Portal:Colombia

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The Colombia Portal

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Colombia (/kəˈlʌmbiə/ (About this soundlisten) kə-LUM-bee-ə, /-ˈlɒm-/ -⁠LOM-; Spanish: [koˈlombja] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Republic of Colombia (Es-republica_de_colombia.ogg), is a country in the north of South America, with territories in North America. Colombia is bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea, the northwest by Panama, the south by Ecuador and Peru, the east by Venezuela, the southeast by Brazil, and the west by the Pacific Ocean. It comprises 32 departments and the Capital District of Bogotá, the country's largest city.

With over 50 million inhabitants Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by various Amerindian civilizations, European settlement, forced African labor, and immigration from Europe and the greater Middle East. Urban centres are concentrated in the Andean highlands and the Caribbean coast.

Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since at least 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwesternmost part of the country. The Spanish landed first in La Guajira in 1499 and by the mid-16th century annexed part of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903, leading to Colombia's present borders. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security, stability, and rule of law, as well as unprecedented economic growth and development.

Colombia is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries and has the second-highest level of biodiversity in the world. Its territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, highlands, grasslands, and deserts, and it is the only country in South America with coastlines and islands along both the Atlantic and Pacific.

Colombia is considered a regional actor in international affairs, being the only NATO Global Partner in Latin America and a member of several major global and regional institutions, including the OECD, the UN, the World Trade Organization, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, the Association of Caribbean States, an associate member of Mercosur and other international organizations. Colombia's diversified economy is the third largest in South America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. It is subsequently classified as part of the CIVETS group of leading emerging markets.

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Volcán Galeras - Pasto - Colombia.jpg
Galeras (Urcunina among the 16th-century indigenous people) is an Andean stratovolcano in the Colombian department of Nariño, near the departmental capital Pasto. Its summit rises 4,276 metres (14,029 ft) above sea level. It has erupted frequently since the Spanish conquest, with its first historical eruption being recorded on December 7, 1580. A 1993 eruption killed nine people, including six scientists who had descended into the volcano's crater to sample gases and take gravity measurements in an attempt to be able to predict future eruptions. It is currently the most active volcano in Colombia. Read more...
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América de Cali S. A., best known as América de Cali or América, is a Colombian football team based in Cali and playing in the Categoría Primera A. They play their home games at the Olímpico Pascual Guerrero stadium. The club is regarded by FIFA and IFFHS as the strongest football team in Colombia and the ninth strongest in South America during the 20th century. IFFHS also once ranked América de Cali as the second best club side in the world, behind only Italian champions Juventus.

The club is one of the oldest in Colombia; they were founded in 1927, and trace their origins to the América Football Club, which was founded in 1918. They are also one of the most successful Colombian clubs at both the domestic and international levels, winning fourteen national titles and reaching the Copa Libertadores finals four times (including three straight from 1985 to 1987). Although they have never won the Copa Libertadores, they have won two international tournaments, the 1999 Copa Merconorte and the 1975 Copa Simón Bolívar. Read more...

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Sources

  1. ^ "ARC" stands for "Armada Nacional de la República de Colombia."
  2. ^ "Largest cities" (PDF). Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved 10 February 2020.