A wet market (also called a public market) is a marketplace selling fresh meat, fish, produce, and other perishable goods as distinguished from "dry markets" that sell durable goods such as fabric and electronics. Not all wet markets sell live animals, but the term wet market is sometimes used to signify a live animal market in which vendors slaughter animals upon customer purchase, such as is done with poultry in Hong Kong. Wet markets are common in many parts of the world, notably in China, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. These include a wide variety of markets, such as farmers' markets, fish markets, and/or wildlife markets. They often play critical roles in urban food security due to factors of pricing, freshness of food, social interaction, and local cultures.
A wet market in Hong Kong
|Hanyu Pinyin||chuántǒng shìchǎng|
|Jyutping||cyun4 tung2 si5 coeng4|
|Literal meaning||traditional market|
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning||street market|
Most wet markets do not trade in wild or exotic animals, but those that do have been linked to outbreaks of zoonotic diseases. One such market, the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, was believed to have played a role in the COVID-19 pandemic, although investigations into whether the virus originated from non-market sources are ongoing as of April 2020. Wet markets were banned from holding wildlife in China in 2003, after the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak which was directly tied to those practices. Such regulations were lifted before being put into place again in 2020, with other countries proposing similar bans. Media reports that fail to distinguish between all wet markets and those with live animals or wildlife, as well as insinuations of fostering wildlife smuggling, have been blamed for fueling Sinophobia related to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.
The term "wet market" came into common use in Singapore in the early 1970s when the government used it to distinguish such traditional markets from the supermarkets that had become popular there. The term was added to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) in 2016, as a term used throughout Southeast Asia. The OED's earliest cited use of the term is from The Straits Times of Singapore in 1978.
The "wet" in "wet market" refers to the constantly wet floors due to the melting of ice used to keep food from spoiling, the washing of meat and seafood stalls and the spraying of fresh produce that are common in wet markets.
The term "public market" may be synonymous with "wet market", although it may sometimes refer exclusively to state-owned and community-owned wet markets. Wet markets may also be called "fresh food markets" and "good food markets" when referring to markets consisting of numerous competing vendors primarily selling fruits and vegetables. The term "wet market" is frequently used to signify a live animal market that sells directly to consumers, although the terms are not synonymous.
Although the term "wet market" may refer to markets that sell wild animals and wildlife products, it is not synonymous with the term "wildlife market" which exclusively refers to markets that contain wildlife products.
The term "wet market", which specifies markets that sell fresh produce and meat, includes a broad variety of markets. Wet markets can be categorized according to their ownership structure (privately owned, state-owned, or community-owned), scale (wholesale or retail), and produce (fruits, vegetables, slaughtered meat, or live animals). They can be further subcategorized based on whether the meat inventory originates from domesticated or wild animals.
Traditional wet markets are typically housed in temporary sheds, open-air sites, or partially open commercial complexes, while modern wet markets are housed in buildings often equipped with improved ventilation, freezing, and refrigeration facilities.
Wet markets are less dependent on imported goods than supermarkets due to their smaller volumes and lesser emphasis on consistency. Wet markets have been described in a 2019 food security study as "critical for ensuring urban food security", particularly in Chinese cities. The roles of wet markets in supporting urban food security include food pricing and physical accessibility.
Academic papers in urban studies, studies on food distribution, and the Singapore National Environment Agency have noted lower prices, greater freshness of food, and the facilitation of both bargaining and social interaction as key reasons for the persistence of wet markets. The persistence of wet markets has also been attributed to "culinary traditions that call for freshly slaughtered meat and fish as opposed to frozen meats".
In developing countries with agriculture-based economies, fresh meat is mainly distributed through traditional wet markets or meat stalls. Wet markets selling fresh meat are often attached to, or located near, slaughter facilities.
If sanitation standards are not maintained, wet markets can spread disease. Those that carry live animals and wildlife are at especially high risk of transmitting zoonoses. Because of the openness, newly introduced animals may come in direct contact with sales clerks, butchers, and customers or to other animals which they would never interact with in the wild. This may allow for some animals to act as intermediate hosts, helping a disease spread to humans.
Due to unhygienic sanitation standards and the connection to the spread of zoonoses and pandemics, critics have grouped wet markets that hold live animals together with factory farming as major health hazards in China and across the world.
Avian flu and SARSEdit
The H5N1 avian flu, SARS, and COVID-19 outbreaks can be traced to keeping live animals in wet markets where the potential for zoonotic transmission is greatly increased. In April 2020, scientist Peter Daszak described a Chinese wet market as follows: "it is a bit of shock to go to a wildlife market and see this huge diversity of animals live in cages on top of each other with a pile of guts that have been pulled out of an animal and thrown on the floor [...] These are perfect places for viruses to spread." In a 2007 study, Chinese scientists identified the presence of SARS-CoV-like viruses in horseshoe bats combined with unsanitary wildlife markets and the culture of eating exotic mammals in southern China as a "time-bomb". A 2018 study in Malaysia concluded that wet market workers were at greater risk for leptospirosis infections.
Chinese environmentalists, researchers and state media have called for stricter regulation of exotic animal trade in the markets. Medical experts Zhong Nanshan, Guan Yi and Yuen Kwok-yung have also called for the closure of wildlife markets since 2010.
Chinese wet markets have been blamed as the source of the COVID-19 pandemic due to reports that two-thirds of the initial cases had direct exposure to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan. The Huanan market sold "live wolf pups, salamanders, civets, and bamboo rats" amongst other species. Alternate theories emerged in January that the viruses were instead artificially created in a laboratory, but these claims were largely rejected by scientists and news outlets as unfounded rumours and conspiracy theories. In April 2020, United States intelligence officials launched examinations into unverified reports that the virus may have originated from accidental exposure of scientists studying coronaviruses in bats at the BSL-4-capable Wuhan Institute of Virology rather than a wildlife market. On 3 May 2020, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo claimed that there is "enormous evidence" the coronavirus outbreak originated in a Chinese laboratory. However, Pompeo later distanced himself from the claim, while virologists have stated that available data overwhelmingly suggest that there was no chance of scientific misconduct or negligence such that the virus emerged from a lab. In May 2020, George Gao, the director of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, said animal samples collected from the seafood market had tested negative for the virus, indicating that the market was the site of an early superspreading event, but it was not the site of the initial outbreak.
