993 agreement between the City and the Department of Defense, the reserve base was closed on April 1, 1997, ending its career as the home of the 928th Airlift Wing and of the 126th Air Refueling Wing in 1999. At that time, the remaining 357-acre (144 ha) site came under the ownership of the Chicago Department of Aviation.[21]

Early commercial developmentEdit

In 1945 Chicago mayor Edward Kelly established a board to choose the site of a new airport to meet future demand. After considering various proposals, the board decided upon the Orchard Field site and acquired most of the federal government property in March 1946. The military retained a small parcel of property on the site, and the rights to use 25% of the airfield's operating capacity for free.[7]

Ralph H. Burke devised an airport master plan based on the pioneering idea of what he called "split finger terminals", allowing a terminal building to be attached to "airline wings" (concourses), each providing space for gates and planes. (Pre-war airport designs had favored ever-larger single terminals, exemplified by Berlin's Tempelhof.) Burke's design also included underground refueling, direct highway access to the front of terminals, and direct rail access from downtown, all of which are utilized at airports worldwide today.[22] O'Hare was the site of the world's first jet bridge in 1958,[23][24] and successfully adapted slip form paving, developed for the nation's new Interstate highway system, for seamless concrete runways.

In 1949 the City renamed the facility O'Hare Airport to honor Edward "Butch" O'Hare, the U.S. Navy's first flying ace and Medal of Honor recipient in World War II.[25] Its IATA code (ORD) remained unchanged, however, resulting in O'Hare being one of the few IATA codes bearing no connection to the airport's name or metropolitan area.[18]

Arrival of passenger service and subsequent growthEdit

Scheduled passenger service began in 1955,[26] but growth was slow at first. Although Chicago had invested over $25 million in O'Hare, Midway remained the world's busiest airport and airlines were reluctant to move until highway access and other improvements were completed.[27] The April 1957 Official Airline Guide listed 36 weekday departures from the airport, while Midway had 414. Improvements began to attract the airlines: O'Hare's first international terminal opened in August 1958, and by April 1959 the airport had expanded to 7,200 acres (2,900 ha) with new hangars, terminals, parking and other facilities. The expressway link to downtown Chicago, now known as the Kennedy Expressway, was completed in 1960.[26] And new Terminals 2 and 3, designed by C. F. Murphy and Associates, opened on January 1, 1962.[28]

The biggest factor driving the airlines from Midway to O'Hare was the jet airliner; the first scheduled jet at O'Hare was an American 707 from New York to Chicago to San Francisco on March 22, 1959.[29] One-mile-square (1.6-kilometer-square) Midway had no space for the runways that 707s and DC-8s required. Airlines had been reluctant to move to O'Hare, but they naturally did not want to split their operations: in July 1962 the last fixed-wing scheduled airline flight in Chicago moved from Midway to O'Hare. Until United returned in July 1964, Midway's only scheduled airline was Chicago Helicopter Airways. The arrival of Midway's traffic quickly made O'Hare the world's busiest airport, serving 10 million passengers annually. Within two years that number would double, with Chicagoans boasting that more people passed through O'Hare in 12 months than Ellis Island had processed in its entire existence. O'Hare remained the world's busiest airport until 1998.

O'Hare had four runways in 1955;[30] 8,000 foot (2,400 m) runway 14R opened in 1956 and was extended to 11,600 feet (3,500 m) a few years later, allowing nonstops to Europe. Runway 9R/27L (now 10L/28R) opened in 1968 and runway 4R/22L in 1971.

Post-deregulation developmentsEdit

 
Reconstructed Brachiosaurus skeleton, formerly in the Field Museum, exhibited at the airport since 1999

In the 1980s, after passage of US airline deregulation, the first major change at O'Hare occurred when TWA left Chicago for St. Louis as its main mid-continent hub.[31] Although TWA had a large hangar complex at O'Hare and had started Constellation nonstops to Paris in 1958, by the time of deregulation its operation was losing $25 million a year under competition from United and American.[32] Northwest likewise ceded O'Hare to the competition and shifted to a Minneapolis and Detroit-centered network by the early 1990s after acquiring Republic Airlines in 1986.[33] Delta maintained a Chicago hub for some time, even commissioning a new Concourse L in 1983.[34] Ultimately, Delta found competing from an inferior position at O'Hare too expensive and closed its Chicago hub in the 1990s, concentrating its upper Midwest operations at Cincinnati.

