The Colombia Portal

Republic of Colombia
República de Colombia  (Spanish)
Location of Colombia (dark green) in South America (grey)
Location of Colombia (dark green)

in South America (grey)

ISO 3166 codeCO

Colombia (/kəˈlʌmbiə/ (listen), /-ˈlɒm-/; Spanish: [koˈlombja] (listen)), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country in South America with an insular region in North America. It is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north, Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, Ecuador and Peru to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west and Panama to the northwest. Colombia comprises 32 departments and the Capital District of Bogotá, the country's largest city. It covers an area of 1,141,748 square kilometers (440,831 sq mi), with a population of 50 million. Colombia's cultural heritage reflects influences by various Amerindian civilizations, European settlement, enslaved Africans, as well as immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Spanish is the nation's official language, besides which over 70 languages are spoken.

Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since at least 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca, Quimbaya and Tairona. The Spanish landed first in La Guajira in 1499 and by the mid-16th century colonized parts of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santa Fé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from the Spanish Empire was achieved in 1819, with what is now Colombia emerging as the United Provinces of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858) and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903, leading to Colombia's present borders. Beginning in the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security, stability and rule of law, as well as unprecedented economic growth and development.

Colombia is one of the world's seventeen megadiverse countries; it has the second-highest level of biodiversity in the world. Its territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, highlands, grasslands and deserts. It is the only country in South America with coastlines and islands along both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

Colombia is a member of major global and regional organizations including the UN, the WTO, the OECD, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance and the Andean Community. It is also a NATO Global Partner. Its diversified economy is the third-largest in South America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. (Full article...)

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"Te Lo Agradezco, Pero No" (English: "Thank you, but no") is a song recorded by Spanish singer Alejandro Sanz and Colombian singer Shakira, for Sanz's eighth studio album El Tren de los Momentos (2006). It was released as the second single from the record in December 2006 by Warner Music Latina. The track was written by Sanz, while production was handled by him along with Lulo Pérez. "Te Lo Agradezco, Pero No" is the second duet recorded by the two singers, following "La Tortura" for Shakira's album Fijación Oral Vol. 1 (2005). The song came about after she approached Sanz, telling him that she wanted to collaborate on something different from her own material.

Upon its release, "Te Lo Agradezco, Pero No" was perceived as an album highlight by several music critics. It earned the duo multiple awards and nominations, including Song of the Year at the 2007 Premios Oye!. Commercially, the single was successful in Venezuela and on the American Latin music charts, where it topped the Billboard Hot Latin Songs and Latin Pop Airplay charts. A music video for the song, directed by Jaume de Laiguana, was filmed in Brooklyn and released on 11 January 2007. It is a continuation of the clip for Sanz's "A la Primera Persona" and it features the duo dancing together towards the end. Sanz performed the song live during his El Tren De Los Momentos Tour (2007–08). (Full article...)
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"Volví a Nacer" (English: "I Was Born Again") is a song written and performed by Colombian recording artist Carlos Vives and co-produced by Andrés Castro. Following an international hiatus, it was released as the lead single from his thirteenth studio album Corazón Profundo (2013) on September 24, 2012. The song's lyrics are in Spanish and were inspired by the events of his music career as well as his wife Claudia Elena Vásquez. It is described by Vives as a romantic song with elements of Colombian vallenato and pop music.

"Volví a Nacer" was both a critical and commercial success where it peaked at number one in Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, and on the Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart in the United States. The song was well received by critics who described it as the best track on the album. The success of the song led to Vives winning six Nuestra Tierra awards in his home country and two Latin Grammys for Song of the Year and Best Tropical Song. The music video for the song was directed by Carlos Pérez and filmed in Mexico. (Full article...)

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Largest cities

Colombia is a highly urbanized country with 77.1% of the population living in urban areas. The largest cities in the country are Bogotá, with 7,387,400 inhabitants, Medellín, with 2,382,399 inhabitants, Cali, with 2,172,527 inhabitants, and Barranquilla, with 1,205,284 inhabitants.[2]

Largest cities or towns in Colombia
According to the 2018 Census[3]
Rank Name Department Pop. Rank Name Department Pop.
1 Bogotá Distrito Capital 7,387,400 11 Ibagué Tolima 492,554 Cali
2 Medellín Antioquia 2,382,399 12 Villavicencio Meta 492,052
3 Cali Valle del Cauca 2,172,527 13 Santa Marta Magdalena 455,299
4 Barranquilla Atlántico 1,205,284 14 Valledupar Cesar 431,794
5 Cartagena Bolívar 876,885 15 Manizales Caldas 405,234
6 Cúcuta Norte de Santander 685,445 16 Montería Córdoba 388,499
7 Soacha Cundinamarca 655,025 17 Pereira Risaralda 385,838
8 Soledad Atlántico 602,644 18 Neiva Huila 335,994
9 Bucaramanga Santander 570,752 19 Pasto Nariño 308,095
10 Bello Antioquia 495,483 20 Armenia Quindío 287,245
  1. ^ "ARC" stands for "Armada Nacional de la República de Colombia."
  2. ^ "Largest cities" (PDF). Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  3. ^ "Largest cities" (PDF). Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved 10 February 2020.


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