In March and April 2020, some reports have said that wildlife markets in other countries of Asia, Africa, and in general all over the world are also similarly prone to health risks. In April 2020, a group of US lawmakers, NIAID director Anthony Fauci, UNEP biodiversity chief Elizabeth Maruma Mrema, and CBCGDF secretary general Zhou Jinfeng called for the global closure of wildlife markets due to the potential for zoonotic diseases and risk to endangered species.
Around the worldEdit
A 2017 comparative study of traditional wet markets and supermarkets in urban Accra found that there was no significant conflict between the two categories of markets since the influx of new supermarkets in Ghana led by Melcom began in the 1990s, but anticipated future tension between the two without government policies to improve the infrastructure and food safety of wet markets. The study found that consumers at the supermarkets came from the same socio-economic and geographical backgrounds but with higher educational backgrounds than those at the traditional wet markets.
The most common agricultural supply chain in Kenya involves farmers selling their produce to collectors who then sell the produce to retailers in wet markets. A 2006 study in the areas around Nairobi and Kisumu found that 21% of farmers sold to collectors, 17% sold directly to wholesalers, and 14% sold directly to wet market vendors. The collectors and wholesalers both predominantly sold their produce inventory to wet market vendors. The customers of the wet markets in the study were predominantly end consumers, although a small share of the wet markets also sold to restaurants.
From 2008 to 2009, a group of food safety researchers launched an initiative working with a small group of butchers in the wet market section of Bodija Market in Ibadan to promote positive food safety practices and peer-to-peer training. The initiative led to 20% more meat samples being of acceptable quality. A follow-up study in 2019 on the same group of butchers found that, while many of the butchers still remembered the food safety practices, "none of the butchers reported that they continued to buy and replace the materials after the exhaustion of those distributed during the intervention programme". The follow-up study found that the microbiological sanitation in 2018 was even worse than before the 2008–2009 intervention.
In 2014, the license of the slaughterhouse in the wet market section of Bodija Market was revoked due to unhygienic meat handling practices. In its place, the local government opened the Ibadan Central Abattoir in Amosun Village, Akinyele through public-private partnerships. The new facility is equipped with modern facilities for slaughter and processing of meat were provided in 2014 through public-private partnerships and is one of the largest abattoirs in West Africa, consisting of 15 hectares of land with stalls for 1000 meat sellers, 170 shops, administrative building, clinic, canteen, cold room, and an incinerator. In June 2018, local newspapers reported that five people were killed in the Bodija Market abattoir when a security team attempted to enforce the forcible relocation of Ibadan abattoirs to the new facilities as ordered by the local government.
The most common agricultural supply chain in Uganda involves farmers selling their produce to wholesalers, who in turn sell to retailers in wet markets. A 2006 study in the areas around Kampala and Mbale found that 51% of farmers sold to wholesalers and 18% sold directly to wet market vendors, while 34% of the wholesalers sold to wet market vendors. The customers of the wet markets in the study were predominantly end consumers, although a small share of the wet markets also sold to restaurants.
In Brazil, regulations on wet markets are handled at the municipal level. The regulations widely vary across Brazil, with zoning rules prohibiting wet markets in some municipalities.
A 2003 study found that wet markets were losing ground in food retail to supermarkets, which had an overall food retail market share of 75%. The gains of supermarkets over traditional food retailers in Brazil were predominantly in meat and seafood retail, with the supermarkets' fresh meat & seafood market shares typically three times greater than their fresh fruits & vegetables market share.
According to a 2010 USDA Foreign Agricultural Service report, each small town in Colombia typically has a wet market that is supplied by local production and opens at least once a week. The report described both retail wet markets and wholesale wet markets that provide food products for "Mom'n Pop stores". It estimated the number of wet markets at around 2,000, but noted that the number was slowly decreasing in large cities despite the presence of large wet markets like Corabastos in Bogotá.
Some traditional Mexican open-air markets called tianguis, such as the Mercado Margarita Maza de Juárez in Oaxaca, are separated into a wet market (zona húmeda) and a dry market (zona seca). A 2002 study observed a trend that Mexican consumers, especially those in the middle class, increasingly prefer supermarkets for beef purchases as opposed to traditional wet markets. In 2014, a study of Mexican beef retail also noted an ongoing transition from traditional full-service wet markets to self-service meat display cases in supermarkets.
In Mexico, conflicts between traditional and modern retailers are handled at the municipal and state levels. Some local zoning rules, such as those in the central districts of Mexico City and Morelia, have prohibited wet markets from operating in urban districts without providing further assistance to the retailers.
Since the 1990s, large cities across China have moved traditional outdoor wet markets to modern indoor facilities. In 1999, all roadside markets in Hangzhou were banned and moved indoors. By 2014, all wet markets in Nanjing were moved indoors. In 2016, a Meat & Livestock Australia study in 15 Chinese cities found that 39% of consumers who frequently purchased imported meat had purchased beef in the preceding month.
In 2018, wet markets were noted to have remained the most prevalent food outlet in urban regions of China despite the rise of supermarket chains since the 1990s. However, wet markets have been losing ground in popularity compared to supermarkets, despite the fact they may be seen as healthier and more sustainable. Reports suggest "although there are well-managed, hygienic wet markets in and near bigger cities [in China], hygiene can be spotty, especially in smaller communities." During the 2010s, "smart markets" equipped with e-payment terminals emerged as traditional wet markets faced increasing competition from discount stores. Wet markets also began facing competition from online grocery stores, such as Alibaba's Hema stores.