The dominant hubs established at O'Hare in the 1980s by United and American continue to operate today. United developed a new two-concourse Terminal 1 (dubbed "The Terminal for Tomorrow"), designed by Helmut Jahn. It was built between 1985 and 1987 on the site of the original Terminal 1; the structure, which includes 50 gates, is best known for its curved glass forms and the connecting underground tunnel between Concourses B and C.[35] The tunnel is illuminated with a neon installation titled Sky's the Limit (1987) by Canadian artist Michael Hayden, which plays an airy, slow-tempo version of Rhapsody in Blue.[36] American renovated and expanded its existing facilities in Terminal 3 from 1987 to 1990; those renovations feature a flag-lined entrance hall to Concourses H/K.[37]

The demolition of the original Terminal 1 in 1984 to make way for Jahn's design forced a "temporary" relocation of international flights into facilities called "Terminal 4" on the ground floor of the airport's central parking garage. International passengers were then bused to and from their aircraft. Relocation finally ended with the completion of the 21-gate International Terminal in 1993 (now called Terminal 5); it contains all customs facilities. Its location, on the site of the original cargo area and east of the terminal core, necessitated the construction of the Airport Transit System people-mover, which connected the terminal core with the new terminal as well as remote rental and parking lots.[34]

Following deregulation and the buildup of the American and United hubs, O'Hare faced increasing delays from the late 1980s onward due to its inefficient runway layout; the airfield had remained unchanged since the addition of its last new runway (4R/22L) in 1971.[38] O'Hare's three pairs of angled runways were meant to allow takeoffs into the wind, but they came at a cost: the various intersecting runways were both dangerous and inefficient. Official reports at the end of the 1990s ranked O'Hare as one of the worst-performing airports in the United States based on the percentage of delayed flights.[39] In 2001, the Chicago Department of Aviation committed to an O'Hare Modernization Plan (OMP). Initially estimated at $6.6 billion, the OMP was to be paid by bonds issued against the increase in the federal passenger facility charge enacted that year as well as federal airport improvement funds.[40] The modernization plan was approved by the FAA in October 2005 and involved a complete reconfiguration of the airfield. The OMP included the construction of four new runways, the lengthening of two existing runways, and the decommissioning of three old runways to provide O'Hare with six parallel runways and two crosswind runways.[41]

The OMP was the subject of legal battles, both with suburbs who feared the new layout's noise implications as well as with survivors of persons interred in a cemetery the city proposed to relocate; some of the cases were not resolved until 2011.[42] These issues, plus the reduction in traffic as a result of the 2008 financial crisis, delayed the OMP's completion; construction of the sixth and final parallel runway (9C/27C) began in 2016.[43] Its completion in 2020, along with an extension of runway 9R/27L completed in 2021, concluded the OMP.[44]

FutureEdit

 
Control tower and Terminals 3 and 2 seen from ATS (Airport Transit System)

In 2018 the city and airlines committed to Phase I of a new Terminal Area Plan dubbed O'Hare 21. The plan is to build two all-new satellite concourses, and to expand Terminals 2 and 5 with additional gates, lounges, and updates to operations all over the airport (T5 will have ten new gates in addition to its expanded facilities, plus two additional gates to each accommodate an Airbus A380).[45] The expansion will enable same-terminal transfers between international and domestic flights, faster connections, improved facilities and technology for TSA and customs inspections and much larger landside amenities like shopping and restaurants. A principal feature of the plan is the reorganization of the terminal core into an "alliance hub", the first in North America; airside connections and layout will be optimized around airline alliances. This will be made possible by the construction of the O'Hare Global Terminal (OGT) where Terminal 2 currently stands. The OGT and two new satellite concourses will allow for expansion for both American's and United's international operations as well as easy interchange with their respective Oneworld (American) and Star Alliance (United) partner carriers, eliminating the need to transfer to Terminal 5.

