Avianca S.A. (acronym in Spanish for Aerovias del Continente Americano S.A., "Airways of the American Continent") is Colombia's biggest airline. It has been the flag carrier of Colombia[3][4] since December 5, 1919, when it was initially registered under the name SCADTA.[5][6] It is headquartered in Colombia, with its registered office in Barranquilla and its global headquarters in Bogotá and main hub at El Dorado International Airport. Avianca is the flagship of a group of ten Latin American airlines, who operate as one airline using a codesharing system. Avianca is the largest airline in Colombia and second largest in Latin America, after LATAM of Chile. Avianca and its subsidiaries have the most extensive network of destinations in Latin America.[7] Prior to the merger with TACA in 2010, it was wholly owned by Synergy Group, a South American holding company established by Germán Efromovich and specialising in air transport. It is listed on the Colombia Stock Exchange.[8]

Avianca S.A.
Avianca Logo.svg
IATA ICAO Callsign
AV AVA AVIANCA
FoundedDecember 5, 1919; 103 years ago (1919-12-05) (as SCADTA)
Commenced operationsJune 14, 1940; 82 years ago (1940-06-14) (as Avianca)
HubsBogotá
Secondary hubs
Focus cities
Frequent-flyer programLifeMiles
AllianceStar Alliance
Subsidiaries

Affiliates

Fleet size102[1]
Destinations63
Parent companyAvianca Group
HeadquartersRegistered office:
Barranquilla, Colombia
Corporate headquarters:
Bogotá, Colombia
Key people
Operating incomeIncrease COP 100.3 B[2] (FY 2019 Q3)
Total assetsIncrease COP 2.403.632 M (FY 2008)
Websiteavianca.com

Through SCADTA, Avianca is the world's second oldest extant airline after KLM, and celebrated its 100th anniversary in December 2019. It is the oldest airline in the Western Hemisphere.[9] It became an official member of Star Alliance on June 21, 2012, after a process that lasted approximately 18 months from the initial announcement[10] of its invitation to join the alliance.[11] On May 10, 2020, Avianca filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in a court in New York City, and liquidated its subsidiary Avianca Perú, due to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis.[12][13][14]

HistoryEdit

SCADTA (1919–1940)Edit

 
A SCADTA Junkers W 34 "Magdalena", circa 1920s

The airline traces its history back to December 5, 1919, in the city of Barranquilla, Colombia. Colombians Ernesto Cortissoz Alvarez-Correa (the first President of the airline), Rafael María Palacio, Cristóbal Restrepo, Jacobo Correa and Aristides Noguera and Germans Werner Kämmerer, Stuart Hosie and Albert Tietjen founded the Colombo-German Company, called Sociedad Colombo-Alemana de Transportes Aéreos or SCADTA. The company accomplished their first flight on September 5, 1920 between Barranquilla and the nearby town of Puerto Colombia using a Junkers F.13, transporting 57 pieces of mail. The flight was piloted by German Helmuth von Krohn. This and another aircraft of the same type were completely mechanically constructed monoplanes, the engines of which had to be modified to efficiently operate in the climate of the country. There were nine aircraft in the fleet with a total range of 850 km (528 mi) which could carry up to four passengers and two crewmen. Due to the topographic characteristics of the country and the lack of airports at the time, floats were adapted for two of the Junkers aircraft to make water landings in the rivers near different towns. Using these floats, Helmuth von Krohn was able to perform the first inland flight over Colombia on October 20, 1920, following the course of the Magdalena River; the flight took eight hours and required four emergency landings in the water.

Soon after the airline was founded, German scientist and philanthropist Peter von Bauer became interested in the airline and contributed general knowledge, capital and a tenth aircraft for the company, as well as obtaining concessions from the Colombian government to operate the country's airmail transportation division using the airline, which began in 1922. This new contract allowed SCADTA to thrive in a new frontier of aviation. By the mid-1920s, SCADTA started its first international routes that initially covered destinations in Venezuela and the United States. In 1924, the aircraft that both Ernesto Cortissoz and Helmuth von Krohn were flying crashed into an area currently known as Bocas de Ceniza in Barranquilla, killing them. In the early 1940s, Peter von Bauer sold his shares in the airline to the US-owned Pan Am.