The trade of wildlife is not common in China, particularly in large cities, and most wet markets in China do not contain live or wild animals besides fish held in tanks. However, some poorly-regulated Chinese wet markets provide outlets for the exotic wildlife trade industry that was estimated to be worth more than $73 billion in a 2017 Chinese government report. In 2003, wet markets across China were banned from holding wildlife after the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak, which was directly tied to such practices. In 2014, live poultry was banned from all markets in Hangzhou due to the H7N9 avian influenza outbreak. Several provinces in China also banned the sale of live poultry following the avian influenza outbreak. Although the exact origin of the COVID-19 pandemic is yet to be confirmed as of April 2020, it has been linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, China. Following the outbreak, epidemiology experts from China and a number of animal welfare organizations called to ban the operation of wet markets selling wild animals for human consumption.
The Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market was shut down on 1 January 2020. The Chinese government subsequently announced a temporary ban on the sale of wild animal products at wet markets on 26 January 2020, and then a permanent ban in February 2020 with an exception for Traditional Chinese Medicine ingredients. By 22 March 2020, at least 94% of the temporarily closed wet markets in China were reopened according to Chinese state-run media, without wild animals or wild meat. The reopening of wet markets led to public criticism of the Chinese government's handling of wet markets by Anthony Fauci and Lindsey Graham, although their criticisms have been attributed to semantic confusion between the terms "wet market" and "wildlife market". The World Health Organization responded with the recommendation that wet markets only be reopened "on the condition that they conform to stringent food safety and hygiene standards."  As of April 2020, the Chinese government is drafting a permanent law to further tighten restrictions on wildlife trade.
On 16 May 1842, Central Market was opened in a central position on Queen's Road in Hong Kong. In this market, people could find all kinds of meat, fruit and vegetables, poultry, salt fish, fresh fish, weighing rooms and money changers.
In 1920, the Reclamation Street Market was opened in Hong Kong. Due to structural problems, Reclamation Street Market was removed by the government in 1953. In 1957, Yau Ma Tei Street Market launched to replace the Reclamation Street Market. There were fixed-pitch stalls which sold vegetables, fruits, seafood, beef, pork, and poultry. Also, there were stalls selling baby chickens, baby ducks, and three-striped box turtles as pets.
In 1994, wet markets accounted for 70% of produce sales and 50% of meat sales in Hong Kong.
Prior to 2000, many of Hong Kong's wet markets were managed by the Urban Council (within Hong Kong Island and Kowloon) or the Regional Council (in the New Territories). Since the disbandment of the two councils on 31 December 1999, these markets have been managed by the Food and Environmental Hygiene Department (FEHD) of the Hong Kong government.
In 2018, the FEHD operated 74 wet markets housing approximately 13,070 stalls. In addition, the Hong Kong Housing Authority operated 21 markets while private developers operated about 99 (in 2017). As of 2018, planning is underway for new wet markets in the new towns at Tung Chung, Tin Shui Wai, Hung Shui Kiu, Tseung Kwan O, and Kwu Tung North.
In Hong Kong, wet markets are most frequented by older residents, those with lower incomes, and domestic helpers who serve approximately 10 percent of Hong Kong's residents. Most neighbourhoods contain at least one wet market. Wet markets have become destinations for tourists to "see the real Hong Kong". Many of the wet market buildings are owned by property investment firms and as a result the price of food can vary from market to market. Hong Kong's wet markets are known to use red lampshades to make the food look fresher.
Markets in Hong Kong are governed by the law of Hong Kong, not Chinese law. Under the Slaughterhouse Regulation, the slaughtering of live bovine animals, swine, goats, sheep or soliped for human consumption must take place in a licensed slaughterhouse, None of the wet markets in Hong Kong hold wild or exotic animals.
The retail sale of live poultry in Hong Kong is permitted at licensed outlets only. At the end of 2016, there were 85 retail shops within public wet markets licensed to sell live poultry. The FEHD has implemented a number of measures to reduce the risk of avian influenza. Regular inspections and cleaning take place, including nightly disinfection of each stall by external contractors. Stall owners selling live poultry are not allowed to keep the animals on the premises overnight; they must be slaughtered before 8:00 pm nightly.
The Indian meat, poultry, and seafood industries are largely dependent on wet markets. According to Food & Beverage News, domestic consumers prefer freshly cut meat from wet markets over processed and frozen meats despite use of outdated and unhygienic facilities by the majority of Indian wet market abattoirs.
In Delhi, the food retail system consists of the traditional informal food retail sector (wet markets, pushcarts, and kirana "mom-and-pop" stores), rent-free-subsidized retailers' cooperatives, government-owned food distribution channels, and private modern supermarkets. Delhi wet markets generally consist of a number of small retailers that cluster together to sell their produce during daily fixed hours. A 2010 study of Delhi food retail found that 68% to 75% of the total quantity of fruits and vegetables sold to consumers were distributed by wet market retailers. The same study surveyed consumers at 518 wet market retailers in Delhi and found that their transactions included relatively little bargaining, with only a 3% average difference between the final price and the initially quoted price.
Traditional wet markets (such as pasar pagi) are found across in Indonesia in both urban and rural areas. Wet markets face increasing competition from supermarkets as well as e-commerce companies like Shopee and Tokopedia. In 2018, Indonesian wet market vendors that import goods expressed concerns over the decrease in value of the Indonesian rupiah.
In 2016, the Indonesia government's policy to stabilise beef prices required importers to sell cheaper-priced meats in wet markets instead of in supermarkets and hypermarkets. In Greater Jakarta, Indian buffalo meat is predominantly sold in wet markets, with limited market penetration from supermarkets and hypermarkets as of 2018. In contrast, only 7% of consumers in Jakarta purchase Australian beef from supermarkets in 2018.
Many urban wet markets have undergone major renovations during the 2010s, such as Jakarta's Mayestik Market, to modernize them by introducing air conditioning, better ventilation, improved rubbish and liquid disposal systems, improved hygiene, and more safe and comfortable facilities for sellers. In 2018, the first modern wet market opened in Jakarta with a laboratory as well as freezing and refrigeration facilities.
In the Philippines, wet markets are managed by cooperatives according to legislation such as the Cooperatives Code (RA 7160) and the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (RA 8435). The Philippine government has control over the price of some commodities sold in palengkes, especially critical foods such as rice.