This project will add over 3 million square feet (280,000 m2) to the airport's terminals, add a new customs processing center in the OGT, reconstruct gates and concourses (new concourses will be a minimum of 150 feet (46 m) wide), increase the gate count from 185 to 235, and provide 25% more ramp space at every gate throughout the airport to accommodate larger aircraft.[46] After an international design competition that featured public voting on five final architectural proposals, the Studio ORD group, led by architect Jeanne Gang, was selected to design the OGT,[47][48] while Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP will design Satellites 1 and 2.[49] By terms of the agreement, total costs of $8.5 billion for the project are to be borne by bonds issued by the city, which will be retired by airport usage fees paid by the airlines. O'Hare 21 is scheduled for completion in 2028.[50]

FacilitiesEdit

 
United Airlines Terminal 1, Concourse B
 
American Airlines Terminal 3 Main Hall

TerminalsEdit

O'Hare has four numbered passenger terminals with nine lettered concourses and a total of 191 gates.[51]

  • Terminal 1 contains 50 gates across two concourses, lettered B–C.[51]
  • Terminal 2 contains 41 gates on two concourses, lettered E–F.[51]
  • Terminal 3 contains 79 gates on four concourses, lettered G, H, K, and L.[51]
  • Terminal 5 contains 40 gates on one concourse, lettered M.[52] [53]

Terminals 1–3 are interconnected airside.[54] Terminal 5 is separated from the other terminals by a set of taxiways that cross over the airport's access road, requiring passengers to exit security, ride a shuttle bus or take the Airport Transit System and then re–clear security before boarding.[54] All non pre–cleared international flights arrive at Terminal 5 as it currently contains the airport's sole U.S. Customs and Border Protection facility.[55]

United operates four United Clubs across Terminal 1 and 2 as well as a Polaris Lounge.[56] American has three Admirals Club locations in Terminal 3 as well as a Flagship Lounge.[57] Delta has a Sky Club in Terminal 2. Terminal 5 contains numerous foreign carrier lounges, including Air FranceKLM, British Airways, Korean Air, SAS, and SWISS; there is also a multi-carrier Swissport Lounge.[58]

RunwaysEdit

O'Hare has two sets of parallel runways, one on either side of the terminal complex. The north airfield has three parallel east–west runways (9L/27R, 9C/27C, and 9R/27L). Runway 9C/27C was completed in early November 2020. An extension of 9R/27L was completed in early December 2021. The south airfield has three parallel east–west runways (10L/28R, 10C/28C, and 10R/28L). Two additional parallel runways are oriented northeast–southwest (4R/22L and 4L/22R), one on the north side and one on the south side of the airport. The north crosswind runway, 4L/22R, intersects 9R/27L and 9C/27C, limiting its use;[59] however, runway 22L is often used for takeoffs during what is called "west flow" on the main runways. The airfield is managed by three FAA air traffic control towers. O'Hare has a voluntary nighttime (22:00–07:00) noise abatement program.[60] Currently, O'Hare has the most runways of any civilian airport in the world, totaling eight.

HotelEdit

The Hilton Chicago O'Hare is between the terminal core and parking garage and is currently the only hotel on airport property. It is owned by the Chicago Department of Aviation and operated under an agreement with Hilton Hotels, who extended their agreement with the city by ten years in 2018.[61]

Ground transportationEdit

The O'Hare Airport Transit System shuttles passengers between the terminal core (Terminals 1–3), Terminal 5, and the O'Hare Multi-Modal Facility.[62] The system, which re-opened on November 3, 2021, resumed round-the-clock service starting at 5 a.m. on Monday, April 18, 2022,[63] after a nearly six-year renovation.[64] Meanwhile, free shuttle buses also continue to run 24/7 and contribute to congestion, boarding on the upper (departures) level of all terminals. The Bus Shuttle center, located on the ground level of the parking garage between Terminals 1–3 and directly opposite the Hilton Hotel, provides a temporary boarding location for local hotel shuttles and regional public transport buses.[65] The O'Hare Multi-Modal Facility is the home of all on-airport car rental firms as well as some extended parking.[66] In addition, the Chicago-area commuter rail system, Metra, has a transfer station of its North Central Service (NCS) located at the northeast corner of the MMF; however, the NCS currently operates an occasional schedule on weekdays only.[67]

The CTA Blue Line's north terminus is at O'Hare   and provides direct service to downtown via the Milwaukee–Dearborn subway in the Loop and continuing to west suburban Forest Park. Trains depart at intervals ranging from every four to thirty minutes, 24 hours a day.[68] The station is located on the lower level of the parking garage, and can be accessed directly from Terminals 1–3 via tunnel and from Terminal 5 via shuttle bus.