National Airways of Colombia (1940–1994)Edit

On June 14, 1940, in the city of Barranquilla, SCADTA, under ownership by United States businessmen, merged with regional Colombian airline SACO, forming the new Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia S.A. or Avianca. Five Colombians participated in this: Rafael María Palacio, Jacobo A. Corea, Cristobal Restrepo, and Aristides Noguera, as well as German citizens Albert Teitjen, Werner Kaemerer and Stuart Hosie, while the post of first President of Avianca was filled by Martín del Corral. Avianca claims SCADTA's history as its own.

In 1946, Avianca began flights to Quito, Lima, Panama City, Miami, New York City and Europe, using Douglas DC-4s and C-54 Skymasters. In 1951, Avianca acquired Lockheed Constellations and Super Constellations.[15] In 1956, the company transported the Colombian delegation to the Melbourne Olympics on a 61-hour trip, stopping only to refuel.[16]

During the 1960s, the company built the Avianca Building in Bogotá, designed by the architect Germán Samper, which was inaugurated in 1969 on the south side of Santander Park. In 1961, Avianca leased two Boeing 707s to operate its international routes and on November 2, 1961, it acquired its own Boeing 720s. In 1976, Avianca became the first Latin American airline to continuously operate the Boeing 747-100. Three years later, it started operations with more 747s, including two Combi aircraft, mixing cargo and passenger operations.[17]

In 1981, Avianca undertook the construction of a new exclusive terminal called the Terminal Puente Aéreo, which was eventually inaugurated by President Julio César Turbay Ayala. Avianca's original purpose for the terminal was for flights serving Cali, Medellín, Miami and New York.[18]

Merger system (1994–2002)Edit

In 1994, Avianca, the regional carrier SAM and the helicopter operator Helicol merged, beginning Avianca's new system of operations. This arrangement allowed for specialized services in cargo (Avianca Cargo) and postal services, as well as a more modern fleet made up of Boeing 767s, Boeing 757s, MD-83s, Fokker 50s, and Bell helicopters. In 1996, Avianca Postal Services became Deprisa, which provided various mail services.

On December 10, 1998, Avianca officially opened its new hub in Bogotá, offering around 6,000 possible connections per week, and an increased number of frequencies, schedules and destinations, taking advantage of the privileged geographical location of the country's capital, for the benefit of Colombian and international travelers between South America, Europe and North America.

Summa Alliance (2002–2004)Edit

After the September 11 attacks, Avianca, SAM, and their major rival ACES joined efforts to create the Alianza Summa, which began merged operations on May 20, 2002 to offer a more efficient service, with concerns to quality, quantity, security and competition in a new struggling marketplace. However, adverse circumstances within the industry and markets, forced the alliance to be disband. In November 2003, the Alianza Summa was disbanded, ACES was liquidated altogether and SAM was acquired to be a regional carrier under Avianca's brand.

American Continent Airways (2004–2009)Edit

On December 10, 2004, Avianca concluded a major reorganization process, undertaken after filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, by obtaining confirmation of its reorganization plan, which was financially backed by the Brazilian consortium, Synergy Group and the National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia, allowing the airline to obtain funds for US$63 million, in the 13 months following withdrawal from bankruptcy.

 
Avianca's former logo (2005-2013)

Under this plan, Avianca was bought by Synergy Group, and was consolidated with its subsidiaries OceanAir and VIP. The company's full legal name was changed from Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia (National Airways of Colombia) to Aerovías del Continente Americano (Airways of the American Continent), retaining the acronym Avianca. On February 28, 2005, Avianca presented its new logo and livery.

Avianca-TACA merger (2009–2013)Edit

In October 2009, it was announced that Avianca would merge with TACA Airlines.[19][20] This created AviancaTaca Holding, which instantly became one of the region's largest airlines, with 129 aircraft and flights to more than 100 destinations.

In November 2009, the airline's Chief Executive Fabio Villegas announced that the airline was looking to replace its Fokker 50 and Fokker 100 with newer aircraft of 100 seats or less.[21] On January 1, 2011, the airline decided to retire the Fokker 100 in 2011 and replace them with 10 Airbus A318s leased from GECAS. The aircraft were delivered from February to April 2011.

Star AllianceEdit

On November 10, 2010, Star Alliance announced that Avianca (and its merger counterpart, TACA) were full members in 2012. Due to Avianca's entry into Star Alliance, it ended its codeshare agreement with Delta Air Lines and began a new codeshare agreement with United Airlines. TACA had been codesharing with United Airlines since 2006.[22] On June 21, 2012, Avianca and TACA were both officially admitted into Star Alliance.

Avianca Holdings (2013–2019)Edit

On March 21, 2013, at the annual general meeting, the shareholders approved the change of corporate name from AviancaTaca Holding to Avianca Holdings.[23] TACA and all other AviancaTaca airlines changed their brand to Avianca on May 28, 2013.

