Anthony Stephen Fauci ( //; born December 24, 1940) is an American physician and immunologist who has served as the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) since 1984. Since January 2020, he has been one of the lead members of the Trump Administration's White House Coronavirus Task Force addressing the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. During the early stages of the pandemic, The New Yorker and The New York Times described Fauci as one of the most trusted medical figures in the United States and a leading expert on infectious disease.
Fauci in 2007
|Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases|
|Assumed office |
November 2, 1984
|Preceded by||Richard M. Krause|
Anthony Stephen Fauci
December 24, 1940
New York City, U.S.
Christine Grady (m. 1985)
|Education||College of the Holy Cross (BA)|
Cornell University (MD)
|Awards||Maxwell Finland Award (1989)|
Ernst Jung Prize (1995)
Lasker Award (2007)
Medal of Freedom (2008)
Robert Koch Prize (Gold, 2013)
|Institutions||National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases|
As a physician with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Fauci has served American public health in various capacities for over 50 years, and has been an advisor to every U.S. president since Ronald Reagan. He has made contributions to HIV/AIDS research and other immunodeficiencies, both as a scientist and as the head of the NIAID at the NIH, and from 1983 to 2002 was one of the world's most-cited scientists in scientific journals.
Early life and education
Fauci was born in Brooklyn, New York City, to Stephen A. Fauci and Eugenia Abys Fauci, owners of a pharmacy. His father was a Columbia University-trained pharmacist, his mother and sister Denise worked the register, and Fauci delivered prescriptions. The pharmacy was located in the Dyker Heights section of Brooklyn, directly beneath the family apartment, previously in the Bensonhurst neighborhood.
Fauci's paternal grandparents, Antonino Fauci and Calogera Guardino, were from Sciacca, Italy. His maternal grandmother, Raffaella Trematerra, from Naples, Italy, was a seamstress. His maternal grandfather, Giovanni Abys, was born in Switzerland and was an artist, noted for landscape and portrait painting, magazine illustrations (Italy) as well as graphic design for commercial labels, including olive oil cans. His grandparents emigrated from Italy to the United States in the late 19th century. Fauci grew up Catholic, but now considers himself a humanist.
Fauci attended Regis High School in Manhattan's Upper East Side, where he captained the school's basketball team and graduated in 1958. He then went to the College of the Holy Cross, graduating in 1962 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in classics with a pre-med track. Fauci then attended medical school at Cornell University Medical College where he graduated first in his class with a Doctor of Medicine in 1966. He then completed an internship and residency in internal medicine at the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, now known as New York Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medicine.
|Q&A interview with Fauci on his life and career, January 18, 2015, C-SPAN|
In 1968, Fauci joined the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as a clinical associate in the Laboratory of Clinical Investigation (LCI) at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. In 1974, he became Head of the Clinical Physiology Section, LCI, and in 1980 was appointed Chief of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation. In 1984, he became director of NIAID, a position he still holds as of 2020. In that role he is responsible for an extensive research portfolio of basic and applied research on infectious and immune-mediated illnesses. He has turned down several offers to lead his agency's parent, the NIH, and has been at the forefront of U.S. efforts to contend with viral diseases like HIV/AIDS, SARS, the 2009 swine flu pandemic, MERS, Ebola and COVID-19.
He played a significant role in the early 2000s in creating the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and in driving development of biodefense drugs and vaccines following the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
Fauci has made important scientific observations that contributed to the understanding of regulation of the human immune response, and is recognized for delineating the mechanisms whereby immunosuppressive agents adapt to that response. He developed therapies for formerly fatal diseases such as polyarteritis nodosa, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and lymphomatoid granulomatosis. In a 1985 Stanford University Arthritis Center Survey of the American Rheumatism Association, membership ranked Fauci's work on the treatment of polyarteritis nodosa and granulomatosis with polyangiitis as one of the most important advances in patient management in rheumatology over the previous 20 years.
Fauci has contributed to the understanding of how HIV destroys the body's defenses leading to the progression to AIDS. He has outlined the mechanisms of induction of HIV expression by endogenous cytokines. Fauci has worked to develop strategies for the therapy and immune reconstitution of patients with the disease, as well as for a vaccine to prevent HIV infection. His current research is concentrated on identifying the nature of the immunopathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection and the scope of the body's immune responses to HIV.
