Anthony Fauci

Anthony Stephen Fauci ( /ˈfi/; born December 24, 1940) is an American physician and immunologist who has served as the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) since 1984. Since January 2020, he has been one of the lead members of the Trump Administration's White House Coronavirus Task Force addressing the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. During the early stages of the pandemic, The New Yorker and The New York Times described Fauci as one of the most trusted medical figures in the United States and a leading expert on infectious disease.[1][2][3][4]

Anthony Fauci
Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., NIAID Director (26759498706).jpg
Fauci in 2007
Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Assumed office
November 2, 1984
Preceded byRichard M. Krause
Personal details
Anthony Stephen Fauci

(1940-12-24) December 24, 1940 (age 79)
New York City, U.S.
Christine Grady (m. 1985)
EducationCollege of the Holy Cross (BA)
Cornell University (MD)
AwardsMaxwell Finland Award (1989)
Ernst Jung Prize (1995)
Lasker Award (2007)
Medal of Freedom (2008)
Robert Koch Prize (Gold, 2013)
Scientific career
InstitutionsNational Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

As a physician with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Fauci has served American public health in various capacities for over 50 years, and has been an advisor to every U.S. president since Ronald Reagan.[3] He has made contributions to HIV/AIDS research and other immunodeficiencies, both as a scientist and as the head of the NIAID at the NIH, and from 1983 to 2002 was one of the world's most-cited scientists in scientific journals.[5]

Early life and education

Greta Van Susteren interviewed Fauci in 2018 (38 minutes)

Fauci was born in Brooklyn, New York City, to Stephen A. Fauci and Eugenia Abys Fauci, owners of a pharmacy. His father was a Columbia University-trained pharmacist, his mother and sister Denise worked the register, and Fauci delivered prescriptions. The pharmacy was located in the Dyker Heights section of Brooklyn, directly beneath the family apartment, previously in the Bensonhurst neighborhood.[6]

Fauci's paternal grandparents, Antonino Fauci and Calogera Guardino, were from Sciacca, Italy. His maternal grandmother, Raffaella Trematerra, from Naples, Italy, was a seamstress. His maternal grandfather, Giovanni Abys, was born in Switzerland and was an artist, noted for landscape and portrait painting, magazine illustrations (Italy) as well as graphic design for commercial labels, including olive oil cans. His grandparents emigrated from Italy to the United States in the late 19th century. Fauci grew up Catholic,[6][7] but now considers himself a humanist.[8]

Fauci attended Regis High School in Manhattan's Upper East Side, where he captained the school's basketball team and graduated in 1958.[9][5] He then went to the College of the Holy Cross, graduating in 1962 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in classics with a pre-med track. Fauci then attended medical school at Cornell University Medical College where he graduated first in his class with a Doctor of Medicine in 1966.[6] He then completed an internship and residency in internal medicine at the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, now known as New York Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medicine.[5]


External video
  Q&A interview with Fauci on his life and career, January 18, 2015, C-SPAN
Fauci discusses his work in 2020 (4 minutes)

In 1968, Fauci joined the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as a clinical associate in the Laboratory of Clinical Investigation (LCI) at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.[10] In 1974, he became Head of the Clinical Physiology Section, LCI, and in 1980 was appointed Chief of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation. In 1984, he became director of NIAID, a position he still holds as of 2020.[4] In that role he is responsible for an extensive research portfolio of basic and applied research on infectious and immune-mediated illnesses.[10] He has turned down several offers to lead his agency's parent, the NIH, and has been at the forefront of U.S. efforts to contend with viral diseases like HIV/AIDS, SARS, the 2009 swine flu pandemic, MERS, Ebola and COVID-19.[11]

He played a significant role in the early 2000s in creating the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief[12] and in driving development of biodefense drugs and vaccines following the 9/11 terrorist attacks.[13]

Fauci has been a visiting professor at many medical centers, and has received 30 honorary doctorates from universities in the U.S. and abroad.[14]

Medical achievements

President Bill Clinton visits the NIH in 1995 and hears about the latest advances in HIV/AIDS research from Fauci
Fauci with President George W. Bush upon receiving the National Medal of Science in 2007

Fauci has made important scientific observations that contributed to the understanding of regulation of the human immune response, and is recognized for delineating the mechanisms whereby immunosuppressive agents adapt to that response. He developed therapies for formerly fatal diseases such as polyarteritis nodosa, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and lymphomatoid granulomatosis. In a 1985 Stanford University Arthritis Center Survey of the American Rheumatism Association, membership ranked Fauci's work on the treatment of polyarteritis nodosa and granulomatosis with polyangiitis as one of the most important advances in patient management in rheumatology over the previous 20 years.[15][16]

President Barack Obama greets Fauci in June 2014

Fauci has contributed to the understanding of how HIV destroys the body's defenses leading to the progression to AIDS. He has outlined the mechanisms of induction of HIV expression by endogenous cytokines.[16] Fauci has worked to develop strategies for the therapy and immune reconstitution of patients with the disease, as well as for a vaccine to prevent HIV infection. His current research is concentrated on identifying the nature of the immunopathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection and the scope of the body's immune responses to HIV.