As of 2017, Avianca operates the second-most daily international flights from Miami with 16, second only to American Airlines.

In August 2018, Avianca had some operational difficulties due to problems with the platform it used to assign crew schedules. This resulted in the cancellation of several flights within Colombia. Likewise, due to the stoppage of ACDAC pilots in 2017, only in October 2018 were all flight itineraries managed by the airline restored.

On March 1, 2019, Avianca launched a subsidiary named Avianca Express, which operates ATR-72s on short regional flights within Colombia.[24]

 
Avianca Airbus A320-200, painted in retro livery, celebrating the airline's 100th anniversary

2020 bankruptcy (2020-2021)Edit

Avianca had significant financial liabilities in 2019. Because of this, they issued more debt to cover short-term liabilities and concluded a debt exchange on December 31, 2019. In response to the global outbreak of COVID-19, the Colombian government's lockdown suspended Avianca's domestic and international operations; most of the company’s 20,000 employees went without pay throughout this period, and the airline operated no scheduled passenger flights between late March and May outside of repatriation missions. As a result of this temporary cessation of business, the company had seen 80% of its revenue stopped.

Avianca Holdings and 23 affiliated debtors filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York on May 10, 2020 as a direct result of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent global shutdown, and their financial situation prior to and during the crisis. The airline holding liquidated their subsidiary Avianca Perú the same day. The debtors were granted joint administration of the cases under Case No. 20-11133. The airline had accumulated a total debt of USD $7.3 billion at the end of 2019.[25]

Avianca implemented numerous cost-reduction plans during and following their bankruptcy including increasing the passenger capacity and redesigning the cabin of their Airbus A320s, simplifying their fleet to only the A320 family and Boeing 787, the latter of which will also feature an economy class cabin redesign, and introducing new, cheaper, and more competitive fares with increased options for flexibility including checked and carry-on bags, seat selection, and priority boarding.[26][27]

In November 2021, Avianca Holdings announced they would move their legal address from Panama to the United Kingdom, and that they would change their name to Avianca Group.[28] Their global headquarters remains in Bogotá. On November 2, 2021, Avianca's reorganization plan was approved by the court,[29] and on December 1, 2021, more than a year and a half after filing, Avianca emerged from Chapter 11 bankruptcy for the second time in its history.[30]

Abra Group and merger with Viva Air (2022-present)Edit

In April 2022, Avianca announced plans to acquire low-cost competitor Viva Air Colombia and its subsidiary Viva Air Perú.[31][32] The merger was rejected by the Colombian Civil Aviation Authority in November 2022.[33]

On May 11, 2022, it was announced that Avianca planned to merge with Viva Air Colombia, Viva Air Peru, and Gol Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes to form the Abra Group, and that Avianca would be the acquiring company.[34][35] Avianca has stated that the rejection of the Avianca-Viva Air merger would not affect the plans for the Abra Group.[36]

In September 2022, Ecuador's Superintendency for the Control of Market Power became the first government body to approve the merger.[37] In December 2022, Avianca stated that they had reached all necessary agreements for the group bar "certain financing", and that they had obtained approval from regulatory bodies in Brazil and the United States. Avianca also stated that they do not need regulatory approval in Colombia because GOL has no presence in the country, and hence there would be no overlap in Colombia.[38]

On January 19, 2023, the Ministry of Transport and Aerocivil formally annulled the November 2022 decision to reject the Avianca-Viva Air merger, citing "procedural irregularities" found within the first review process. A second review is due to take place in "an urgent manner", owing to the fact that the merger proposal was filed under "exception for a company in crisis", referencing Viva Air's financial situation.[39][40]

HeadquartersEdit

 
Avianca's headquarters, designed by Esguerra Saenz Urdaneta Samper

Avianca's headquarters are on Avenida El Dorado and between Carrera 60 and Gobernación de Cundinamarca, located in the Ciudad Salitre area of Bogotá. The building is located next to the Gran Estación.[41] Its previous head office was at Avenida El Dorado No. 93-30.[42]

DestinationsEdit

Avianca's hubs are in Bogotá, and San Salvador. Its focus cities are Medellin, Cali, Barranquilla, San José, and Miami, in the latter of which Avianca is the largest foreign carrier by number of passengers.