O'Hare is directly served by Interstate 190, which offers interchanges with Mannheim Road (U.S. 12 and 45), the Tri-State Tollway (Interstate 294), and Interstate 90. I-90 continues as the Kennedy Expressway into downtown Chicago and becomes the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway northwest to Rockford and the Wisconsin state line.

Cargo facilitiesEdit

There are presently two main cargo areas at O'Hare. The South Cargo Area was relocated in the 1980s from the airport's first air cargo facilities, which were located east of the terminal core, where Terminal 5 now stands. Many of the structures in this new cargo area then had to be rebuilt, again, to allow for the OMP and specifically runway 10R/28L; as a result, what is now called the South Cargo Area is located between 10R/28L and 10C/28C. This large collection of facilities, in three sections (Southwest, South Central, and Southeast), were established mainly by traditional airline-based air cargo; Air France Cargo, American, JAL Cargo, KLM, Lufthansa Cargo, Northwest and United all built purpose-built, freestanding cargo facilities,[69] although some of these are now leased out to dedicated cargo firms. In addition, the area contains two separate facilities for shipper FedEx and one for UPS.[69]

The Northeast Cargo Area (NEC) is a conversion of the former military base (the Douglas plant area) at the northeast corner of the airport property. It is a new facility designed to increase O'Hare's cargo capacity by 50%. Two buildings currently make up the NEC: a 540,000 square feet (50,000 m2) building completed in 2016,[70] and a 240,000 square feet (22,000 m2) building that was completed in 2017.[71] A third structure will complete the NEC with another 150,000 square feet (14,000 m2) of warehouse space.[72]

The current capability of the cargo areas provide 2 million square feet (190,000 m2) of airside cargo space with parking for 40 wide-body freighters matched with over 2 million square feet (190,000 m2) of landside warehousing capability. O'Hare shipped over 1,700,000 tonnes (1,900,000 short tons) in 2018, fifth among airports in the U.S.[73]

Other facilitiesEdit

In 2011, O'Hare became the first major airport to build an apiary on its property; every summer, it hosts as many as 75 hives and a million bees. The bees are maintained by 30 to 40 ex-offenders with little to no work experience and few marketable skills; they are primarily recruited from Chicago's North Lawndale neighborhood. They are taught beekeeping but also benefit from the bees' labor, turning it into bottled fresh honey, soaps, lip balms, candles and moisturizers marketed under the beelove product line.[74][75] More than 500 persons have completed the program, transferring to jobs in manufacturing, food processing, customer service, and hospitality; the repeat-offender rate is reported to be less than 10%.[76]