In July 2017, the digital wet market Palengke Boy was launched in Davao City to compete against traditional wet markets. In March 2020, the Pasig local government launched a mobile wet market to ensure access to basic goods during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Wet markets in Singapore are subsidized by the government. The Tekka Market, Tiong Bahru Market, and Chinatown Complex Market are prominent wet markets containing seasonal fruit, fresh vegetables, imported beef, and live seafood.
In the early 1990s, the slaughter of animals was banned in 12 inner-city markets and 22 wet market centers in Singapore. In early 2020, the National Environment Agency issued advisories for "high standards of hygiene and cleanliness" for the 83 markets that it oversees in a response to the 2020 coronavirus pandemic.
In Sri Lanka, where poultry is the leading livestock industry and constitutes the only meat export industry, the majority of broiler chickens are mechanically processed in semi-automated plants. However, poultry is still slaughtered in wet markets that generally cater to specific groups of customers and ethnic groups. A 2017 study of 102 semi-automated poultry processing plants and 25 poultry-slaughtering wet markets found that 27.4% of the broiler neck skin samples from the semi-automated processing facilities tested positive for Campylobacter contamination, while 48% of broiler neck skin samples from the wet market processing facilities tested positive for Campylobacter contamination.
In 1997, a report by the Taipei city government indicated that the city had 61 major wet markets with almost 10,000 registered vendors. The report also indicated that most of the city's wet markets were in serious need of repair and that almost 3,500 of the vendor stalls lay vacant.
The Nanmen Market in Taipei is a government-owned traditional wet market that was opened in 1907 during the Japanese colonial rule. The market building was demolished in October 2019 and the market temporarily relocated until its replacement modern 12-floor building is completed in 2022.
United Arab EmiratesEdit
In October 2018, a Meat & Livestock Australia report said that while the United Arab Emirates's grocery retail sector is highly developed, wet markets are still prominent throughout the country.
In 2017, the Hanoi city government planned to renovate the city's wet markets and transform them into modern shopping malls. The plan was met with resistance from wet market vendors after significant declines in sales figures from other markets that were moved to the basements of high-end shopping centers.
The Iveagh Markets in Dublin, Ireland was an indoor market that was divided into a dry market that sold clothes and a wet market that sold fish, fruit, and vegetables. The market operated from 1906 and had become dilapidated by the 1980s. The last stalls closed in the 1990s and the building is still derelict as of 2018 despite failed attempts to redevelop the site into a new food market complex.
In 2020, SBS reported that wet markets were once common in Australia and were gradually shut down over time as abattoirs were centralised and moved away from cities. Media outlets Daily Mercury and Herald Sun, as well as Agriculture Minister David Littleproud and Leader of the Labor Party Anthony Albanese, have described various fresh meat, seafood, and produce markets in Australia, such as the Sydney Fish Market and Melbourne Fish Market, as wet markets in response to international calls to ban wet markets.
During the first few months of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, Chinese wet markets were heavily criticized in media outlets as a potential source for the virus. Media reports urging for permanent blanket bans on all wet markets, as opposed to solely live animal markets or wildlife markets, have been criticized for undermining infection control needs to be specific about wildlife markets, such as the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. Media focus on foreign wet markets has also been blamed for distracting public attention from public health threats, such as local sources of zoonotic diseases.
In Western media, wet markets have been portrayed during the COVID-19 pandemic without distinguishing between general wet markets, live animal wet markets, and wildlife markets, using montages of explicit images from different markets across Asia without identifying locations. Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting criticized several news articles from mainstream media outlets during the first half of 2020 as "ignorant or worse", pointing to sensationalist coverage utilizing graphic images for shock value. These depictions have been criticized as exaggerated and Orientalist, and have been blamed for fueling Sinophobia and "Chinese otherness".
- Zhong, Taiyang; Si, Zhenzhong; Crush, Jonathan; Scott, Steffanie; Huang, Xianjin (2019). "Achieving urban food security through a hybrid public-private food provisioning system: the case of Nanjing, China". Food Security. 11 (5): 1071–1086. doi:10.1007/s12571-019-00961-8. ISSN 1876-4517. S2CID 199492034.
- Morales, Alfonso (2009). "Public Markets as Community Development Tools". Journal of Planning Education and Research. 28 (4): 426–440. doi:10.1177/0739456X08329471. ISSN 0739-456X.
- Morales, Alfonso (2011). "Marketplaces: Prospects for Social, Economic, and Political Development". Journal of Planning Literature. 26 (1): 3–17. doi:10.1177/0885412210388040. ISSN 0885-4122.
- Wholesale Markets: Planning and Design Manual (Fao Agricultural Services Bulletin) (No 90)
- "wet, adj". Oxford English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
wet market n. South-East Asian a market for the sale of fresh meat, fish, and produce
- Brown, Allison (2001). "Counting Farmers Markets". Geographical Review. 91 (4): 655–674. doi:10.2307/3594724. JSTOR 3594724.
- "Why Wet Markets Are The Perfect Place To Spread Disease". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- Lynteris, Christos; Fearnley, Lyle (2 March 2020). "Why shutting down Chinese 'wet markets' could be a terrible mistake". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- Standaert, Michael (15 April 2020). "'Mixed with prejudice': calls for ban on 'wet' markets misguided, experts argue". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- Woo, Patrick CY; Lau, Susanna KP; Yuen, Kwok-yung (2006). "Infectious diseases emerging from Chinese wet-markets: zoonotic origins of severe respiratory viral infections". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 19 (5): 401–407. doi:10.1097/01.qco.0000244043.08264.fc. ISSN 0951-7375. PMC 7141584. PMID 16940861.
- Wan, X.F. (2012). "Lessons from Emergence of A/Goose/Guangdong/1996-Like H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Recent Influenza Surveillance Efforts in Southern China: Lessons from Gs/Gd/96-like H5N1 HPAIVs". Zoonoses and Public Health. 59: 32–42. doi:10.1111/j.1863-2378.2012.01497.x. PMC 4119829. PMID 22958248.
