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Kampala (UK: /kæmˈpɑːlə/,[1][2] US: /kɑːmˈ-/)[1][3] is the capital and largest city of Uganda. The city is divided into five boroughs that oversee local planning: Kampala Central Division, Kawempe Division, Makindye Division, Nakawa Division, and Rubaga Division. Surrounding Kampala is the rapidly growing Wakiso District, whose population more than doubled between 2002 and 2014 and as of 2014 Wakiso was reported to stand at over 2 million.[4]

Kampala skyline
Kampala skyline
Kampala is located in Kampala
Location of Kampala in Uganda
Kampala is located in Uganda
Location in Africa
Kampala is located in Africa
Kampala (Africa)
Coordinates: 00°18′49″N 32°34′52″E / 0.31361°N 32.58111°E / 0.31361; 32.58111Coordinates: 00°18′49″N 32°34′52″E / 0.31361°N 32.58111°E / 0.31361; 32.58111
 • Lord MayorErias Lukwago
 • Executive directorAndrew Kitaka Mubiru (since December 2018)[citation needed]
 • Total189 km2 (73 sq mi)
 • Land176 km2 (68 sq mi)
 • Water13 km2 (5 sq mi)
1,190 m (3,900 ft)
 (2014 Census)
 • Total1,507,080
 • Density7,928/km2 (20,530/sq mi)
DemonymsKampalan, Kampalese
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)

Kampala was named the 13th fastest growing city on the planet, with an annual population growth rate of 4.03 percent,[5] by City Mayors. Kampala has been ranked the best city to live in East Africa[6] ahead of Nairobi and Kigali by Mercer, a global development consulting agency based in New York City.



Before the arrival of the British colonists, the Kabaka of Buganda had chosen the zone that would become Kampala as a hunting reserve. The area, composed of rolling hills with grassy wetlands in the valleys, was home to several species of antelope, particularly impala. When the British arrived, they called it "Hills of the Impala". The language of the Baganda, Luganda, adopted many English words because of their interactions with the British. The Baganda translated "Hill of the Impala" as Akasozi ke'Empala – "Kasozi" meaning "hill", "ke" meaning "of", and "empala" the plural of "impala". In Luganda, the words "ka'mpala" mean "that it is of the impala", in reference to a hill, and the single word "Kampala" was adopted as the name for the city that grew out of the Kabaka's hills ''.[7]


The city grew as the capital of the Buganda kingdom, from which several buildings survive, including the Kasubi Tombs (built in 1881), the Lubiri Palace, the Buganda Parliament and the Buganda Court of Justice. In 1890, British colonial administrator Capt. Frederick Lugard constructed a forum along Mengo Hill within the city, which allowed for the British to occupy much of the territory controlled by the Baganda, including Kampala.[8][9] In 1894, the British government officially established a protectorate within this territory, and in 1896, the protectorate expanded to cover the Ankole, Toro Kingdom, and Bunyoro kingdoms as well.[10]

In 1905, the British government formally declared the entire territory to be a British colony.[11][12] From that time until the independence of the country in 1962, the capital was relocated to Entebbe, although the city continued to be the primary economic and manufacturing location for Uganda.[13] In 1922, the Makerere Technical Institute, now known as Makerere University, started as the first collegiate institution both within Kampala, and within the British colonies on the east coast of Africa.[13]

Following the 1962 independence, Kabaka Edward Mutesa a Buganda king, became the first executive President of Uganda but was later over thrown by Milton Obote. Obote was then the prime minister and became president of Uganda, and held the position until 1971, when former sergeant Idi Amin deposed his government in a military coup.[12]

Idi Amin proceeded to expel all Indian residents living within Kampala, and attacked the Jewish population living within the city.[12] In 1978, he invaded the neighboring country of Tanzania, and in turn, the government there started the Uganda–Tanzania War, which caused severe damage to the buildings of Kampala.[14] The city has since then been rebuilt with new construction of hotels, banks, shopping malls, educational institutions, and hospitals and the improvement of war torn buildings and infrastructure. Traditionally, Kampala was known to be a city of seven hills, but over time it has been proven to have a lot more.[15]


Several neighbourhoods of Kampala are bordering Lake Victoria.


