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Demographics of Colombia

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Colombia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. It is the second-most populous country in South America after Brazil.

Tota Lake 1.JPG
Tota Lake
Population48,258,499 (2018 census)(28th)[1]
Density42.25 inhab/sq km (72nd)
Growth rateIncrease 1.27% (105th)
Birth rate18.9 births/1,000 population (111th)
Death rate5.8/1,000 population (178th)
Life expectancy79 (34th)
 • male76 (37th)
 • female83 (22nd)
Fertility rate2.00 children/woman (122nd)
Net migration rateDecrease−0.65 (2014)[2]
0–14 years26.7%
15–64 years65.6%
65 and over7.6%
Total1.03 male(s)/female
Under 151.02 male(s)/female
15–64 years0.95 male(s)/female
65 and over0.75 male(s)/female
SpokenSpanish

The Demography of Colombia is characterized for being the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Mexico and Brazil. Colombia experienced rapid population growth like most countries, but four decades of an armed conflict pushed millions of Colombians out of the country. However, a rebound economy in the 2000s in urban centres (perhaps the most urbanized Latin American nation) improved the situation of living standards for Colombians in a traditional class stratified economy.

CensusEdit

YearPop.±%
1864 1,694,487—    
1870 2,681,637+58.3%
1905* 4,533,777+69.1%
1912 5,472,604+20.7%
1918 5,855,077+7.0%
1928 7,851,110+34.1%
1938** 8,701,816+10.8%
1951 11,548,172+32.7%
1964 17,484,508+51.4%
1973 20,785,235+18.9%
1985 27,837,932+33.9%
1993 33,109,839+18.9%
2005 42,888,592+29.5%
2018 48,258,494+12.5%
*First census after 35 years
**First modern census
2018 population census final estimate
Note: Diverse sources Census respective year DANE
Source: DANEDANE Simple[1]
 
The population density of Colombia. Red showing concentration of population.
 
Demographics of Colombia, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

2018 CensusEdit

According to the 2018 census, Colombia has 48,258,494 inhabitants within its territory. [3]

# Department Capital Area (km²) 2005 Population 2018 Population Change
1 Amazonas Leticia 109,665 67,726 76,589 13.1
2 Antioquia Medellín 63,612 5,682,310 6,407,102 12.8
3 Arauca Arauca 23,818 232,129 262,714 13.2
4 Atlántico Barranquilla 3,388 2,166,020 2,535,517 17.1
5 Bogotá, Distrito Capital 1,587 6,840,116 7,412,566 8.4
6 Bolívar Cartagena 25,978 1,879,480 2,070,110 10.1
7 Boyacá Tunja 23,189 1,255,314 1,217,376 −3.0
8 Caldas Manizales 7,888 968,586 998,255 3.1
9 Caquetá Florencia 88,965 420,337 401,489 −4.5
10 Casanare Yopal 44,640 295,353 420,504 42.4
11 Cauca Popayán 29,308 1,268,937 1,464,488 15.4
12 Cesar Valledupar 22,905 903,279 1,200,574 32.9
13 Chocó Quibdó 46,530 440,123 534,826 21.5
14 Córdoba Montería 25,020 1,467,929 1,784,783 21.6
15 Cundinamarca Bogotá 24,210 2,280,037 2,919,060 28.0
16 Guainía Inirida 72,238 35,230 48,114 36.6
17 Guaviare San José del Guaviare 53,460 95,551 82,767 −13.4
18 Huila Neiva 19,890 1,011,418 1,100,386 8.8
19 La Guajira Riohacha 20,848 681,575 880,560 29.2
20 Magdalena Santa Marta 23,188 1,149,917 1,341,746 16.7
21 Meta Villavicencio 85,635 783,168 1,039,722 32.8
22 Nariño Pasto 33,268 1,541,956 1,630,592 5.7
23 Norte de Santander Cúcuta 21,658 1,243,975 1,491,689 19.9
24 Putumayo Mocoa 24,885 310,132 348,142 12.3
25 Quindío Armenia 1,845 534,552 539,904 1.0
26 Risaralda Pereira 4,140 897,509 943,401 5.1
27 San Andrés and Providencia San Andrés 52 70,554 61,280 −13.1
28 Santander Bucaramanga 30,537 1,957,789 2,184,837 11.6
29 Sucre Sincelejo 10,670 772,010 904,863 17.2
30 Tolima Ibagué 23,562 1,365,342 1,330,187 −2.6
31 Valle del Cauca Cali 22,140 4,161,425 4,475,886 7.6
32 Vaupés Mitú 54,135 39,279 40,797 0.4
33 Vichada Puerto Carreño 100,242 55,872 107,888 93.1
Total 1,141,748 km² 42,888,592 48,258,494 12.5