SubsidiariesEdit

Avianca's subsidiaries' destinations
Company Number of
destinations
List
Avianca Cargo 25 List of Avianca Cargo destinations
Avianca Costa Rica 16 List of Avianca Costa Rica destinations
Avianca Ecuador 15 List of Avianca Ecuador destinations
Avianca El Salvador 26 List of Avianca El Salvador destinations
Avianca Express 9 List of Avianca Express destinations
Avianca Guatemala 5 List of Avianca Guatemala destinations
Helicol Un­known

Codeshare agreementsEdit

Avianca has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:[43]

Interline agreementEdit

Avianca has an interline agreement with Boliviana de Aviación.[45]

LifeMilesEdit

The frequent-flyer program of Avianca and its subsidiaries is LifeMiles. This program is designed to reward customer loyalty for the airline, travel and retail sectors. LifeMiles members can earn miles every time they fly with Avianca, Star Alliance member airlines, as well as GOL Airlines, Aeromexico and Iberia.

The program was launched in 2011 with the merger of Avianca and TACA, replacing its former AviancaPlus program. LifeMiles has been awarded 14 Freddie Awards for its outstanding performance and promotions in the Americas during the last 9 years.

LifeMiles has four elite tiers:

  • Red Plus (Star Alliance Silver)
  • Silver (Star Alliance Silver)
  • Gold (Star Alliance Gold)
  • Diamond (Star Alliance Gold)

FleetEdit

Current fleetEdit

As of January 2023, the Avianca fleet consists of the following aircraft:[1][46]

Avianca fleet
Aircraft In
service
Orders Passengers Notes
C Y Total
Airbus A319-100 11 12 108 120 To be replaced by Airbus A320-200.
Airbus A320-200 56 12 12 138 150 Aircraft purchased from Batik Air and Interjet.
Remaining orders to replace Airbus A319-100.
12 144 156
186 186
188 188
Airbus A320neo 17 171 12 141 153 Some orders are to be split with its subsidiaries.
88 more aircraft ordered in March 2022.[47]
180 180
Airbus A330-200 4 30 222 252 To be retired.[48]
Boeing 787-8 13 28 222 250
Boeing 787-9 1 2 TBA N797AV stored in Abu Dhabi.
Other aircraft expected to be delivered by 2024.[48]
Total 102 185

Avianca's first Boeing 787 Dreamliner was delivered on December 17, 2014, and its first service was on January 16, 2015 between Bogotá and New York City.[49][50]

Former fleetEdit

Since its founding, Avianca has operated a wide variety of aircraft:[51][52][53]

Avianca former fleet
Aircraft Total Introduced Retired Notes
Airbus A318-100 10 2011 2019 Purchased from Mexicana[54]
Airbus A321-200 9 2014 2021
Airbus A321neo 2 2017 2020 [55]
Airbus A330-300 2 2018 2020 Purchased from TransAsia Airways
ATR 72-600 9 2013 2019 Transferred to Avianca Express
Beechcraft 17 2 1941 1943
Boeing 247D 18 1936 1948
Boeing 707-120 1 1960 1961 Leased from Pan Am
Boeing 707-320C 8 1968 1994 One written off as Flight 052
Boeing 720B 7 1961 1984
Boeing 727-100 33 1966 1992
Boeing 727-200 18 1978 1999
Boeing 737-100 2 1968 1971 First 737 operator in Latin America
Boeing 747-100 3 1976 1996
Boeing 747-100SF 2 1981 1988
Boeing 747-200M 2 1979 1995 One written off as Flight 011
Boeing 757-200 21 1992 2010
Boeing 767-200ER 5 1990 2011
Boeing 767-300ER 5 1994 2011
1 2014 2015 Leased from Omni Air International
Consolidated PBY Catalina 4 1946 1956
Curtiss T-32 Condor II 2 Un­known Un­known
Curtiss C-46 Commando 5 1949 1955
de Havilland DH.60 Moth 7 1929 1939
Dornier Do J Wal 3 1925 1932
Dornier Merkur 2 1927 1932
Douglas C-47 Skytrain 52 1939 1974
Douglas C-54 Skymaster 26 1946 1975
Douglas DC-2 2 1944 1947
Douglas DC-3 4 1939 1973
Douglas DC-4 2 1953 1974
Fokker 50 10 1993 2014
Fokker 100 15 2006 2011 Operated by SAM until 2010
Fokker Universal 2 1929 1934
Ford 5-AT-DS Trimotor 19 1929 1946
General Aviation GA-43 1 1934 Un­known
Hawker Siddeley HS 748 2 1968 1978
IAI 1124 Westwind 1 1978 1995 Operated by Helicol
Junkers F 13 31 1920 1940
Junkers W 33 1 1929 1932
Junkers W 34 13 1928 1947
Lockheed L-749A Constellation 6 1951 1967
Lockheed L-1049E Super Constellation 4 1954 1969
McDonnell Douglas MD-11ER 1 1998 1999 Leased from World Airways
McDonnell Douglas MD-83 18 1992 2011
Sikorsky S-38 7 1929 1940
Sikorsky S-41 1 1930 1936

Accidents and incidentsEdit

The airline suffered a few incidents during the 1980s and early 1990s. The deadliest of those incidents was Avianca Flight 011, which crashed in 1983.