In 2003, the Institute for Scientific Information stated that from 1983 to 2002, "Fauci was the 13th most-cited scientist among the 2.5 to 3 million authors in all disciplines throughout the world who published articles in scientific journals".
Fauci was one of the leading researchers during the AIDS epidemic in the early 1980s. In 1981 he heard of the virus, and he and his team of researchers began looking for a vaccine or treatment for this novel virus, though they would meet a number of obstacles. In October 1988, protesters came to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Fauci, who had become the institute's director in 1984, bore the brunt of the anger from the LGBTQ community, who felt ignored by the government.
Leading AIDS activist Larry Kramer attacked Fauci relentlessly in the media. He called him an "incompetent idiot" and a "pill-pushing" tool of the medical establishment. Fauci did not have control over drug approval though many people felt he was not doing enough. Fauci did make an effort in the late 1980s to reach out to the gay community in New York and San Francisco to find ways he and the NIAID could find a solution.
Though Fauci was first admonished for his treatment of the AIDS epidemic, his work in the community was eventually acknowledged and even Kramer, who spent years hating Fauci for his treatment of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, eventually called him "the only true and great hero" among government officials in the AIDS crisis.
Ebola Congressional hearing
On October 16, 2014, in a United States Congressional hearing regarding the Ebola virus crisis, Fauci, who, as the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) had been discussing the importance of screening for weeks, testified that NIAID was still some distance away from producing sufficient quantities of cures or vaccines for widespread trials. Specifically, Fauci said, "While NIAID is an active participant in the global effort to address the public health emergency occurring in west Africa, it is important to recognize that we are still in the early stages of understanding how infection with the Ebola virus can be treated and prevented." 
Fauci also remarked in the hearing: "As we continue to expedite research while enforcing high safety and efficacy standards, the implementation of the public health measures already known to contain prior Ebola virus outbreaks and the implementation of treatment strategies such as fluid and electrolyte replacement are essential to preventing additional infections, treating those already infected, protecting healthcare providers, and ultimately bringing this epidemic to an end."
Fauci is a member of the White House Coronavirus Task Force established in late January 2020, under President Trump, to deal with the coronavirus pandemic. He said that the final case fatality rate of those who are infected will likely be closer to 1% than the 3.4% estimated by the World Health Organization, which is ten times the 0.1% reported rate for seasonal flu.
Fauci has been a "de facto" public health spokesperson for the office of the President during the pandemic and strong advocate of ongoing social distancing efforts in the United States. During the pandemic, Fauci was praised as a national hero for offering trustworthy information on the facts of the disease and the precautions that should be taken. David Rubenstein called him "an example of the best this country has to offer". On March 29, Fauci argued for the extension of the initial 15-day self-isolation guidelines, issued by the executive office, to at least until the end of April 2020. Due to his disagreements with Trump, Fauci has been criticised by right-wing pundits and received death threats that resulted in the need for a security detail. While there have been disagreements, Trump has also praised Fauci. In May 2020, political talk show host Bill Maher cautioned against lionizing Fauci, playing clips in which, in late January, 2020, Fauci described the coronavirus as "very low risk", and in March, that "there is no reason to be walking around in a mask" and that only those with underlying conditions have reason not to go on a cruise.
In mid-April, Fauci stated that if the administration "started mitigation earlier", more lives could have been saved, and "no one is going to deny that." However, Fauci explained that the decision-making for implementing mitigation measures was "complicated", and "there was a lot of pushback about shutting things down back then." Fauci's comments were met with a hostile response from former Republican congressional candidate DeAnna Lorraine. President Trump retweeted Lorraine's response, which included the call to "#FireFauci", drawing public alarm. "Fire Fauci" has also been chanted loudly by at anti-lockdown protesters in various locations, including Florida and Texas. As a result, the White House denied that Trump was firing Fauci, and blamed the media for overreacting.
Fauci married Christine Grady, a nurse and bioethicist with the NIH, in 1985, after they met while treating a patient. Grady is chief of the Department of Bioethics at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. The couple has three adult daughters: Jennifer, Megan, and Alison. He is 5 feet 7 inches tall.
Fauci is a member of the National Academy of Sciences; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; the National Academy of Medicine; the American Philosophical Society; and the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters; as well as other numerous professional societies including the American Society for Clinical Investigation; the Infectious Diseases Society of America,; and the American Association of Immunologists. He serves on the editorial boards of many scientific journals; as an editor of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine; and as author, coauthor, or editor of more than 1,000 scientific publications, including several textbooks.