Kampala has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) under the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system.[16]

A facet of Kampala's weather is that it features two annual wetter seasons. While the city does not have a true dry season month, it experiences heavier precipitation from August to December and from February to June. However, it's between February and June that Kampala sees substantially heavier rainfall per month, with April typically seeing the heaviest amount of precipitation at an average of around 169 millimetres (6.7 in) of rain. Kampala has been frequently described as the lightning-strike capital of the world.

Climate data for Kampala
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33
Average high °C (°F) 28.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.2
Average low °C (°F) 17.7
Record low °C (°F) 12
Average rainfall mm (inches) 68.4
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 4.8 5.1 9.5 12.2 10.9 6.3 4.7 6.7 8.6 9.1 8.4 7.4 93.7
Average relative humidity (%) 66 68.5 73 78.5 80.5 78.5 77.5 77.5 75.5 73.5 73 71.5 74.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 155 170 155 120 124 180 186 155 150 155 150 124 1,824
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization,[17] for mean temperatures[16]
Source #2: BBC Weather[18]


Kampala was originally built on seven hills, but as its size has increased, it has expanded to more hills than seven.

The original seven hills are:

The first hill in historical importance is Old Kampala Hill on which Fort Lugard was located, the first seat of the British colonialists in Uganda.

The second is Mengo Hill which was the then Kibuga (capital) of Buganda kingdom at the start of British colonial rule

The third is Kibuli Hill, which was home to the Muslim faction of the Buganda religious wars of the 1888-1892 and current site of the Kibuli Mosque.

The fourth is Namirembe Hill, that was home to the Anglican faction of the above mentioned Buganda religious wars and site of Namirembe Anglican Cathedral.

The fifth is Lubaga Hill, that was home to the White Fathers Catholic(Wafaransa) faction of the above mentioned Buganda religious wars.and also site of the Rubaga Catholic Cathedral.

The sixth is Nsambya Hill, site of the former Cathedral of St Peter's Nsambya and allocated to the British Catholic Mill Hill Mission during the signing of the Uganda Agreement(1900).

The seventh is Nakasero Hill on whose summit is Fort Nakasero, a British military installation built after relocating from Fort Lugard in Old Kampala, and the hill was also the site of the European Hospital.


The Makerere University was founded in 1922.


Street map of Kampala
View of Kampala from space

The population of Kampala grew from 1,189,142 in 2002 to 1,507,080 in 2014. In 2019 the population of Kampala is projected to be 1,650,800.[19][20]

Kampala has a diverse ethnic population. The city's ethnic makeup has been defined by political and economic factors. A large number of western Ugandans, particularly the Banyankole, moved to the capital in the new government of Yoweri Museveni.[21]

Inter-tribal marriage in Uganda is still uncommon outside large urban centers. Although many Kampala residents have been born and brought up in the city, they still define themselves by their tribal roots and speak their ancestral languages. This is more evident in the suburbs, where tribal languages are spoken widely alongside English, Luganda, and Swahili (more recently introduced). In addition to the Baganda and Banyankole, other large ethnic groups include the Basoga, Bafumbira, Batoro, Bakiga, Alur, Bagisu (better known as Bamasaba), Banyoro, Iteso, Langi, and Acholi.[22]

1969 330,700—    
1980 458,503+38.6%
1991 774,241+68.9%
2002 1,189,142+53.6%
2014 1,507,080+26.7%
2019 1,650,800+9.5%


Cultural institutionsEdit

There are the Uganda Museum and the Ugandan National Theatre.

Ndere Cultural CentreEdit

A prominent cultural centre in the Kampala area of Kisasi that aims to promote Ugandan and African cultural expressions through music, dance and drama. The name Ndere is derived from the noun 'endere', which means flute. As an instrument found in all cultures, it is chosen as a peaceful symbol of the universality of cultural expressions. The Ndere centre is famous for its Ndere troupe, a music and dance troupe that perform several nights every week at the centre showcasing music and dance from all over Uganda as well as Rwanda and Burundi.[24]


Notable peopleEdit

Honorary citizensEdit

People awarded the honorary citizenship of Kampala are:

Date Name Notes
16 June 2017 Aga Khan IV (1936–Present) British Humanitarian and Imam of Nizari-Ismaili Shia Islam.[26][27]


Kampala is home to the City Oilers, one of East Africa's top basketball club teams. It is the only East African team that competes in the FIBA Africa Clubs Champions Cup. The Oilers play their home games in the MTN Arena, which is based in Kampala's Lugogo Area.[28]

The city hosted the IAAF World Cross Country Championships in 2017.