- Westcott, Ben; Wang, Serenitie (15 April 2020). "China's wet markets are not what some people think they are". CNN. Archived from the original on 15 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- "Study on the Way Forward of Live Poultry Trade in Hong Kong" (PDF). Food and Health Bureau. March 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 May 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- Rahman, Khaleda (28 March 2020). "PETA launches petition to shut down live animal markets that breed diseases like COVID-19". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C. Peter; Minten, Bart (31 July 2012). "Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 (31): 12332–12337. Bibcode:2012PNAS..10912332R. doi:10.1073/pnas.1003160108. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3412023. PMID 21135250.
- Samuel, Sigal (15 April 2020). "The coronavirus likely came from China's wet markets. They're reopening anyway". Vox. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- Standaert, Michael (15 April 2020). "'Mixed with prejudice': calls for ban on 'wet' markets misguided, experts argue". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- Dalton, Jane (2 April 2020). "Coronavirus: Indian street traders 'risking human health by slaughtering goats, lambs and chickens in squalid conditions'". The Independent. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- Yu, Verna (16 April 2020). "What is a wet market?". Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
While “wet markets”, where water is sloshed on produce to keep it cool and fresh, may be considered unsanitary by western standards, most do not trade in exotic or wild animals and should not be confused with “wildlife markets” – now the focus of vociferous calls for global bans.
- Maron, Dina Fine (15 April 2020). "'Wet markets' likely launched the coronavirus. Here's what you need to know". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- Hui, Mary (16 April 2020). "Wet markets are not wildlife markets, so stop calling for their ban". Quanta Magazine. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- Suen, Thomas; Goh, Brenda (12 April 2020). "Wet markets in China's Wuhan struggle to survive coronavirus blow". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
That has prompted heavy scrutiny for wet markets, a key facet of China’s daily life, even though only a few sell wildlife. Some U.S. officials have called for them, and others across Asia, to be closed.
- Yu, Sun; Liu, Xinning (23 February 2020). "Coronavirus piles pressure on China's exotic animal trade". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- Rincon, Paul (16 April 2020). "Coronavirus: Is there any evidence for lab release theory?". BBC. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
- Lipton, Eric; Sanger, David E.; Haberman, Maggie; Shear, Michael D.; Mazzetti, Mark; Barnes, Julian E. (11 April 2020). "He Could Have Seen What Was Coming: Behind Trump's Failure on the Virus". New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
- Dilanian, Ken; Kube, Courtney (16 April 2020). "U.S. intel community examining whether coronavirus emerged accidentally from a Chinese lab". NBC News. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
The U.S. intelligence community is examining whether the coronavirus that caused the global pandemic emerged accidentally from a Chinese research lab studying diseases in bats [...] Separately, the idea that the virus emerged at an animal market in Wuhan continues to be debated by experts. Dr. Ronald Waldman, a former official at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and a public health expert at George Washington University, said the theory has fallen out of favor in some quarters, in part because one of the early infected persons had no connection to the market.
- Reed, John (19 March 2020). "The economic case for ending wildlife trade hits home in Vietnam". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- Palmer, James (27 January 2020). "Don't Blame Bat Soup for the Coronavirus". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- Tan, Alvin (2013). Wet Markets (PDF). Community Heritage Series. II. Singapore: National Heritage Board. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 February 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
- "New Singapore English words". Oxford University Press. 2016. Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
- Burton, Dawn (2008). Cross-Cultural Marketing: Theory, Practice and Relevance. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 9781134060177.
- Chandran, Rina (7 February 2020). "Traditional markets blamed for virus outbreak are lifeline for Asia's poor". Reuters. Archived from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- Shaheen, Therese (19 March 2020). "The Chinese Wild-Animal Industry and Wet Markets Must Go". National Review. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- Hu, Dong-wen; Liu, Chen-xing; Zhao, Hong-bo; Ren, Da-xi; Zheng, Xiao-dong; Chen, Wei (2019). "Systematic study of the quality and safety of chilled pork from wet markets, supermarkets, and online markets in China". Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 20 (1): 95–104. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1800273. ISSN 1673-1581. PMC 6331336. PMID 30614233.
- Zhong, Shuru; Crang, Mike; Zeng, Guojun (2020). "Constructing freshness: the vitality of wet markets in urban China". Agriculture and Human Values. 37 (1): 175–185. doi:10.1007/s10460-019-09987-2. ISSN 0889-048X.
- Roughneen, Simon (8 October 2018). "Southeast Asia's traditional markets hold their own". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
- "Nanmen Market to close for renovation after 38 years". Focus Taiwan. 6 October 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
- Agricultural Trade Highlights. Foreign Agricultural Service. 1994. p. 12.
- Bougoure, Ursula; Lee, Bernard (2009). Lindgreen, Adam (ed.). "Service quality in Hong Kong: wet markets vs supermarkets". British Food Journal. 111 (1): 70–79. doi:10.1108/00070700910924245. ISSN 0007-070X.
- Mele, Christopher; Ng, Megan; Chim, May Bo (2015). "Urban markets as a 'corrective' to advanced urbanism: The social space of wet markets in contemporary Singapore". Urban Studies. 52 (1): 103–120. doi:10.1177/0042098014524613. ISSN 0042-0980.
- "Fresh Meat". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 25 November 2014. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
- Greenfield, Patrick (6 April 2020). "Ban wildlife markets to avert pandemics, says UN biodiversity chief". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
- "China's Wet Markets, America's Factory Farming". National Review. 9 April 2020. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
- "Building a factory farmed future, one pandemic at a time". grain.org. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
- email@example.com, Sustainable Food Trust-. "Sustainable Food Trust". Sustainable Food Trust. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
- Fickling, David (3 April 2020). "China Is Reopening Its Wet Markets. That's Good". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020.
- "New Coronavirus 'Won't Be the Last' Outbreak to Move from Animal to Human". Goats and Soda. NPR. 5 February 2020. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- "Calls for global ban on wild animal markets amid coronavirus outbreak". The Guardian. London. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Cheng, VC (2007). "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus as an Agent of Emerging and Reemerging Infection". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 20 (4): 660–94. doi:10.1128/CMR.00023-07. PMC 2176051. PMID 17934078.