Awards and honors
- 1979: Arthur S. Flemming Award
- 1993: Honorary Doctor of Science, Bates College
- 1995: Ernst Jung Prize (shared with Samuel A. Wells, Jr.)
- 1995: Honorary Doctor of Science, Duke University
- 1996: Honorary Doctor of Science, Colgate University
- 1999: Honorary Doctor of Public Service Degree, Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania
- 2002: Albany Medical Center Prize
- 2003: American Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate Award
- 2005: National Medal of Science
- 2005: American Association of Immunologists Lifetime Achievement Award
- 2007: Mary Woodard Lasker Public Service Award
- 2007: George M. Kober Medal, Association of American Physicians
- 2008: Presidential Medal of Freedom
- 2013: UCSF medal 
- 2013: Robert Koch Gold Medal
- 2013: Prince Mahidol Award
- 2015: Honorary Degree, Johns Hopkins University 
- 2016: John Dirks Canada Gairdner Global Health Award
- 2018: Honorary Doctor of Science, Commencement Speaker, American University
- 2018: Honorary Doctor of Science, Boston University
In addition to receiving an honorary degree in 2015, Dr. Fauci was invited to and delivered guest remarks on May 21, 2020 for The Johns Hopkins University Class of 2020.  Other notable guest speakers during the virtual ceremony included Reddit co-founder and Commencement speaker Alexis Ohanian; philanthropist and former New York City Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg; and senior class president Pavan Patel. 
Selected works and publications
|Scholia has an author profile for Anthony Fauci.|
- Fauci, Anthony S.; Dale, David C.; Balow, James E. (March 1976). "Glucocorticosteroid Therapy: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Considerations". Annals of Internal Medicine. 84 (3): 304–15. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-84-3-304. PMID 769625. Wikidata ( )
- Fauci, Anthony S.; Haynes, Barton F.; Katz, Paul (November 1, 1978). "The Spectrum of Vasculitis: Clinical, Pathologic, Immunologic, and Therapeutic Considerations". Annals of Internal Medicine. 89 (5_Part_1): 660–76. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-89-5-660. PMID 31121. Wikidata ( )
- Fauci, Anthony S.; Haynes, Barton F.; Katz, Paul; Wolff, Sheldon M. (January 1983). "Wegener's Granulomatosis: Prospective Clinical and Therapeutic Experience With 85 Patients for 21 Years". Annals of Internal Medicine. 98 (1): 76–85. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-98-1-76. PMID 6336643. Wikidata ( )
- Fauci, Anthony S.; Macher, Abe M.; Longo, Dan L.; Lane, H. Clifford; Rook, Alain H.; Masur, Henry; Gelmann, Edward P. (January 1984). "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Epidemiologic, Clinical, Immunologic, and Therapeutic Considerations". Annals of Internal Medicine. 100 (1): 92–106. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-100-1-92. PMID 6318629. Wikidata ( )
- Fauci, AS (February 5, 1988). "The human immunodeficiency virus: infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenesis". Science. 239 (4840): 617–622. Bibcode:1988Sci...239..617F. doi:10.1126/science.3277274. PMID 3277274. Wikidata ( )
- Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Graziosi, Cecilia; Fauci, Anthony S. (February 4, 1993). "The Immunopathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection". New England Journal of Medicine. 328 (5): 327–335. doi:10.1056/NEJM199302043280508. PMID 8093551. Wikidata ( )
- Fauci, Anthony S. (December 1996). "Host factors and the pathogenesis of HIV-induced disease". Nature. 384 (6609): 529–534. Bibcode:1996Natur.384..529F. doi:10.1038/384529A0. PMID 8955267. Wikidata ( )
- Morens, David M.; Folkers, Gregory K.; Fauci, Anthony S. (July 8, 2004). "The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases". Nature. 430 (6996): 242–249. Bibcode:2004Natur.430..242M. doi:10.1038/nature02759. PMC 7094993. PMID 15241422. Wikidata ( )
- Morens, David M.; Fauci, Anthony S. (April 2007). "The 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Insights for the 21st Century". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 195 (7): 1018–1028. doi:10.1086/511989. PMID 17330793. Wikidata ( )
- Johnston, Margaret I.; Fauci, Anthony S. (August 28, 2008). "An HIV Vaccine — Challenges and Prospects". New England Journal of Medicine. 359 (9): 888–890. doi:10.1056/NEJMp0806162. PMID 18753644. Wikidata ( )
- Fauci, Anthony S.; Harrison, Ross, eds. (2008). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (17th ed.). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 978-0-07-159991-7. OCLC 1109159992.