Efforts are underway to relocate heavy industry to the Kampala Business and Industrial Park, located in Namanve, Mukono District, approximately 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) east of the city's central business district,[29] thereby cutting down on city traffic congestion. Some of the businesses that maintain their headquarters in the city center include all of the 25 commercial banks licensed in Uganda; the New Vision Group, the leading news media conglomerate and majority owned by the government; and the Daily Monitor publication, a member of the Kenya-based Nation Media Group. Air Uganda maintained its headquarters in an office complex on Kololo Hill in Kampala.[30] Crown Beverages Limited, the sole Pepsi-Cola franchise bottler in the country, is situated in Nakawa, a division of Kampala, about 5 kilometres (3 mi), east of the city centre.[31]

The informal sector is a large contributor to Kampala's GDP. Citizens who work in the formal sector also participate in informal activities to earn more income for their families. A public servant in Kampala, for example, may engage in aviculture in addition to working in the formal sector. Other informal fields include owning taxis and urban agriculture. The use of Kampala's wetlands for urban farming has increased over the past few decades. It connects the informal rural settlements with the more industrialized parts of the city. The produce grown in the wetlands is sold in markets in the urban areas.[32]

In December 2015, Google launched its first wi-fi network in Kampala.[33]

While more than 30 percent of Kampala's inhabitants practice urban agriculture, the city of Kampala donated 32 acres (13 ha) to promote urban agriculture in the northeastern parish of Kyanja, in Nakawa Division.[34]


Kampala is served by Entebbe International Airport, which is the largest airport in Uganda.

Boda-bodas (local motorbike transport) are a popular mode of transport that gives access to many areas within and outside the city. Standard fees for these range from USh:1,000 to 2,000 or more. Boda-bodas are useful for passing through rush-hour traffic, although many are poorly maintained and dangerous.[35]

In early 2007, it was announced that Kampala would remove commuter taxis from its streets and replace them with a comprehensive city bus service. (In Kampala, the term "taxi" refers to a 15-seater minibus used as public transport.) The bus service was expected to cover the greater Kampala metropolitan area including Mukono, Mpigi, Bombo, Entebbe, Wakiso and Gayaza. As of December 2011 the service had not yet started.[36] Having successfully completed the Northern Bypass, the government, in collaboration with its stakeholders, now plans to introduce the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Kampala by 2014. On 12 March 2012, Pioneer Easy Bus Company, a private transport company, started public bus service in Kampala with an estimated 100 buses each with a 60-passenger capacity (30 seated and 30 standing), acquired from China. Another 422 buses were expected in the country in 2012 to complement the current fleet. The buses operate 24 hours daily. The company has a concession to provide public transport in the city for the next five years.[37][38] The buses were impounded for back taxes in December 2013. The company expected to resume operation in February 2015.[39]

In 2014, Uganda's President Yoweri Museveni and a China transportation company signed a Memorandum of Understanding, that they would at some point begin embarking on building a light rail system in Kampala, similar to the one recently completed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

On 11 April 2011, the pressure group Activists for Change (A4C) held its first Walk to Work protest near Kampala, in response to a comment by President Museveni on the increased cost of fuel, which had risen by 50 percent between January and April 2011. He said: "What I call on the public to do is to use fuel sparingly. Don't drive to bars."[40][41] The protest, which called on workers to walk to work to highlight the increased cost of transport in Uganda,[40] was disrupted by police, who fired tear gas and arrested three-time presidential candidate Kizza Besigye and Democratic Party leader Norbert Mao.[42] In the course of the protest, Besigye was shot in the right arm by a rubber bullet. The government blamed the violence on protesters.[41]

In 2016, the Rift Valley Railways Consortium (RVR) and Kampala Capital City Authority established passenger rail service between Namanve and Kampala and between Kampala and Kyengera. Those services were temporarily discontinued after RVR lost its concession in Uganda in October 2017.[43] However, when Uganda Railways Corporation took over the operations of the metre gauge railway system in Uganda in 2018, the service was restored in February that year.[44] A new Kampala to Port Bell route is being planned, to be added in the 2018/2019 financial year.[43]

Places of worshipEdit

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Christian churches and temples : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kampala (Catholic Church), Church of Uganda (Anglican Communion), Presbyterian Church in Uganda (World Communion of Reformed Churches), Baptist Union of Uganda (Baptist World Alliance), Assemblies of God.[45] There are also Muslim mosques.