- Rahman, Mas Harithulfadhli Agus Ab; Hairon, Suhaily Mohd; Hamat, Rukman Awang; Jamaluddin, Tengku Zetty Maztura Tengku; Shafei, Mohd Nazri; Idris, Norazlin; Osman, Malina; Sukeri, Surianti; Wahab, Zainudin A.; Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Idris, Zawaha (2018). "Seroprevalence and distribution of leptospirosis serovars among wet market workers in northeastern, Malaysia: a cross sectional study". BMC Infectious Diseases. 18 (1): 569. doi:10.1186/s12879-018-3470-5. ISSN 1471-2334. PMC 6236877. PMID 30428852.
- "Wuhan Is Returning to Life. So Are Its Disputed Wet Markets". Bloomberg Australia-NZ. 8 April 2020. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020.
- "Wuhan coronavirus another reason to ban China's wildlife trade forever". South China Morning Post. 29 January 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- Hui, David S.; I Azhar, Esam; Madani, Tariq A.; Ntoumi, Francine; Kock, Richard; Dar, Osman; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Mchugh, Timothy D.; Memish, Ziad A.; Drosten, Christian; Zumla, Alimuddin; Petersen, Eskild (2020). "The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health – The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. Elsevier BV. 91: 264–266. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009. ISSN 1201-9712. PMC 7128332. PMID 31953166.
- Huang, Chaolin; Wang, Yeming; Li, Xingwang; Ren, Lili; Zhao, Jianping; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Li; Fan, Guohui; Xu, Jiuyang; Gu, Xiaoying; Cheng, Zhenshun (24 January 2020). "Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China". The Lancet. 0 (10223): 497–506. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC 7159299. PMID 31986264. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- Keevil, William; Lang, Trudie; Hunter, Paul; Solomon, Tom (24 January 2020). "Expert reaction to first clinical data from initial cases of new coronavirus in China". Science Media Centre. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- Spinney, Laura (28 March 2020). "Is factory farming to blame for coronavirus?". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
Most of the attention so far has been focused on the interface between humans and the intermediate host, with fingers of blame being pointed at Chinese wet markets and eating habits,...
- "Wet markets are not wildlife markets, so stop calling for their ban". Quartz Media, Inc. Uzabase. 16 April 2020.
- Rapoze, Kenneth (14 April 2020). "China Lab In Focus Of Coronavirus Outbreak". Forbes. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
For months, anyone who said the new SARS coronavirus might have come out of a virology research lab in Wuhan, China was dismissed as a right wing xenophobe [...] But on Tuesday, the narrative flipped. It’s no longer a story shared by China bears and President Trump fans. Today, Josh Rogin, who is said to be as plugged into the State Department as any Washington Post columnist, was shown documents dating back to 2015 revealing how the U.S. government was worried about safety standards at that Wuhan lab. [...] Rogin’s reporting suggests that government officials were well aware of the research being conducted in the lab on bat coronaviruses and were worried that the lab still had sub-par safety standards.
- Josh Taylor (31 January 2020). "Bat soup, dodgy cures and 'diseasology': the spread of coronavirus misinformation". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
- Kate Gibson (3 February 2020). "Twitter bans Zero Hedge after it posts coronavirus conspiracy theory". CBS News. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- Shield, Charli (16 April 2020). "Coronavirus Pandemic Linked to Destruction of Wildlife and World's Ecosystems". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
After the novel coronavirus broke out in Wuhan, China in late December 2019, it didn't take long for conspiracy theorists to claim it was manufactured in a nearby lab. Scientific consensus, on the other hand, is that the virus — SARS-CoV-2 — is a zoonotic disease that jumped from animal to human. It most likely originated in a bat, possibly before passing through another mammal.
- Borger, Julian (3 May 2020). "Mike Pompeo: 'enormous evidence' coronavirus came from Chinese lab". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 4 May 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
- Hansler, Jennifer; Cole, Devan (17 May 2020). "Pompeo backs away from theory he and Trump were pushing that coronavirus originated in Wuhan lab". CNN. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
- Staff, Science News (4 May 2020). "Pressure grows on China for independent investigation into pandemic's origins". Science | AAAS. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
- Graham, Rachel L.; Baric, Ralph S. (May 2020). "SARS-CoV-2: Combating Coronavirus Emergence". Immunity. 52 (5): 734–736. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2020.04.016. PMC 7207110. PMID 32392464.
- Brumfiel, Geoff; Kwong, Emily (23 April 2020). "Virus Researchers Cast Doubt On Theory Of Coronavirus Lab Accident". Archived from the original on 28 April 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
- Areddy, James T. (26 May 2020). "China Rules Out Animal Market and Lab as Coronavirus Origin". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
- "China Could End the Global Trade in Wildlife". Sierra Club. 26 March 2020. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- "Coronavirus expert calls for shut down of Asia's wildlife markets". Nine News Australia. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- "Wild Animal Markets Spark Fear in Fight Against Coronavirus". Time. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- "Africa Risks Virus Outbreak From Wildlife Trade". WildAid. 28 February 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- "A sea change in China's attitude towards wildlife exploitation may just save the planet". Daily Maverick. 2 March 2020. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
Knights hoped China would also play a role to help “countries around the world. It’s no good simply banning the trade in China. The same risks are very much out there in Asia as well as Africa.”
- "Crackdown on wet markets and illegal wildlife trade could prevent the next pandemic". Mongabay India. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
...what we do know is that wet markets such as Wuhan, and for that matter Agartala’s Golbazar or the thousands such that exist in Asia and Africa allow for easy transmission of viruses and other pathogens from animals to humans.
- Mekelburg, Madlin. "Fact-check: Is Chinese culture to blame for the coronavirus?". Austin American-Statesman. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- Forgey, Quint (3 April 2020). "'Shut down those things right away': Calls to close 'wet markets' ramp up pressure on China". Politico. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- Greenfield, Patrick (6 April 2020). "Ban wildlife markets to avert pandemics, says UN biodiversity chief". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- Fortier-Bensen, Tony (9 April 2020). "Sen. Lindsey Graham, among others, urge global ban of live wildlife markets and trade". ABC News. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- Beech, Peter (18 April 2020). "What we've got wrong about China's 'wet markets' and their link to COVID-19". World Economic Forum. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- Gómez, Miguel I.; Ricketts, Katie D. (2013). "Food value chain transformations in developing countries: Selected hypotheses on nutritional implications" (PDF). Food Policy. 42: 139–150. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2013.06.010.