- Fauci, Anthony S.; Lane, H. Clifford; Redfield, Robert R. (March 26, 2020). "Covid-19 — Navigating the Uncharted". New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (13): 1268–1269. doi:10.1056/NEJMe2002387. PMC 7121221. PMID 32109011.
- Specter, Michael. "How Anthony Fauci Became America's Doctor". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on April 13, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "The face of America's fight against Covid-19". BBC News. March 25, 2020. Archived from the original on April 4, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- Alba, Davey; Frenkel, Sheera (March 28, 2020). "Medical Expert Who Corrects Trump Is Now a Target of the Far Right". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 2, 2020. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- Grady, Denise, "Not His First Epidemic: Dr. Anthony Fauci Sticks to the Facts" Archived March 27, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, March 8, 11, 2020.
- "Biography Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. NIAID Director". NIAID. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007.
- Gallin, John I. (October 1, 2007). "Introduction of Anthony S. Fauci, MD". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 117 (10): 3131–3135. doi:10.1172/JCI33692. PMC 1994641. PMID 17909634.
- Fauci, Anthony (March 7, 1989). "Fauci89: Transcription of oral history interview" (PDF) (Interview). Interviewed by Victoria Harden. NIH. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2016.
- Fauci, Anthony (January 8, 2015). "Q&A with Dr. Anthony Fauci". C-SPAN (Interview). Interviewed by Brian Lamb. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
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- "Dr. Anthony Fauci Named New NIAID Director" (PDF). HHS News. November 2, 1984. Archived from the original (Press release) on February 9, 2020. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
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- Varmus, Harold (December 1, 2013). "Making PEPFAR". Science & Diplomacy.
- Bernard Wysocki Jr for The Wall Street Journal. December 6, 2005 Agency Chief Spurs Bioterror Research – And Controversy Archived February 29, 2020, at the Wayback Machine
- Highly Cited Biography Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved May 30, 2007
- Holy Cross Magazine Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., ’62 Archived August 23, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on May 30, 2007
- "1998 AACC Lectureship Award". American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Archived from the original on January 2, 2018. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- Officials eyeing additional screening for Ebola in US, vow to protect citizens from disease Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Associated Press. October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
- Roberts, Dan (October 16, 2014). "CDC director warns Ebola like 'forest fire' as Congress readies for hearing". The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 3, 2019. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- Santucci, Jeanine (February 27, 2020). "What we know about the White House coronavirus task force now that Mike Pence is in charge". USA Today. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
- Cohen, Jon (March 22, 2020). "'I'm going to keep pushing.' Anthony Fauci tries to make the White House listen to facts of the pandemic". Science Magazine. Archived from the original on March 23, 2020. Retrieved March 22, 2020.
- Higgins-Dunn, Noah; Lovelace, Berkely, Jr., "Top US health official says the coronavirus is 10 times 'more lethal' than the seasonal flu" Archived March 23, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, CNBC, March 11, 2020.
- McCormack, John, "Coronavirus vs. the Flu: The Difference Between a 1% and 0.1% Fatality Rate Is Huge" Archived March 22, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, National Review, March 14, 2020.
- Nicholas, Peter (March 22, 2020). "Anthony Fauci's Plan to Stay Honest". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on March 23, 2020. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
- Smith, Virginia K. "5 reasons Gov. Cuomo and Dr. Fauci are America's de facto leaders during the coronavirus pandemic". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on March 30, 2020. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- "President Trump's Advisors 'Argued Strongly' Against Easing Coronavirus Measures Too Early, Anthony Fauci Says". Time. Archived from the original on March 30, 2020. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- Kacala, Alexander (May 21, 2020). "Julia Roberts praises Dr. Fauci in video call: 'You're my personal hero'". USA Today.
- Rubenstein, David M. (March 22, 2020). "Coronavirus hero: Anthony Fauci is a great public servant in a time of great public need". USA Today.