Awards and recognitionsEdit

In its recent history, the company has won different awards:[72]

  • 2010: E-Commerce Company of the Year – eCommerce Awards Colombia.
  • 2012: Best Company in Customer Service Labor and Management – Ibero-American Social Media Awards.
  • 2013: Best Company in Customer Service Labor and Management – Ibero-American Social Media Awards.
  • 2013: South American Airlines with Best Onboard Service – Skytrax World Airline Awards.
  • 2014: Best E-commerce Initiative in Colombia – Colombia Online Awards.
  • 2015: Best Airline in South America – World Travel Awards.
  • 2016: Best Airline in South America and Latin America – Business Traveler North America Magazine.
  • 2017: Best Airline in South America – Business Traveler Awards.
  • 2017: Best Airline in South America and Best Regional Airline in South America – Skytrax World Airline Awards.
  • 2017: Best Mobile Initiative for eCommerce – eCommerce Awards.
  • 2017: Second-best airline in the world – Consumers and Users Organization.
  • 2018: Best Airline in South America – Skytrax World Airline Awards.
  • 2018: Best Regional Airline in South America – Airline Passenger Experience APEX.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Avianca Fleet Details and History". Planespotters.net. Retrieved March 10, 2022.
  2. ^ "Avianca Holdings S.A., Investor Relations - Financial Information".
  3. ^ Álvaro Uribe Vélez; Jorge Humberto Botero Angulo (7 March 2005). "Decreto número 604 de 2005 por el cual se concede la Orden del Mérito Comercial en la Categoría de Gran Oficial a Avianca" [Decree number 604 of 2005 which grants to Avianca the Order of Commercial Merit in the Category of Great Officer] (PDF) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo de la República de Colombia.
  4. ^ Álvaro Uribe Vélez (7 March 2005). "Discurso de entrega de la Orden del Mérito Comercial en la Categoría de Gran Oficial a Avianca" [Presidential address on the Order of Commercial Merit in the Category of Great Officer to Avianca] (.htm) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Presidencia de la República de Colombia. Nosotros no podemos perder la oportunidad de tener en Bogotá ese gran centro de conexiones. Y por supuesto, que lo haga la compañía bandera de Colombia, que es Avianca. Eso lo tiene que explicar el Gobierno a la opinión pública clara y paladinamente, sin malicias, sin cartas escondidas, y salir a defenderlo y decir por qué hay que hacerlo.
  5. ^ Simón Rodríguez Rodríguez (21 September 1989). "Sentencia del Honorable Consejo de Estado de la República de Colombia con relación al proceso número 132 que reposa en el expediente del año 1989 (ce-sec1-exp1989-n132)" [Sentence of the Honourable Council of State of the Republic of Colombia in relation to the process number 132 which rests on the record of 1989 (ce-sec1-exp1989-n132)] (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Consejo de Estado de la República de Colombia. pp. 10, 16, 5th paragraph. Archived from the original (.doc) on 2011-07-04. Desde ningún punto de vista puede abrigarse duda alguna acerca del carácter eminentemente privado de la empresa Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia AVIANCA S. A. La prueba por excelencia en este caso, como es el certificado expedido por el Secretario de la Cámara de Comercio de Barranquilla así lo determina (fls. 2 a 10). En él se lee que la empresa se constituyó por escritura pública número 2374, otorgada ante Notaría Segunda de Barranquilla, el día 5 de diciembre de 1919, registrada en el Juzgado Tercero del mismo Circuito, llamada inicialmente Sociedad Colombo – Alemana de Transportes Aéreos -SCADTA-.
  6. ^ Friedman, Max Paul (April 2000). "Specter of a Nazi Threat: United States-Colombian Relations, 1939–1945". The Americas. 4. Washington, D.C. (United States): Catholic University of America Press on behalf of Academy of American Franciscan History. 56 (4): 563–589 [566 2nd paragraph]. doi:10.1017/S0003161500029849. JSTOR 1008173. S2CID 147077020.
  7. ^ "Avianca-TACA joint venture ready for implementation". Flightglobal. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
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  9. ^ Brown, Claire (28 July 1998). "National Air and Space Museum Exhibition Examines the Development of Latino Aviation". Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on 2010-04-08. SCADTA Junkers F 13, one of the first commercial airlines in Colombia. SCADTA (now known as AVIANCA) is the oldest, continuously operating airline in the Western Hemisphere.