20th and 21st centuriesEdit

Colombian census from 1912:[4] [5]

  • On 1912 census estimated 5,472,604 inhabitants.
  • On 1918 census estimated 5,855,077 inhabitants.
  • On 1928 census estimated 7,851,110 inhabitants.
  • On 1938 census estimated 8,697,041 inhabitants.
  • On 1951 census estimated 11,548,172 inhabitants.
  • On 1964 census estimated 17,484,508 inhabitants.
  • On 1973 census estimated 20,785,234 inhabitants.
  • On 1985 census estimated 27,837,932 inhabitants.
  • On 1993 census estimated 33,109,839 inhabitants.
  • On 2005 census estimated 42,888,592 inhabitants.
  • On 2018 census estimated 48,258,494 inhabitants.

UN estimatesEdit

According to the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects[6][7] the total population was 49,661,048 in 2018, compared to only 12,342,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2015 was 24.3%, 68.7% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 7% was 65 years or older .[8]

Total population
(x 1000)
Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 12 341 42.6 54.0 3.4
1955 14 225 44.8 52.0 3.2
1960 16 480 46.4 50.4 3.2
1965 19 144 46.9 49.9 3.2
1970 22 061 45.9 50.7 3.4
1975 24 757 43.4 53.0 3.6
1980 27 738 40.6 55.7 3.7
1985 31 012 37.9 58.2 3.9
1990 34 272 36.3 59.6 4.1
1995 37 442 34.3 61.3 4.4
2000 40 404 31.5 63.8 4.7
2005 43 286 28.9 65.9 5.2
2010 45 918 26.4 67.8 5.9
2015 48 229 24.3 68.7 7.0

Age structure of the populationEdit

Structure of the population according to the 2018 census results:[9]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 23,550,072 24,708,422 48,258,494 100
0–4 1,698,699 1,621,485 3,320,184 6.88
5–9 1,862,778 1,780,738 3,643,516 7,55
10–14 2,017,205 1,925,513 3,942,718 8,17
15–19 2,152,328 2,055,812 4,208,140 8,72
20–24 2,166,806 2,137,851 4,304,657 8,92
25–29 2,007,553 2,026,857 4,034,410 8,36
30–34 1,804,867 1,857,952 3,662,819 7,59
35–39 1,703,524 1,809,693 3,513,217 7,28
40–44 1,428,451 1,568,401 2,996,852 6,21
45–49 1,360,889 1,529,794 2,890,683 5,99
50–54 1,327,108 1,510,491 2,837,599 5,88
55–59 1,153,378 1,336,760 2,490,138 5,16
60–64 916,911 1,076,164 1,993,075 4,13
65–69 699,748 820,394 1,520,142 3,15
70–74 501,888 598,405 1,100,293 2,28
75–79 357,112 443,978 801,090 1,66
80+ 415,967 582,994 998,961 2,07
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 5,578,682 5,327,736 10,906,418 22.60
15–64 16,021,815 16,909,775 32,931,590 68.24
65+ 1,974,715 2,445,771 4,420,486 9.16

UrbanizationEdit

Movement from rural to urban areas was very heavy in the middle of the twentieth century, but has since tapered off. The urban population increased from 31% of the total population in 1938, to 57% in 1951 and about 70% by 1990. Currently the figure is about 77%. The list of the most populated cities in the country only contains the population living in the urban area of the municipalities, according to the results of the 2018 population census.[10]