- "Improving diets in an era of food market transformation: Challenges and opportunities for engagement between the public and private sectors" (PDF). Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition policy brief. April 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- Anku, Etornam Kosi; Ahorbo, Gerald Kojo (27 October 2017). "Conflict between Supermarkets and Wet-Markets in Ghana: Early Warning Signals and Preventive Policy Recommendations". International Journal of Business and Social Research. 7 (10): 01. doi:10.18533/ijbsr.v7i9.1049. ISSN 2164-2559.
- Weinberger, Katinka; Pasquini, Margaret; Kasambula, Phyllis; Abukutsa-Onyango, Mary (2011). "Supply Chains for Indigenous Vegetables in Urban and Peri-urban Areas of Uganda and Kenya: a Gendered Perspective". In Mithöfer, Dagmar; Waibel, Hermann (eds.). Vegetable Production and Marketing in Africa: Socio-economic Research. Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. p. 169–181. ISBN 9781845936495.
- "Strong Growth Persists in Nigeria's Wine Market" (PDF). USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. 1 July 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
More wine and spirits are now sold to the consumers and re-sellers through the wholesalers located in the traditional open wet markets (mostly patronized by the low and middle income consumers).
- Grace, Delia; Dipeolu, Morenike; Alonso, Silvia (2019). "Improving food safety in the informal sector: nine years later". Infection Ecology & Epidemiology. 9 (1): 1579613. doi:10.1080/20008686.2019.1579613. ISSN 2000-8686. PMC 6419621. PMID 30891162.
- Grace, Delia (October 2015). "Food Safety in Developing Countries:An Overview" (PDF). International Livestock Research Institute. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- Oluwole, Josiah (27 June 2018). "Oyo govt begins crackdown on illegal abattoirs in Ibadan". Premium Times. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- "5 dead, station razed as police clash with butchers in Ibadan". Vanguard. 29 June 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- "Making Retail Modernisation in Developing Countries Inclusive". Discussion Paper. 2/2016. German Development Institute. 2016. Cite journal requires
- Reardon, Thomas; Gulati, Ashok (2008). "The Rise of Supermarkets and Their Development Implications". International Food Policy Research Institute Discussion Paper.
- Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C. Peter; Barrett, Christopher B.; Berdegué, Julio (2003). "The Rise of Supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America". American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 85 (5): 1140–1146. doi:10.1111/j.0092-5853.2003.00520.x. ISSN 0002-9092.
- "Colombia Retail Food Sector" (PDF). USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- "Central de Abasto: bomba de tiempo y nido de delincuencia". El Imparcial (Oaxaca). 9 May 2019. Archived from the original on 5 August 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- Anderson, D.; Kerr, W.A.; Sanchez, G.; Ochoa, R. (2002). "Cattle/beef subsector's structure and competition under free trade". In Loyns, R.M.A.; Meilke, K.; Knutson, R.D.; Yunez-Naude, A. (eds.). Structural changes as a source of trade disputes under NAFTA. Proceedings of the Seventh Agricultural and Food Policy Systems Information Workshop. Winnipeg, Canada: Friesens. pp. 231–258.
- Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; Maldonado-Siman, Ema; Valdéz, Alejandra; Belk, Keith E. (2014). "Survey of Mexican retail stores for US beef product". Meat Science. 96 (2): 729–736. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.10.008. PMID 24200564.
- Jia, Shi (31 May 2018). "Regeneration and reinvention of Hangzhou's wet markets". Shanghai Daily. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
- "Global Market Snapshot" (PDF). Meat & Livestock Australia. October 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- Zhong, Taiyang; Si, Zhenzhong; Crush, Jonathan; Xu, Zhiying; Huang, Xianjin; Scott, Steffanie; Tang, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Xiang (2018). "The Impact of Proximity to Wet Markets and Supermarkets on Household Dietary Diversity in Nanjing City, China". Sustainability. 10 (5): 1465. doi:10.3390/su10051465. ISSN 2071-1050. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
- Bossons, Matthew (25 February 2020). "No, You Won't Find "Wild Animals" in Most of China's Wet Markets". RADII. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- Lu, Donna. "The hunt for patient zero: Where did the coronavirus outbreak start?". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- "Experts know the new coronavirus is not a bioweapon. They disagree on whether it could have leaked from a research lab". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 30 March 2020. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- Readfearn, Graham (9 April 2020). "How did coronavirus start and where did it come from? Was it really Wuhan's animal market?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- "COVID-19: What we know so far about the 2019 novel coronavirus". Archived from the original on 5 February 2020.
- "Experts call for global ban on live animal markets, wildlife trade amidst coronavirus outbreak". CBC. 17 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020.
- Sarah Boseley (24 January 2020), Calls for global ban on wild animal markets amid coronavirus outbreak, The Guardian, archived from the original on 6 February 2020, retrieved 27 January 2020
- Woodward, Aylin (25 February 2020), China just banned the trade and consumption of wild animals. Experts think the coronavirus jumped from live animals to people at a market., Business Insider, archived from the original on 14 March 2020, retrieved 15 April 2020,
A few weeks later, Chinese authorities temporarily banned the buying, selling, and transportation of wild animals in markets, restaurants, and online marketplaces across the country. Farms that breed and transport wildlife were also quarantined and shut down. The ban was expected to stay in place until the coronavirus epidemic ended, Xinhua News reported. But now it's permanent.