- Budryk, Zack (April 2, 2020). "Fauci dismisses death threats: 'It's my job'". TheHill. Archived from the original on April 4, 2020. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
- Kate Bennett; Evan Perez. "Nation's top coronavirus expert Dr. Anthony Fauci forced to beef up security as death threats increase". CNN. Archived from the original on April 2, 2020. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
- Singh, Maanvi (April 2, 2020). "Dr Fauci: security reportedly expanded as infectious disease expert faces threats". The Guardian. Archived from the original on April 3, 2020. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
- "Trump offers praise for absent Fauci: 'He's a good man'". The Hill. March 23, 2020. Archived from the original on April 6, 2020. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- "Who is Dr Anthony Fauci, the US's trusted voice on coronavirus?". Al Jazeera. March 30, 2020. Archived from the original on April 1, 2020. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- "How Fauci Prods, Persuades Trump on Coronavirus Response". The Wall Street Journal. March 31, 2020. Archived from the original on April 2, 2020. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- Saxena, Vivek (May 31, 2020). "Bill Maher warns libs not to lionize Fauci: I thought Mueller was smart and honorable at one time, too". BizPac Review.
- Cole, Devan (April 12, 2020). "Fauci admits earlier Covid-19 mitigation efforts would have saved more American lives". CNN. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
- Tilove, Jonathan. "Chanting 'Let us work!', 'Fire Fauci!', protesters at Capitol decry virus restrictions". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
- Shepherd, Katie; Wagner, John; Sonmez, Felicia (April 14, 2020). "White House denies Trump is considering firing Fauci despite his retweet of a hashtag calling for his ouster". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 15, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- Orr, Gabby; Levine, Marianne (April 13, 2020). "Trump's #FireFauci retweet spurs a cycle of outrage and a White House denial". Politico. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- "Fauci underscores concerns about protests spreading coronavirus". The Hill. June 10, 2020.
- Laviola, Erin (March 13, 2020). "Christine Grady, Anthony Fauci's Wife: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know". Heavy.com. Archived from the original on March 14, 2020. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- Cava, Marco della. "Straight-talking Anthony Fauci has been the nation's voice on the coronavirus. Who is he?". USA TODAY. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
- "Press Release Archive: Twelve Outstanding Public Servants Representing the Best and Brightest in Federal Government to be Honored at 53rd Annual Arthur S. Flemming Awards Presented by GW June 11". www2.gwu.edu. Archived from the original on September 2, 2013. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
- "List of Honorary Degree Recipients | Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, D.Sc. | Bates College". Bates College. May 31, 1993. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, D.Sc. (May 31, 1993)
- "All Laureates – English". Jung Foundation for Science and Research. Archived from the original on November 5, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- "SiriusXM's Basketball and Beyond with Coach K: Dr. Anthony Fauci". Duke University. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
- "Honoris causa". Colgate University. Archived from the original on August 25, 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- Agencies, United States Congress House Committee on Appropriations Subcommittee on the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related (2000). Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations for 2001: Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session. U.S. Government Printing Office. ISBN 978-0-16-060655-7.
- Lawrence K. Altman (March 28, 2002). "AIDS Researcher Fauci Wins Prize". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- "Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. Biography and Interview". achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on February 8, 2019. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
- "The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details". National Science Foundation. July 27, 2007. Archived from the original on April 1, 2020. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
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- "UCSF Medal". Office of the Chancellor. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- "Robert Koch Stiftung - Anthony S. Fauci". www.robert-koch-stiftung.de. Archived from the original on September 12, 2016. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- "Dr. Anthony Fauci". Prince Mahidol Award Foundation. November 21, 2013. Archived from the original on May 16, 2020. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- "Anthony Fauci Will Get Honorary Degree". Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- Owens, Brian (March 2016). "NIAID director wins Canada Gairdner Global Health Award". The Lancet. 387 (10025): 1261. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30050-2. PMC 7137847. PMID 27017308.
- Alex, Kelly; April 18, er |; 2018. "AU Announces 2018 Commencement Speakers". American Universityaccess-date=2020-04-23.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
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- Anthony Fauci (May 21, 2020). "Anthony Fauci delivers special message to Johns Hopkins graduates". Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- Hub staff report (May 21, 2020). "Senior class president Pavan Patel said the Class of 2020 is "ready to make its mark". "Few classes graduate in an environment as desperately in need of our solutions and sacrifices as this one. And few schools are as well situated as Johns Hopkins to graduate problem-solvers for the present time and our shared future. We, as Hopkins graduates, are uniquely prepared to confront and overcome the crises we face and to build the world we need."". Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
- Unger, Donald N.S., "I Saw People Who Were In Pain", Holy Cross Magazine, College of the Holy Cross, v.36, n.3, Summer 2002 issue. Front cover and pp. 10–19.
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