Rank Place name 2018 Census 2005 Census % Change
1 Bogotá 7,387,400 6,824,507 8.20%
2 Medellín 2,382,399 2,175,681 9.50%
3 Cali 2,172,527 2,083,102 4.30%
4 Barranquilla 1,205,284 1,142,451 5.50%
5 Cartagena 876,885 842,632 4.07%
6 Cúcuta 685,445 567,559 20.77%
7 Soacha 655,025 396,544 65.18%
8 Soledad 602,644 460,745 30.80%
9 Bucaramanga 570,752 509,135 12.10%
10 Bello 495,483 358,167 38.34%
11 Ibagué 492,554 468,378 15.16%
12 Villavicencio 492,052 356,461 38.04%
13 Santa Marta 455,299 385,186 18.20%
14 Valledupar 431,794 299,112 44.36%
15 Manizales 405,234 353,138 14.75%
16 Montería 388,499 286,631 35.54%
17 Pereira 385,838 371,439 3.87%
18 Neiva 335,994 295,847 13.57%
19 Pasto 308,095 312,480 -1.40%
20 Armenia 287,245 273,076 13.73%
21 Floridablanca 280,025 243,773 14.87%
22 Palmira 275,254 228,056 20.69%
23 Popayán 266,561 226,867 17.49%
24 Sincelejo 249,323 219,655 13.50%
25 Itagüí 247,918 213,187 16.29%
26 Buenaventura 235,064 292,889 -19.74%
27 Envigado 215,766 165,462 30.40%
28 Dosquebradas 204,280 169,820 20.29%
29 Barrancabermeja 177,272 170,821 3.77%
30 Tuluá 174,951 160,916 8.72%
31 Tunja 163,894 146,605 11.79%
32 Florencia 147,939 122,071 21.19%
33 Yopal 143,619 90,179 59.26%
34 Girón 141,107 117,986 19.59%
35 Piedecuesta 139,273 92,719 50.21%
36 Cartago 131,641 122,008 7.89%
37 Mosquera 128,012 59,895 113.73%
38 Riohacha 126,103 136,223 -7.42%
39 Facatativá 125,348 95,651 31.05%
40 Jamundí 123,615 65,662 88.26%
41 Malambo 119,878 95,254 25.85%
42 Fusagasugá 114,722 86,243 33.02%
43 Quibdó 113,124 101,145 11.84%
44 Sogamoso 111,815 96,839 15.46%
45 Buga 110,905 99,845 11.08%
46 Duitama 107,520 93,014 15.59%
47 Zipaquirá 106,461 88,538 20.24%
48 Ocaña 106,159 78,838 34.65%
49 Chía 105,509 73,852 42.87%
50 Ciénaga 104,999 87,585 19.88%
51 Maicao 103,354 85,112 21.43%
52 Madrid 102,710 53,869 90.67%

Vital statisticsEdit

UN estimatesEdit

The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[8]

Period Live births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
males
Life expectancy
females
1950–1955 628,000 219,000 409,000 47.3 16.5 30.6 6.76 123 50.6 49.0 52.3
1955–1960 697,000 203,000 494,000 45.4 13.2 32.2 6.76 105 55.2 53.5 56.9
1960–1965 787,000 203,000 584,000 44.2 11.4 32.8 6.76 92 57.9 56.2 59.7
1965–1970 845,000 206,000 639,000 41.1 10.0 31.1 6.18 82 60.0 58.3 61.8
1970–1975 800,000 202,000 598,000 34.2 8.7 25.5 4.90 73 61.7 59.6 63.9
1975–1980 853,000 199,000 654,000 32.5 7.6 24.9 4.25 57 64.0 61.7 66.3
1980–1985 900,000 191,000 709,000 30.7 6.5 24.2 3.70 43 66.8 63.6 70.2
1985–1990 904,000 201,000 703,000 27.7 6.2 21.5 3.18 35 68.0 64.5 71.7
1990–1995 898,000 219,000 679,000 25.1 6.1 19.0 2.84 28 68.7 64.5 73.0
1995–2000 853,000 223,000 630,000 21.9 5.7 16.2 2.50 24 70.3 66.5 74.2
2000–2005 842,000 234,000 608,000 20.1 5.6 14.5 2.30 21 71.7 68.0 75.5
2005–2010 804,000 249,000 555,000 18.0 5.6 12.4 2.10 19 72.9 69.2 76.7
2010–2015 764,000 273,000 491,000 16.2 5.8 10.4 1.93 16 73.9 70.3 77.6
2015–2020 729,000 300,000 429,000 14.8 6.1 8.7 1.83 14 74.9 71.4 78.6
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deathsEdit