Airlines and destinationsEdit

PassengerEdit

AirlinesDestinationsRefs
Aer Lingus Dublin [77]
Aeroméxico Guadalajara, Mexico City [78]
Air Canada Montréal–Trudeau, Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver [79]
Air Canada Express Montréal–Trudeau, Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver [79]
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle [80]
Air India Delhi [81]
Air New Zealand Auckland [82]
Alaska Airlines Boise, Los Angeles, Portland (OR), San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma
Seasonal: Anchorage
[83]
All Nippon Airways Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita [84]
American Airlines Albuquerque, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Boston, Cancún, Charlotte, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Detroit, El Paso, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Guatemala City, Hartford, Houston–Intercontinental, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Key West, Las Vegas, Liberia (CR), London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Nashville, Newark, New Orleans, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Omaha, Ontario, Orange County (CA), Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Pittsburgh, Portland (OR), Raleigh/Durham, Reno/Tahoe, Sacramento, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San José (CR), San José del Cabo, San Juan, Seattle/Tacoma, Tampa, Toronto–Pearson, Tucson, Washington–National, West Palm Beach
Seasonal: Anchorage, Aruba, Athens, Barcelona,[85] Bozeman, Buffalo, Cleveland, Cozumel, Dublin, Eagle/Vail, Fairbanks, Fresno, Grand Cayman, Hayden/Steamboat Springs, Honolulu, Jackson Hole, Montego Bay, Nassau, Palm Springs, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Portland (ME), Providence, Providenciales, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana, Rome–Fiumicino, St. Thomas, Sarasota, Spokane, Vancouver
[86]
American Eagle Akron/Canton, Albany, Albuquerque, Allentown, Appleton, Asheville, Baltimore, Bangor, Birmingham (AL), Bloomington/Normal, Boise, Buffalo, Calgary, Cedar Rapids/Iowa City, Champaign/Urbana, Charleston (SC), Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbia (MO), Columbus–Glenn, Dayton, Des Moines, Detroit, Dubuque (ends September 7, 2022),[87] El Paso, Erie, Evansville, Fargo, Fayetteville/Bentonville, Flint, Fort Wayne, Grand Rapids, Green Bay, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Harrisburg, Hartford, Huntsville, Indianapolis, Jacksonville (FL), Kalamazoo, Kansas City, Key West, Knoxville, La Crosse, Lansing, Lexington, Little Rock, Louisville, Madison, Manchester (NH), Manhattan (KS), Marquette, Memphis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Moline/Quad Cities, Montréal–Trudeau, Mosinee/Wausau, Nashville, Newark, New Orleans, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Peoria, Pittsburgh, Providence, Rapid City, Richmond, Rochester (MN), Rochester (NY), St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, Sarasota, Sioux Falls, Springfield/Branson, Syracuse, Toledo (ends September 7, 2022),[88] Toronto–Pearson, Traverse City, Tulsa, Washington–National, Waterloo (IA), White Plains, Wichita, Wilkes-Barre/Scranton
Seasonal: Aspen, Atlanta, Billings, Bozeman, Burlington (VT), Destin/Fort Walton Beach, Glacier Park/Kalispell, Harlingen, Hayden/Steamboat Springs, Hilton Head, Martha's Vineyard, Missoula, Montrose, Myrtle Beach, Nantucket, Panama City (FL), Pensacola (FL), Portland (ME), Québec City, Raleigh/Durham, Savannah, Wilmington (NC)
[86]
Austrian Airlines Vienna [89]
British Airways London–Heathrow [90]
Cape Air Burlington (IA), Manistee, Quincy [91]
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong [92]
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai–Pudong [93]
Copa Airlines Panama City–Tocumen [94]
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Salt Lake City, Seattle/Tacoma [95]
Delta Connection Boston (ends December 16, 2022), Cincinnati (resumes September 12, 2022),[96] Detroit, New York–JFK, Raleigh/Durham (resumes November 6, 2022)[97] [95]
Denver Air Connection Ironwood, Watertown[98]
Emirates Dubai–International [99]
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa1 [100]
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi [101]
EVA Air Taipei–Taoyuan [102]
Finnair Helsinki [103]
Frontier Airlines Cancún, Orlando, Punta Cana, San Juan [104]
Hainan Airlines Beijing–Capital, Chengdu–Shuangliu [105]
Iberia Madrid [106]
Icelandair Reykjavík–Keflavík [107]
Japan Airlines Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita [108]
JetBlue Boston, Fort Lauderdale, New York–JFK [109]
KLM Amsterdam [110]
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon [111]
LOT Polish Airlines Kraków, Warsaw–Chopin[112]
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich [113]
Qatar Airways Doha [114]
Royal Jordanian Amman–Queen Alia [115]
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen, Stockholm–Arlanda [116]