In 2003, the Institute for Scientific Information stated that from 1983 to 2002, "Fauci was the 13th most-cited scientist among the 2.5 to 3 million authors in all disciplines throughout the world who published articles in scientific journals".[5]

HIV/AIDS epidemic

Fauci was one of the leading researchers during the AIDS epidemic in the early 1980s. In 1981 he heard of the virus, and he and his team of researchers began looking for a vaccine or treatment for this novel virus, though they would meet a number of obstacles. In October 1988, protesters came to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Fauci, who had become the institute's director in 1984, bore the brunt of the anger from the LGBTQ community, who felt ignored by the government.[1]

Leading AIDS activist Larry Kramer attacked Fauci relentlessly in the media. He called him an "incompetent idiot" and a "pill-pushing" tool of the medical establishment. Fauci did not have control over drug approval though many people felt he was not doing enough. Fauci did make an effort in the late 1980s to reach out to the gay community in New York and San Francisco to find ways he and the NIAID could find a solution.[1]

Though Fauci was first admonished for his treatment of the AIDS epidemic, his work in the community was eventually acknowledged and even Kramer, who spent years hating Fauci for his treatment of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, eventually called him "the only true and great hero" among government officials in the AIDS crisis.[1]

Ebola Congressional hearing

On October 16, 2014, in a United States Congressional hearing regarding the Ebola virus crisis, Fauci, who, as the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) had been discussing the importance of screening for weeks,[17] testified that NIAID was still some distance away from producing sufficient quantities of cures or vaccines for widespread trials.[18] Specifically, Fauci said, "While NIAID is an active participant in the global effort to address the public health emergency occurring in west Africa, it is important to recognize that we are still in the early stages of understanding how infection with the Ebola virus can be treated and prevented." [18]

Fauci also remarked in the hearing: "As we continue to expedite research while enforcing high safety and efficacy standards, the implementation of the public health measures already known to contain prior Ebola virus outbreaks and the implementation of treatment strategies such as fluid and electrolyte replacement are essential to preventing additional infections, treating those already infected, protecting healthcare providers, and ultimately bringing this epidemic to an end."[18]

Coronavirus Task Force

Fauci speaks to the White House press corps on COVID-19 in April 2020, watched by President Donald Trump (left) and Vice President Mike Pence (right)

Fauci is a member of the White House Coronavirus Task Force established in late January 2020, under President Trump, to deal with the coronavirus pandemic.[19][20] He said that the final case fatality rate of those who are infected will likely be closer to 1% than the 3.4% estimated by the World Health Organization, which is ten times the 0.1% reported rate for seasonal flu.[21][22]

Fauci has been a "de facto" public health spokesperson for the office of the President during the pandemic[23][24] and strong advocate of ongoing social distancing efforts in the United States.[25] During the pandemic, Fauci was praised as a national hero for offering trustworthy information on the facts of the disease and the precautions that should be taken.[26] David Rubenstein called him "an example of the best this country has to offer".[27] On March 29, Fauci argued for the extension of the initial 15-day self-isolation guidelines, issued by the executive office, to at least until the end of April 2020.[25] Due to his disagreements with Trump, Fauci has been criticised by right-wing pundits and received death threats that resulted in the need for a security detail.[28][29][30] While there have been disagreements, Trump has also praised Fauci.[31][32][33] In May 2020, political talk show host Bill Maher cautioned against lionizing Fauci, playing clips in which, in late January, 2020, Fauci described the coronavirus as "very low risk", and in March, that "there is no reason to be walking around in a mask" and that only those with underlying conditions have reason not to go on a cruise.[34]

In mid-April, Fauci stated that if the administration "started mitigation earlier", more lives could have been saved, and "no one is going to deny that." However, Fauci explained that the decision-making for implementing mitigation measures was "complicated", and "there was a lot of pushback about shutting things down back then."[35] Fauci's comments were met with a hostile response from former Republican congressional candidate DeAnna Lorraine. President Trump retweeted Lorraine's response, which included the call to "#FireFauci", drawing public alarm. "Fire Fauci" has also been chanted loudly by at anti-lockdown protesters in various locations, including Florida and Texas.[36] As a result, the White House denied that Trump was firing Fauci, and blamed the media for overreacting.[37][38]

In early June, Fauci said he was worried the George Floyd protests could lead to a spike in COVID-19 cases.[39]