[11]

Year Population (x1000) Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
1998 39,184 720 984 175 363 545 621 18.4 4.5 13.9 2.38
1999 39,730 746 194 183 553 562 641 18.8 4.6 14.2 2.43
2000 40,295 752 834 187 432 565 402 18.7 4.6 14.1 2.45
2001 40,813 724 319 191 513 532 806 17.7 4.7 13.0 2.35
2002 41,328 700 455 192 262 508 193 16.9 4.7 12.2 2.11
2003 41,848 710 702 192 121 518 581 17.0 4.6 12.4 2.18
2004 42,368 723 099 188 933 534 166 17.1 4.5 12.6 2.24
2005 42,888 719 968 189 022 530 946 16.8 4.4 12.4 2.20
2006 43,405 714 450 192 814 521 636 16.5 4.4 12.1 2.13
2007 43,926 709 253 193 936 515 317 16.1 4.4 11.7 2.07
2008 44,451 715 453 196 394 519 059 16.1 4.4 11.7 2.08
2009 44,978 699 775 196 933 502 842 15.6 4.4 11.2 2.04
2010 45,509 654 627 200 524 454 103 14.4 4.4 10.0 1.91
2011 46,044 665 499 195 823 469 676 14.5 4.3 10.2 1.93
2012 46,581 676 815 199 756 477 059 14.5 4.3 10.2 1.95
2013 47,121 658 835 203 071 455 764 14.0 4.3 9.7 1.87
2014 47,661 669 137 210 051 459 086 14.0 4.4 9.6 1.90
2015 48,203 660 999 219 472 441 527 13.7 4.6 9.1 1.85
2016 48,747 647 521 223 078 424 443 13.3 4.6 8.7 1.79
2017 49,291 656 704 227 624 429 060 13.3 4.5 8.8 1.81
2018 48,258 637 669 228 156 409 513 13.2 4.7 8.5 1.77

Current vital statisticsEdit

[12]

  • Number of births from January-June 2018 =   302,375
  • Number of births from January-June 2019 =   305,260
  • Number of deaths from January-June 2018 =   110,644
  • Number of deaths from January-June 2019 =   114,342
  • Natural growth from January-June 2018 =   191,731
  • Natural growth from January-June 2019 =   190,918


Birth, Death and Natural Growth rate by Region and Year[13]
Region Live births (Birth rate)/2018 Deaths (Death Rate)/2018 Natural growth (Growth rate)/2018
Colombia 637,669 (13.2) 228,156 (4.7) 409,153 (8.5)
Amazonas 1,208 (15.8) 184 (2.4) 1,024 (13.4)
Antioquia 74,317 (11.6) 32,780 (5.1) 41,537 (6.5)
Arauca 4,857 (18.5) 1,113 (4.2) 3,744 (14.3)
Atlántico 41,932 (16.5) 12,191 (4.8) 29,741 (11.7)
Bogotá, Distrito Capital 87,118 (11.8) 31,663 (4.3) 55,455 (7.5)
Bolívar 35,177 (17.0) 8,281 (4.0) 26,896 (13.0)
Boyacá 13,707 (11.3) 6,336 (5.2) 7,371 (6.1)
Caldas 8,569 (8.6) 5,902 (5.9) 2,667 (2.7)
Caquetá 6,789 (16.9) 1,728 (4.3) 5,061 (12.6)
Casanare 6,090 (14.5) 1,273 (3.0) 4,817 (11.5)
Cauca 17,679 (12.1) 6,045 (4.1) 11,634 (8.0)
Cesar 21,532 (17.9) 4,451 (3.7) 17,081 (14.2)
Chocó 5,442 (10.2) 1,140 (2.1) 4,302 (8.1)
Córdoba 26,001 (14.6) 7,175 (4.1) 18,826 (10.5)
Cundinamarca 34,772 (11.9) 12,905 (4.4) 21,867 (7.5)
Guainía 825 (17.1) 140 (2.9) 685 (14.2)
Guaviare 1,254 (15.1) 269 (3.2) 985 (11.9)
Huila 18,498 (16.8) 5,613 (5.1) 12,885 (11.7)
La Guajira 19,928 (22.6) 2,458 (2.8) 17,470 (19.8)
Magdalena 22,932 (17.1) 5,353 (4.0) 17,579 (13.1)
Meta 14,711 (14.1) 4,565 (4.4) 10,146 (9.7)
Nariño 17,173 (10.5) 7,264 (4.5) 9,909 (6.0)
Norte de Santander 21,759 (14.6) 7,525 (5.0) 14,234 (9.6)
Putumayo 4,348 (12.5) 1,179 (3.4) 3,169 (9.1)
Quindío 5,586 (10.3) 3,760 (7.0) 1,826 (3.3)
Risaralda 9,975 (10.6) 5,804 (6.2) 4,171 (4.4)
San Andrés and Providencia 771 (12.6) 244 (4.0) 527 (8.6)
Santander 28,630 (13.1) 10,665 (4.9) 17,965 (8.2)
Sucre 15,149 (16.7) 3,886 (4.3) 11,263 (12.4)
Tolima 16,835 (12.7) 8,155 (6.1) 8,680 (6.6)
Valle del Cauca 48,797 (10.9) 25,494 (5.7) 23,303 (5.2)
Vaupés 555 (14.7) 89 (2.4) 466 (12.3)
Vichada 1,055 (13.8) 195 (2.5) 860 (11.3)