Southwest Airlines Austin, Baltimore, Cancún, Dallas–Love, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Las Vegas, Nashville, Orlando, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Tampa [117]
Spirit Airlines Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Cancún, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Houston–Intercontinental, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York–LaGuardia, Orlando, San Diego, Tampa
Seasonal: Boston, Myrtle Beach, Oakland, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Seattle/Tacoma
[118]
Sun Country Airlines Minneapolis/St. Paul [119]
Swiss International Air Lines Zurich [120]
Swoop Toronto–Pearson [121]
TAP Air Portugal Lisbon [122]
Turkish Airlines Istanbul [123]
United Airlines Albany, Amsterdam, Aruba, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Beijing–Capital, Belize City, Boise, Boston, Bozeman, Brussels, Buffalo, Calgary, Cancún, Cedar Rapids/Iowa City, Charleston (SC), Cincinnati, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Columbus–Glenn, Dallas/Fort Worth, Delhi, Denver, Des Moines, Detroit, Duluth, Eugene (OR), Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Frankfurt, Fresno, Grand Rapids, Guatemala City, Harrisburg, Hartford, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Houston–Intercontinental, Indianapolis, Kahului, Kailua–Kona, Kansas City, Las Vegas, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madison, Memphis, Mexico City, Miami, Milan–Malpensa,[124] Minneapolis/St. Paul, Munich, Nashville, Nassau, Newark, New Orleans, New York–LaGuardia, Norfolk, Omaha, Orange County (CA), Orlando, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Pittsburgh, Portland (OR), Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Rochester (NY), Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San José (CR), San José del Cabo, San Juan, Santa Barbara, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Sarasota, Seattle/Tacoma, Shanghai–Pudong, Spokane, Syracuse, Tampa, Tel Aviv, Tokyo–Haneda, Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver, Washington–Dulles, Washington–National, West Palm Beach, Zurich[125]
Seasonal: Albuquerque, Anchorage, Burlington (VT), Cozumel, Dublin, Eagle/Vail, Edinburgh,[126] Fairbanks, Glacier Park/Kalispell, Grand Cayman, Hayden/Steamboat Springs, Ixtapa/Zihuatanejo, Jackson Hole, Jacksonville (FL), Liberia, Montego Bay, Montrose, Myrtle Beach, Palm Springs, Panama City (FL), Pensacola (FL), Portland (ME), Providence, Providenciales, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana, Rapid City, Reno/Tahoe, Reykjavík–Keflavík, Rome–Fiumicino, St. Lucia–Hewanorra, St. Maarten, St. Thomas, Savannah, Traverse City, Tucson, Wichita
[127]
United Express Akron/Canton, Albany, Albuquerque, Allentown, Appleton, Asheville, Atlanta, Baltimore, Bangor, Birmingham (AL), Bismarck, Boise, Boston, Buffalo, Burlington (VT), Calgary, Cape Girardeau, Cedar Rapids/Iowa City, Charleston (SC), Charleston (WV), Charlotte, Charlottesville, Chattanooga, Cincinnati, Clarksburg (WV), Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Columbia (SC), Columbus–Glenn, Dallas/Fort Worth, Dayton, Decatur, Des Moines, Detroit, Duluth, Eau Claire, El Paso, Erie, Eugene, Fargo, Fayetteville/Bentonville, Flint, Fort Dodge, Fort Leonard Wood, Fort Wayne, Fresno, Grand Rapids, Green Bay, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Harrisburg, Hartford, Houghton, Huntsville, Indianapolis, Jacksonville (FL), Johnstown (PA), Joplin, Kansas City, Kearney, Key West, Knoxville, Lewisburg (WV), Lexington, Lincoln, Little Rock, Louisville, Madison, Mason City, Memphis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Moline/Quad Cities, Monterrey, Montréal–Trudeau, Muskegon, Nashville, New Orleans, New York–LaGuardia, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Ottawa, Paducah, Pensacola (FL), Peoria, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Providence, Raleigh/Durham, Rapid City, Richmond, Roanoke, Rochester (NY), Saginaw, St. Louis, Salina, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, Santa Barbara, Sarasota, Savannah, Shenandoah Valley, Sioux City, Sioux Falls, South Bend, Springfield (IL), Springfield/Branson, State College, Syracuse, Toronto–Pearson, Traverse City, Tri-Cities (WA), Tucson, Tulsa, Washington–Dulles, Washington–National, White Plains, Wichita, Wilkes-Barre/Scranton
Seasonal: Aspen, Fresno, Glacier Park/Kalispell, Grand Junction, Gunnison/Crested Butte, Halifax (suspended), Hayden/Steamboat Springs, Hilton Head, Jackson (MS), León/Del Bajío, Missoula, Montrose, Myrtle Beach, Nantucket, Palm Springs, Panama City (FL), Québec City, Redmond/Bend, Reno/Tahoe, Rhinelander, Sun Valley
[127]
VivaAerobús Guadalajara, León/Del Bajío,[128] Mexico City, Monterrey (resumes July 15, 2022),[128] Morelia (resumes July 2, 2022)[128]
Seasonal: Zacatecas
[129]
Volaris Guadalajara, León/Del Bajío, Mexico City, Morelia, Querétaro
Seasonal: Huatulco, Ixtapa/Zihuatanejo, Puerto Vallarta
[130]
WestJet Encore Toronto–Pearson [131]