  10. ^ "Avianca-Taca and Copa Airlines to join Star Alliance". Star Alliance. 11 October 2010. Archived from the original on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
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  13. ^ "Avianca Holdings files for Chapter 11". CH-AVIATION. 10 May 2020. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  14. ^ "World's 'second oldest airline' files for bankruptcy". www.9news.com.au. Retrieved 2020-05-12.
  15. ^ Finlay, Mark (2022-12-05). "103 Years Ago Today Avianca's Predecessor SCADTA Was Founded". Simple Flying. Retrieved 2023-01-22.
  16. ^ "Avianca". SeatMaestro. Retrieved 2023-01-22.
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  18. ^ María Fernanda Cedeño (15 July 2022). "¿Por qué el aeropuerto internacional de Colombia se llama El Dorado?: historia y origen del nombre". Colombia.as.com (in Spanish). Retrieved July 15, 2022.
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  20. ^ "Latin American airlines to merge". BBC. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
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  25. ^ Rochabrun, Marcelo; Kumar, Devika Krishna; Bocanegra, Nelson (10 May 2020). "Latin America's second-biggest airline, Avianca, driven to bankruptcy by coronavirus". Reuters. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  26. ^ de 2021, 2 de Junio. "Avianca anuncia que saldrá del Capítulo 11 y superará la crisis financiera en los próximos meses". infobae (in European Spanish). Retrieved 2021-06-04.
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  33. ^ Martínez Garbuno, Daniel (November 8, 2022). "Colombia Rejects Avianca and Viva's Merger". Simpleflying.com. Retrieved November 16, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  34. ^ "Breaking: Avianca and GOL set to become part of the same holding". Aviacionline.com. 11 May 2022. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  35. ^ Daniel Martínez Garbuno (11 May 2022). "Abra Group Limited: the new holding of Avianca, GOL, and Viva". Airinsight.com. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  36. ^ Martínez Garbuno, Daniel (November 8, 2022). "Colombia Rejects Avianca and Viva's Merger". Simpleflying.com. Retrieved November 16, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  37. ^ Martínez Garbuno, Daniel (September 6, 2022). "Avianca & GOL's New Abra Group Gets 1st Government Authorization". Simpleflying.com. Retrieved December 27, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  38. ^ Martínez Garbuno, Daniel (December 10, 2022). "Avianca & GOL's Abra Holding Company Could Soon Be Approved". Simpleflying.com. Retrieved December 27, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  39. ^ Galeano Balaguera, Paula (January 18, 2023). "Proceso de Avianca y Viva será anulado: ¿cuáles son las razones?". Portafolio.co. Retrieved January 19, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  40. ^ Martínez Garbuno, Daniel (January 19, 2023). "Avianca And Viva Merger Rejection Officially Annulled By Colombian Authorities". Simpleflying.com. Retrieved January 19, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  41. ^ Buitrago, Alejandra. "Avianca tendrá nueva sede administrativa a comienzos del 2009 en Eje Empresarial del Salitre m, portafolio.co, retrieved on 6 December 2015. "Será un edificio con 13.800 metros cuadrados de vidrio en sus fachadas, con un coeficiente de sombra de solo el 0,71% en diseño bioclimático que permitirá luz y aire naturales incluso en los sótanos." and "Su altura será de 46 metros y tres sótanos, para un área construida de 34.536 metros cuadrados. El primer piso tendrá locales comerciales y una amplia zona de parqueaderos."
  42. ^ Oficinas Colombia." Avianca. 9 March 2000. Retrieved on 30 January 2011.
  43. ^ "Codeshare". Avianca. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  44. ^ "Avianca and ITA Airways sign codeshare agreement". 20 October 2022.
  45. ^ Daniel Martínez Garbuno (12 September 2022). "Avianca And Boliviana de Aviación Announce Interline Agreement". Airinsight.com. Retrieved September 12, 2022.
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External linksEdit

  Media related to Avianca at Wikimedia Commons