Fertility and birthsEdit

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1981–83 3.65
1986 3.34 (2.81) 2.76 (2.42) 4.88 (3.87)
1990 26.1 2.9 (2.2) 25.7 2.5 (2.1) 27.0 3.8 (2.7)
1995 26 3.0 (2.2) 25 2.5 (1.9) 30 4.3 (2.8)
2000 22.7 2.6 (1.8) 21.6 2.3 (1.7) 25.6 3.8 (2.3)
2005 20.4 2.4 (1.7) 19.0 2.1 (1.5) 24.3 3.4 (2.1)
2010 18 2.1 (1.6) 17 2.0 (1.5) 20 2.8 (1.9)
2015[14] 16.4 2.0 (1.6) 15.7 1.8 (1.5) 18.5 2.6 (1.9)

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[15]

EthnicityEdit

Ethnic groups in Colombia[16]
Ethnic group percent
White and Mestizo
84.2%
Afro-Colombians (includes Mulatto, Raizal, and Palenquero )
10.4%
Amerindians
3.4%
Unspecified
2.1%

Colombia is ethnically diverse, its original people descending from the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans originally brought to the country as slaves, and 20th-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East, all contributing to a diverse cultural heritage.[17] The demographic distribution reflects a pattern that is influenced by colonial history. Whites tend to live mainly in urban centers, like Bogotá, Medellín or Cali, and the burgeoning highland cities. The populations of the major cities also include mestizos. Mestizo campesinos (people living in rural areas) also live in the Andean highlands where some Spanish conquerors mixed with the women of Amerindian chiefdoms. Mestizos include artisans and small tradesmen that have played a major part in the urban expansion of recent decades.[18]

The 2005 census reported that the "non-ethnic population", consisting of whites and mestizos (those of mixed white European and Amerindian ancestry), constituted 86% of the national population. 10.6% is of African ancestry. Indigenous Amerindians comprise 3.4% of the population. Less than 0.01% of the population is Roma. An extraofficial estimate considers that the 49% of the Colombian population is Mestizo or of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry, and that approximately 37% is White, mainly of Spanish lineage, but there is also a large population of Middle East descent; among the upper class there is a considerable input of Italian and German ancestry.[19]

Many of the Indigenous peoples experienced a reduction in population during the Spanish rule[20] and many others were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remainder currently represents over eighty distinct cultures. Reserves (resguardos) established for indigenous peoples occupy 30,571,640 hectares (305,716.4 km2) (27% of the country's total) and are inhabited by more than 800,000 people.[21] Some of the largest indigenous groups are the Wayuu,[22] the Paez, the Pastos, the Emberá and the Zenú.[23] The departments of La Guajira, Cauca, Nariño, Córdoba and Sucre have the largest indigenous populations.[24]

The Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia (ONIC), founded at the first National Indigenous Congress in 1982, is an organization representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia. In 1991, Colombia signed and ratified the current international law concerning indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989.[25]

Black Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the 16th century and continuing into the 19th century. Large Afro-Colombian communities are found today on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The population of the department of Chocó, running along the northern portion of Colombia's Pacific coast, is over 80% black.[26] Britons and Jamaicans migrated mainly to the islands of San Andres and Providencia Islands. A number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including people from the former USSR during and after the Second World War.[27][28]

Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East. Barranquilla (the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean) and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Lebanese, Palestinian, Phoenician and other Middle Easterners.[29][30] There are also important communities of Chinese, Japanese, Romanis and Jews.[17] There is a major migration trend of Venezuelans, due to the political crisis and economic collapse in Venezuela. [31]

LanguagesEdit

Spanish (of which Colombia has the third-largest population of speakers in the world after Mexico and the United States) is the official language, and there are small communities in urban areas speaking other European languages such as German, French, English, Italian and Portuguese. There are 65 indigenous languages and two Creole languages, one creole in San Basilio de Palenque and one in San Andrés; and also San Andrés is the only place of Colombia where are three official languages: Spanish, English and a creole language.

ReligionEdit

Religion in Colombia (2014) - Pew Research Center [32]

  Catholicism (79%)
  Protestantism (13%)
  Unaffiliated (6%)
  Other (2%)

Religion in Colombia - Other studies [33][34]

  Catholicism (70.9%)
  Protestantism (16.7%)
  Atheist or agnostic (4.7%)
  Claim to believe in God but do not follow a specific religion (3.5%)
  Other (0.2%)
  The remaining people either did not respond or replied that they did not know. (2.2%)

The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) does not collect religious statistics, and accurate reports are difficult to obtain. However, based on various studies and a survey, about 90% of the population adheres to Christianity, the majority of which (70.9%) are Roman Catholic, while a significant minority (16.7%) adhere to Protestantism (primarily Evangelicalism). Some 4.7% of the population is atheist or agnostic, while 3.5% claim to believe in God but do not follow a specific religion. 1.8% of Colombians adhere to Jehovah's Witnesses and Adventism and less than 1% adhere to other religions, such as Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Mormonism, Hinduism, Indigenous religions, Hare Krishna movement, Rastafari movement, Orthodox Catholic Church, and spiritual studies. The remaining people either did not respond or replied that they did not know. In addition to the above statistics, 35.9% of Colombians reported that they did not practice their faith actively.[33][34][32]

While Colombia remains a mostly Roman Catholic country by baptism numbers, the 1991 Colombian constitution guarantees freedom of religion and all religious faiths and churches are equally free before the law.[35]

MigrationEdit

Historically, a sizable percentage of Colombian emigration has also been motivated by the need to escape from political persecution and bipartisan violence during the periods of "La Violencia" (1948–1958), and later due to the effects of the nation's current conflict (since 1964). This has resulted in numerous applications for political asylum abroad.

Colombians have emigrated in comparably high rates to the United States. Other Colombians migrated to Canada and Europe (most to Spain, but also to France, Italy, the United Kingdom and Sweden). Among other locations.[citation needed]

Today millions of Colombians have returned to their country due to improvements in security, Colombia is now a country on the road to recovery. It is creating an economy that is today considered attractive and prosperous by many national and international investors. There are policies of the Colombian Government to help Colombians with housing loans. There is a support system for returning migrants. Certificates of competency are issued and there is a free employment service to help people find job.[36][37][38][39]

CIA World Factbook demographic statisticsEdit

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[40]

PopulationEdit

48,637,910 (May, 2016 est.)

Median ageEdit

total: 27.7 years

male: 26.7 years

female: 28.6 years (2010 est.)

Sex ratioEdit

At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15–64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rateEdit

0.7% (2007 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDSEdit

170,000 (2007 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deathsEdit

9,800 (2007 est.)