Kampala hosts a Bahá'í House of Worship known as the Mother Temple of Africa and is situated on Kikaya Hill on the outskirts of the city. The temple was inaugurated in January 1961.[46]


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "Kampala". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  2. ^ "Kampala". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  3. ^ "Kampala". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  4. ^ "Uganda: Administrative Division". Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  5. ^ "City Mayors: World's fastest growing urban areas (1)".
  6. ^ "Kampala ranked best city in East Africa".
  7. ^ "Kampala: Origin of The Name". Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  8. ^ Britannica, Kampala,, USA, accessed on July 7, 2019
  9. ^ "Kampala, Uganda (1890- ) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed". Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  10. ^ "HISTORY OF UGANDA". Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  11. ^ Roman Adrian Cybriwsky, Capital Cities around the World: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2013, p. 203
  12. ^ a b c (, Site designed and built by Hydrant. "Uganda : History | The Commonwealth". Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  13. ^ a b "Kampala, Uganda (1890- ) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed". Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  14. ^ "HISTORY OF UGANDA". Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  15. ^ "History of the City of Kampala". Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  16. ^ a b "Climate: Kampala – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  17. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Kampala". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  18. ^ "Average Conditions Kampala, Uganda". BBC Weather. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  19. ^
  20. ^ UBOS. "National Population and Housing Census 2014 Main Report" (PDF). Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS). Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  21. ^ Jones, Ben (2 April 2009). "Museveni's Rule Has Divided Uganda". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  22. ^ "Ethnic Groups of Uganda". Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  23. ^ Kampala population statistics
  24. ^ "Ndere centre, where African culture is very alive". Retrieved 2018-03-08.
  25. ^ BRC (3 February 2016). "John Mugabi: Biography". (BRC). Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^ Juruni eyes 2013 Basketball crown,, 17 May 2013. Accessed 16 May 2017.
  29. ^ GFC (3 February 2016). "Distance between Kampala Road, Kampala, Central Region, Uganda and Namanve Industrial Park, Mukono, Central Region, Uganda". (GFC). Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  30. ^ Vision Reporter (23 February 2009). "Air Uganda Increases Flights to Dar". New Vision. Kampala. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  31. ^ Administrator (14 October 2013). "Two decades of positive growth for Crown Beverages". The Independent (Uganda). Kampala. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  32. ^ "Hazards and vulnerabilities among informal wetland communities in Kampala, Uganda". Environment and Urbanization. 28.
  33. ^ "Google launches wi-fi network in Kampala, Uganda". 4 December 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  34. ^ Wolfe, J. M., & McCans, S. (2009). DESIGNING FOR URBAN AGRICULTURE IN AN AFRICAN CITY: KAMPALA, UGANDA. Open House International, 34
  35. ^ Francis Kagolo, and Joseph Kariuki (24 August 2008). "Deadly Ride: Boda Bodas Leading Cause of Hospital Casualties". New Vision. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  36. ^ "Pioneer Easy buses to offer 24-hour service". Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  37. ^ Muhairwe, Priscilla (5 April 2011). "Pioneer Easy Bus Set to Introduce Electronic Pay Buses". The Independent (Uganda). Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  38. ^ "Pioneer Buses Start Service, Taxi Strike Flops". 12 March 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  39. ^ "Pioneer buses back: What has changed?". Daily Monitor.
  40. ^ a b "Deadly Crackdown on Uganda's Walk-to-Work Protests". 23 April 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  41. ^ a b Musaazi Namiti. "Uganda walk-to-work protests kick up dust". Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  42. ^ "Kizza Besigye held over Uganda 'Walk to Work' protest". BBC News. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  43. ^ a b Ngwomwoya, Amos (23 February 2018). "Passenger train services to resume on Monday". Daily Monitor. Kampala. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  44. ^ Alfred Ochwo, and Mercy Ahukana (27 February 2018). "Kampalans welcome revamped passenger train services". The Observer (Uganda). Kampala. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  45. ^ J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, ‘‘Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices’’, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2010, p. 2920
  46. ^ "Fifty years on, Uganda's Baha'i temple stands as a symbol of unity and progress – Bahá'í World News Service (BWNS)". 18 January 2011.


External linksEdit