- Gorman, James (27 February 2020). "China's Ban on Wildlife Trade a Big Step, but Has Loopholes, Conservationists Say". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
- O'reilly, Andrew (2 April 2020). "Lindsey Graham asks China to close 'all operating wet markets' after coronavirus outbreak". Fox News. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- Bowden, John (2 April 2020). "Graham asks colleagues to support call for China to close wet markets". The Hill. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- "RPT-Reopening wet food markets must conform to strict standards -WHO". Reuters. 17 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- Santhanam, Laura (17 April 2020). "WHO chief says he's concerned about virus uptick in Africa". Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- "The Friend Of China, and Hong Kong Gazette" (PDF). 12 May 1842. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- Bao Shaolin (2012). 第二屆廿一世紀華人地區歷史教育論文集 [Second Collection of Historical Education Papers on Chinese in the 21st Century] (in Chinese). Zhonghua Book Company (Hong Kong) Limited. p. 332.
- "油麻地新建街市昨晨開幕後營業" [Yau Ma Tei New Market opened after opening yesterday morning]. Hong Kong Business Daily (in Chinese). 2 November 1957. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- "Yau Ma Tei's wet markets in the early post-war period". 29 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- Agricultural Trade Highlights. Foreign Agricultural Service. 1994. p. 7.
- "Chapter IV – Environmental Hygiene". Annual Report 2018. Food and Environmental Hygiene Department. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "Report No. 51 of the Director of Audit — Chapter 6" (PDF). Audit Commission. November 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 December 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "Central abattoir set for 2011". Archive.news.gov.hk. 13 June 2008. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- "Public markets" (PDF). Legislative Council Secretariat. 27 September 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "EmeraldInsight". EmeraldInsight.com. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- Chong, Sei (18 March 2011). "A Guide to Hong Kong's Wet Markets". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- Elmer W. Cagape (8 September 2011). "Tung Chung town pays the most for food in Hong Kong". Asian Correspondent. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- 超巨街市燈現身商場 [Super large wet market red lamps appears in shopping mall]. Sharp Daily (in Chinese). 14 September 2012. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- "Cap. 132BU Slaughterhouses Regulation". Hong Kong e-Legislation. Department of Justice.
- "Faecal droppings of live poultry from Yan Oi Market in Tuen Mun tested positive of H7N9 virus". Hong Kong Government. 5 June 2016. Archived from the original on 1 September 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- Goyal, Malini (9 September 2018). "International food giant Cargill is changing the way it does business". The Economic Times. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
Even the meat market in India is largely a wet market -a market selling fresh meat, fish and other such produce — and has small, unorganised players.
- Ghosal, Sutanuka (4 April 2018). "ICRA predicts decent growth for domestic poultry industry". The Economic Times. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- Mane, B. G. (16 April 2012). "Status and prospects of Indian meat industry". Food & Beverage News. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- Minten, Bart; Reardon, Thomas; Sutradhar, Rajib (2010). "Food Prices and Modern Retail: The Case of Delhi". World Development. 38 (12): 1775–1787. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.585.2560. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.04.002.
- "Negri hawkers, food trucks to operate 7am-8pm from March 24". The Star. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
- Pabico, Alecks P. (2002). "Death of the Palengke". Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- Napallacan, Jhunnex (28 March 2008). "6 Cebu rice retailers suspended for violations". Breaking News / Regions. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 6 October 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
- Garcia, Bong (21 April 2007). "Food agency intensifies 'Palengke Watch'". Sun.Star Zamboanga. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
- Huang-Teves, Janette (7 September 2018). "Teves: Palengke Boy: The family's digital wet market buddy". Sun.Star. Archived from the original on 8 September 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
- Domingo, Katrina (26 March 2020). "Taking cue from Pasig, Valenzuela eyes own market-on-wheels amid quarantine". ABS-CBN Corporation. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
- "Singapore wet markets: Reminder of bygone days". CNN. 22 June 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- United States. Foreign Agricultural Service. Dairy, Livestock, and Poultry Division, United States. World Agricultural Outlook Board (1992). U.S. Trade and Prospects: Dairy, livestock, and poultry products. The Service. p. 3.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Kottawatta, Kottawattage; Van Bergen, Marcel; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap; Veldman, Kees; Kalupahana, Ruwani (2017). "Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples". Foods. 6 (12): 105. doi:10.3390/foods6120105. ISSN 2304-8158. PMC 5742773. PMID 29186018.
- Trappey, Charles V. (1 March 1997). "Are Wet Markets Drying Up?". Taiwan Today. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
- de Mooij, Marieke (2003). Consumer Behavior and Culture: Consequences for Global Marketing and Advertising. Chronicle Books. p. 295. ISBN 9780761926689.
- Yen, Bao (12 June 2017). "A Hanoi wet market at the crossroads of modernity". VnExpress. Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
- "Dublin City Council to take possession of Iveagh Market". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 12 January 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- Kelly, Olivia (7 January 2015). "Work to begin on €90m redevelopment of Iveagh Markets". Irish Times. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- Kelly, Olivia (19 August 2017). "Call for Iveagh Markets to be returned to Dublin City Council". Irish Times. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- Corsetti, Stephanie (9 April 2020). "What is a wet market and why are they allowed to continue amid the coronavirus crisis?". Special Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- "Calls mount for investigation into 'dangerous' wet markets". Sky News Australia. 23 April 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
What we’re talking about isn’t all wet markets, because the Sydney fish market is a wet market, what we’re talking about here is unregulated markets that engage in some exotic species that are dangerous
- "Coronavirus: Australia wants wet market probe as China faces backlash". Herald Sun. 23 April 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- "How to prevent the next pandemic from wet markets". Daily Mercury. 28 April 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
Australia also has wet markets - e.g. the Melbourne and Sydney Fish Market.
- "Coronavirus: Australia urges G20 action on wildlife wet markets". BBC. 23 April 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
Speaking to the ABC on Thursday, agriculture minister David Littleproud said he was not targeting all food markets. "A wet market, like the Sydney fish market, is perfectly safe," he said.
- Boyle, Louise (15 May 2020). "Wet markets are not the problem – focus on the billion-dollar international trade in wild animals, experts say". The Independent. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- St. Cavendish, Christopher (11 March 2020). "No, China's fresh food markets did not cause coronavirus". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- Cho, Joshua (8 May 2020). "Mainstream media's racist trope: Blaming COVID-19 on China's "wet markets"". Salon. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wet markets.|