NationalityEdit

noun: Colombia adjective: Colombian(s)

LiteracyEdit

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.4%

male: 93.1% (2005 census)

female: 93.7% (2005 census)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Animated clock". Colombian State Department. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  2. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Rank Order – Net migration rate". CIA. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
  3. ^ "Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2018". Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística - DANE. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  4. ^ "La historia del censo en Colombia" Archived 5 December 2012 at Archive.today. Caracol. 28 September 2005. Consulted 16 April 2012.
  5. ^ "Entrega de resultados Censo nacional de población y vivienda (CNPV)- 2018" (PDF). DANE. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  6. ^ ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  7. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  8. ^ a b "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  9. ^ "Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2018 - Herramientas - Explorador de datos". DANE. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  10. ^ "Población ajustada por cobertura - Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2018". DANE. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  11. ^ "Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE)". Dane.gov.co. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  12. ^ "Nacimientos y Defunciones". Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística - DANE. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  13. ^ "Estadísticas vitales nacimientos y defunciones". Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística - DANE. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  14. ^ "Ministerio de Salud y Profamilia entregan resultados de la ENDS 2015". Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social. Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social de Colombia. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  15. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". Microdata.worldbank.org. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  16. ^ "South America :: COLOMBIA". CIA The World Factbook.
  17. ^ a b "The ethnic and cultural diversity of Colombia" (PDF) (in Spanish). pedagogica.edu.co. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  18. ^ Bushnell & Hudson, pp. 87–88.
  19. ^ Bushnell, David & Rex A. Hudson (2010) "The Society and Its Environment"; Colombia: a country study: pp. 87, 92. Washingtion D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
  20. ^ "Society and slavery" (in Spanish). colombia.com. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  21. ^ "Resguardos indígenas – Concentra el 43% de los bosques naturales" (in Spanish). siac.gov.co. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  22. ^ "Hostein, N. (2010). El pueblo wayuu de la Guajira colombo-venezolana: un panorama de su cultura. Cuadernos de Antropología, 20(1)". Revistas.ucr.ac.cr. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  23. ^ "Los pueblos indígenas de Colombia en el umbral del nuevo milenio. Población, cultura y territorio: bases para el fortalecimiento social y económico de los pueblos indígenas". dnp.gov.co. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  24. ^ "visibilización estadística de los grupos étnicos" (PDF). Censo General 2005. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  25. ^ "Ratifications for Colombia". ilo.org. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  26. ^ "Ethnic groups in Colombia" (PDF) (in Spanish). dane.gov.co. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  27. ^ Luis Álvaro Gallo Martínez (2011). "Inmigrantes a Colombia: Personajes extranjeros llegados a Colombia" (PDF). rodriguezuribe.co. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015.
  28. ^ Wabgou, M., Vargas, D. & Carabalí, J. A. (2012). "Las migraciones internacionales en Colombia. Investigación & Desarrollo, 20(1) 142–167". Rcientificas.ninorte.edu.co.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  29. ^ Vargas Arana, Pilar, and Luz Marina Suaza Vargas. "Los árabes en Colombia: Del rechazo a la integración." (2007).
  30. ^ "The Arab immigration to Colombia" (in Spanish). nodo50.org. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  31. ^ "Características de los migrantes de Venezuela a Colombia" (PDF). Labourosario.com (in Spanish). 14 August 2017.
  32. ^ a b "Religion in Latin America, Widespread Change in a Historically Catholic Region". pewforum.org. Pew Research Center. 13 November 2014.
  33. ^ a b Beltrán Cely; William Mauricio (2013). "Del monopolio católico a la explosión pentecostal'" (PDF) (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Centro de Estudios Sociales (CES), Maestría en Sociología. ISBN 978-958-761-465-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  34. ^ a b Beltrán Cely; William Mauricio. "Descripción cuantitativa de la pluralización religiosa en Colombia" (PDF). Universitas humanística 73 (2012): 201–238. – bdigital.unal.edu.co. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  35. ^ Colombian Constitution of 1991 (Title II – Concerning rights, guarantees, and duties – Chapter I – Concerning fundamental rights – Article 19)
  36. ^ "Can Young People Rebuild Colombia's Social Capital?". theglobalist.com. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  37. ^ "Opportunities for Colombians who are returning to the country" (in Spanish). conexioncolombia.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  38. ^ "Colombia provides opportunities for the development of its citizens in the country" (in Spanish). conexioncolombia.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  39. ^ "Entrepreneurship and employment programme for those who return to the country" (in Spanish). elempleo.com. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  40. ^ "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 7 July 2016.

External linksEdit