Notes:

  • ^1 : Ethiopian Airlines' flight from Addis Ababa to O'Hare stops at Dublin,[132] but the flight from O'Hare to Addis Ababa is direct.

CargoEdit

AirlinesDestinationsRefs
AeroUnion Mexico City
AirBridgeCargo Dallas/Fort Worth, Houston–Intercontinental, Luxembourg, Moscow–Domodedovo (all suspended) [133]
Air China Cargo Anchorage, Beijing–Capital, Frankfurt, New York–JFK, Shanghai–Pudong, Tianjin
Air France Cargo Dublin, New York–JFK, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Prestwick
ANA Cargo Tokyo–Narita [134]
Asiana Cargo Anchorage, Atlanta, New York–JFK, Seoul–Incheon, Seattle/Tacoma
ASL Airlines Belgium Liège
Atlas Air Anchorage, Miami, Seoul–Incheon, Los Angeles
Cargolux Anchorage, Atlanta, Dallas/Fort Worth, Hong Kong, Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Luxembourg, New York–JFK, Zhengzhou
Cathay Pacific Cargo Anchorage, Hong Kong, New York–JFK, Portland (OR)
China Airlines Cargo Anchorage, Houston–Intercontinental, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma
China Cargo Airlines Anchorage, Atlanta, Dallas/Fort Worth
China Southern Cargo Shanghai–Pudong [135]
DHL Aviation Anchorage, Calgary, Cincinnati, Newark, New York–JFK
Emirates SkyCargo Maastricht/Aachen [136]
EVA Air Cargo Anchorage, Dallas/Fort Worth, Taipei–Taoyuan
FedEx Express Fort Worth/Alliance, Greensboro, Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Memphis, Milwaukee, Newark, Oakland, Pittsburgh, Portland (OR), Seattle/Tacoma
Garuda Cargo Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta
Korean Air Cargo Anchorage, Halifax, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Toronto–Pearson
LATAM Cargo Santiago de Chile [137]
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw–Chopin
Lufthansa Cargo Anchorage, Atlanta, Frankfurt, Guadalajara, Los Angeles, Manchester (UK), Mexico City, New York–JFK [138]
Nippon Cargo Airlines Anchorage, Dallas/Fort Worth, Edmonton, Los Angeles, New York–JFK [139][140]
Qantas Freight Anchorage, Auckland, Chongqing, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Melbourne, Sydney [141][142][143][144]
Qatar Airways Cargo Amsterdam, Doha, Los Angeles, Milan–Malpensa, Ostend/Bruges,[145] Singapore [146][147][148][149]
Silk Way Airlines Baku [150]
Singapore Airlines Cargo Anchorage, Atlanta, Brussels, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Seattle/Tacoma [151]
Suparna Airlines Anchorage, Shanghai–Pudong
Turkish Cargo Istanbul, Maastricht/Aachen, Shannon, Toronto–Pearson [152][153]
UPS Airlines Cologne/Bonn, Columbus–Rickenbacker, Dallas/Fort Worth, Louisville, Miami, Philadelphia, Portland (OR)