Personal life

Fauci married Christine Grady, a nurse and bioethicist with the NIH, in 1985, after they met while treating a patient. Grady is chief of the Department of Bioethics at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. The couple has three adult daughters: Jennifer, Megan, and Alison.[40] He is 5 feet 7 inches tall.[41]


Fauci is a member of the National Academy of Sciences; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; the National Academy of Medicine; the American Philosophical Society; and the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters; as well as other numerous professional societies including the American Society for Clinical Investigation; the Infectious Diseases Society of America,; and the American Association of Immunologists. He serves on the editorial boards of many scientific journals; as an editor of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine; and as author, coauthor, or editor of more than 1,000 scientific publications, including several textbooks.[14]

Awards and honors

Ben Carson and Anthony Fauci (right) being announced as recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom at the White House on June 19, 2008

In addition to receiving an honorary degree in 2015, Dr. Fauci was invited to and delivered guest remarks on May 21, 2020 for The Johns Hopkins University Class of 2020. [60] Other notable guest speakers during the virtual ceremony included Reddit co-founder and Commencement speaker Alexis Ohanian; philanthropist and former New York City Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg; and senior class president Pavan Patel. [61]

Selected works and publications

  • Fauci, Anthony S.; Dale, David C.; Balow, James E. (March 1976). "Glucocorticosteroid Therapy: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Considerations". Annals of Internal Medicine. 84 (3): 304–15. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-84-3-304. PMID 769625.   Wikidata ( )
  • Fauci, Anthony S.; Haynes, Barton F.; Katz, Paul (November 1, 1978). "The Spectrum of Vasculitis: Clinical, Pathologic, Immunologic, and Therapeutic Considerations". Annals of Internal Medicine. 89 (5_Part_1): 660–76. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-89-5-660. PMID 31121.   Wikidata ( )
  • Fauci, Anthony S.; Haynes, Barton F.; Katz, Paul; Wolff, Sheldon M. (January 1983). "Wegener's Granulomatosis: Prospective Clinical and Therapeutic Experience With 85 Patients for 21 Years". Annals of Internal Medicine. 98 (1): 76–85. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-98-1-76. PMID 6336643.   Wikidata ( )
  • Fauci, Anthony S.; Macher, Abe M.; Longo, Dan L.; Lane, H. Clifford; Rook, Alain H.; Masur, Henry; Gelmann, Edward P. (January 1984). "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Epidemiologic, Clinical, Immunologic, and Therapeutic Considerations". Annals of Internal Medicine. 100 (1): 92–106. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-100-1-92. PMID 6318629.   Wikidata ( )
  • Fauci, AS (February 5, 1988). "The human immunodeficiency virus: infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenesis". Science. 239 (4840): 617–622. Bibcode:1988Sci...239..617F. doi:10.1126/science.3277274. PMID 3277274.   Wikidata ( )
  • Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Graziosi, Cecilia; Fauci, Anthony S. (February 4, 1993). "The Immunopathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection". New England Journal of Medicine. 328 (5): 327–335. doi:10.1056/NEJM199302043280508. PMID 8093551.   Wikidata ( )
  • Fauci, Anthony S. (December 1996). "Host factors and the pathogenesis of HIV-induced disease". Nature. 384 (6609): 529–534. Bibcode:1996Natur.384..529F. doi:10.1038/384529A0. PMID 8955267.   Wikidata ( )
  • Morens, David M.; Folkers, Gregory K.; Fauci, Anthony S. (July 8, 2004). "The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases". Nature. 430 (6996): 242–249. Bibcode:2004Natur.430..242M. doi:10.1038/nature02759. PMC 7094993. PMID 15241422.   Wikidata ( )
  • Morens, David M.; Fauci, Anthony S. (April 2007). "The 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Insights for the 21st Century". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 195 (7): 1018–1028. doi:10.1086/511989. PMID 17330793.   Wikidata ( )
  • Johnston, Margaret I.; Fauci, Anthony S. (August 28, 2008). "An HIV Vaccine — Challenges and Prospects". New England Journal of Medicine. 359 (9): 888–890. doi:10.1056/NEJMp0806162. PMID 18753644.  Wikidata ( )
  • Fauci, Anthony S.; Harrison, Ross, eds. (2008). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (17th ed.). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 978-0-07-159991-7. OCLC 1109159992.
  • Fauci, Anthony S.; Lane, H. Clifford; Redfield, Robert R. (March 26, 2020). "Covid-19 — Navigating the Uncharted". New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (13): 1268–1269. doi:10.1056/NEJMe2002387. PMC 7121221. PMID 32109011.

See also


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Further reading

  • Unger, Donald N.S., "I Saw People Who Were In Pain", Holy Cross Magazine, College of the Holy Cross, v.36, n.3, Summer 2002 issue. Front cover and pp. 10–19.

External links