StatisticsEdit

Top destinationsEdit

Busiest domestic routes from ORD (April 2021 – March 2022)[154]
Rank Airport Passengers Carriers
1 Los Angeles, California 1,027,000 American, Alaska, Spirit, United
2 Denver, Colorado 969,000 American, Southwest, Spirit, United
3 Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Arizona 880,000 American, Southwest, Spirit, United
4 Orlando, Florida 821,000 American, Frontier, Southwest, Spirit, United
5 Las Vegas, Nevada 776,000 American, Southwest, Spirit, United
6 Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 746,000 American, Spirit, United
7 New York–LaGuardia, New York 700,000 American, Delta, Spirit, United
8 San Francisco, California 677,000 Alaska, American, United
9 Seattle/Tacoma, Washington 656,000 Alaska, American, Delta, Spirit, United
10 Atlanta, Georgia 655,000 American, Delta, Spirit, United
Busiest international routes to and from ORD (2019)[155]
Rank Airport Passengers Carriers
1 London–Heathrow 1,217,163 American, British Airways, United
2 Toronto–Pearson 1,005,811 Air Canada, American, United
3 Cancún 679,669 American, Frontier, Spirit, United
4 Frankfurt 661,662 Lufthansa, United
5 Mexico City 649,085 Aeroméxico, Interjet, United, Volaris
6 Tokyo–Narita 509,956 All Nippon, JAL, United
7 Dublin 480,570 Aer Lingus, American, United
8 Munich 415,762 Lufthansa, United
9 Istanbul 412,135 Turkish
10 Vancouver 358,505 Air Canada, American, United

Airline market shareEdit

Top airlines at ORD
(April 2021 – March 2022)[154]
Rank Airline Passengers Percent of market share
1 United Airlines 15,019,000 28.52%
2 American Airlines 13,503,000 25.65%
3 SkyWest Airlines 5,250,000 9.97%
4 Envoy Air 3,766,000 7.15%
5 Spirit Airlines 2,248,000 4.27%

Annual trafficEdit

Annual passenger traffic at ORD airport. See source Wikidata query.
Traffic by calendar year[156]
Year Passenger volume Change over previous year Aircraft operations Cargo tonnage
2000 72,144,244  00.64% 908,989 1,640,524
2001 67,448,064  06.51% 911,917 1,413,834
2002 66,565,952  01.31% 922,817 1,436,386
2003 69,508,672  04.40% 928,691 1,601,736
2004 75,533,822  08.67% 992,427 1,685,808
2005 76,581,146  01.38% 972,248 1,701,446
2006 76,282,212  00.30% 958,643 1,718,011
2007 76,182,025  00.15% 926,973 1,690,742
2008 70,819,015  07.03% 881,566 1,480,847
2009 64,397,782  09.07% 827,899 1,198,426
2010 67,026,191  03.83% 882,617 1,577,048
2011 66,790,996  00.35% 878,798 1,505,218
2012 66,834,931  00.04% 878,108 1,443,569
2013 66,909,638  00.12% 883,287 1,434,377
2014 70,075,204  04.45% 881,933 1,578,330
2015 76,949,336  09.81% 875,136 1,742,501
2016 77,960,588  01.31% 867,635 1,726,362
2017 79,828,183  02.40% 867,049 1,950,137
2018 83,339,186[157]  04.40% 903,747 1,868,880
2019 84,649,115  01.69% 919,704 1,788,001
2020 30,860,251  063.54% 538,211 2,052,025
2021 54,020,399  075.06% 684,201 2,536,576

On-Time performance (domestic major U.S. Carriers Only)Edit

On time performance by calendar year[154]
Year Percent of on

time departures

Percent of on

time arrivals

Average departure

delay (min)

Average arrival

delay (min)

Percent of

cancelled flights

2017 79% 81% 69.43 77.38 1.40%
2018 77% 77% 69.15 77.91 2.14%
2019 75% 75% 73.69 86.01 3.11%
2020 84% 85% 65.36 78.36 6.18%
2021 81% 82% 70.40 82.42 1.93%

Major accidents and incidentsEdit

The following is a list of major crashes or incidents that occurred to planes at O'Hare, on approach, or just after takeoff from the airport:[158]

See alsoEdit

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